Chamber pop is a style of rock music characterized by an emphasis on melody and texture, the intricate use of strings, horns and vocal harmonies, other components drawn from the orchestral and lounge pop of the 1960s. Artists such as Burt Bacharach and the Beach Boys' Brian Wilson informed the genre's initial foundation. In the mid 1990s, chamber pop developed as a subgenre of indie rock or indie pop in which musicians opposed the distorted guitars, lo-fi aesthetic, simple arrangements common to the alternative or "modern rock" groups of that era. In Japan, the movement was paralleled by Shibuya-kei, another indie genre, formed on some of the same bedrock of influences. By the 2000s, the term "chamber pop" would be inconsistently applied to a variety of bands whose work attracted comparisons to Pet Sounds; the combination of string sections and rock music has been called "symphonic pop", "chamber pop", "ork-pop". Ork-pop refers to a branch of underground rock musicians who shared an affinity with the Beach Boys' 1966 studio album Pet Sounds, such as the High Llamas and bands from the Elephant 6 collective.
According to CMJ's David Jerman, the name was the creation of rock critics, "encompassing everyone from fans of the Beach Boys to fans of Bacharach and Mancini". Chamber pop is stylistically diverse. AllMusic states that the genre carries on the "spirit" of the baroque pop of the 1960s, while cultural writers Joseph Fisher and Brian Flota call it the "heir" to baroque pop. Influenced by the rich orchestrations of Burt Bacharach, Brian Wilson, Lee Hazlewood, chamber pop artists once again focused on melody and texture. Another major source of influence was the singer Scott Walker. New York Daily News' Jim Farber summarizes the genre. Newsmakers believes that the Beach Boys' Pet Sounds helped define chamber pop as "intimate arranged songs with rock's sweep but without its bluesy clamor." Following the album was the group's unfinished 1966–67 work Smile, a collaboration between Brian Wilson and lyricist Van Dyke Parks that heavily influenced the genre. According to the High Llamas' Sean O'Hagan, Pet Sounds had been "the beginning of the great pop experiment.
But it wasn't allowed to continue, because rock and roll got hold of the whole thing and stopped it. Pop didn't take off again until this decade." Author Carl Wilson says that Brian's "pained vulnerability", "uses of offbeat instruments", "intricate harmonies", "the Smile saga itself" became a common reference point for chamber pop bands. Just as ork-pop acts shared a love for Wilson, they held an admiration for one another's work. In the late 1980s, the majority of Louis Phillipe's productions for él Records made sophisticated use of orchestras and voices that embodied and defined the chamber pop style. Chamber pop was part of a larger trend which involved musicians who rejected traditional rock conventions, such as Tortoise and Stereolab, although those specific bands are not considered ork-pop; the genre's orchestration is more complex than rock music, making extensive use of brass and strings. It drew from the 1990s lounge music revival but avoided any influence from other contemporary styles like grunge, electronica, or alternative music the lo-fi hiss and distortion of the last.
Although modern rock groups like Smashing Pumpkins, R. E. M. Occasionally used strings, their approach was less intricate; the High Llamas were one of the first to anticipate the easy-listening fad with their 1993 debut album Gideon Gaye. O'Hagan felt that "There is this whole misconception that American college rock with twisted baseball hats and checked shirts is adventurous, but it's the most conformist, corporate thing out there." With Eric Matthews adding "All these bands sound like Nirvana and Pearl Jam. It's a shame that it couldn't be discovered from the get-go for what it is. A lot of it is just simple dumb-guy rock." Fisher and Flota trace chamber pop to "at least" the mid 1990s. According to Natalie Waliek of music retailer Newbury Comics, the then-"renewed interest in psychedelia" and the "overlap with the cocktail/lounge music thing, because that music has orchestrations" contributed to the sales of ork-pop albums, but acts were restricted to only a moderate degree of commercial success.
The majority of musicians were aged beyond their early 20s, many struggled to achieve significant retail or radio success compared to modern rock. In the past, record companies had helped facilitate large multi-instrumental bands by financing instruments like strings and keyboards on artists' albums, but this became rarer as time went on. Touring with full string and brass ensembles proved difficult for some, which became another factor that prevented the genre's mainstream success. In Japan, a remote parallel was the development of Shibuya-kei, which revisited the trend of foregrounding instruments like strings and horns in its arrangements; the genre was informed by classic Western pop music the orchestral domains occupied by Burt Bacharach, Brian Wilson, Phil Spector, Serge Gainsbourg. Unlike other Japanese music scenes, its audiences did not cross over into anime fandoms, but rather indie pop enthusiasts; this was because many of its bands were distributed in the United States through major indie labels like Matador and Grand Royal.
Shibuya-kei peaked in the late 1990s and declined after its principal players began moving into other music styles. In a 1996 profile of ork-pop, Craig Rosen lists examples that include Yum-Yum, the High Llamas, Richard Davies, Eric M
Brian Douglas Wilson is an American musician, singer and record producer who co-founded the Beach Boys. After signing with Capitol Records in 1962, Wilson wrote or co-wrote more than two dozen Top 40 hits for the group. In addition to his unorthodox approaches to pop composition and mastery of recording techniques, Wilson is known for his lifelong struggles with mental illness, he is referred to as a genius and is acknowledged as one of the most innovative and significant songwriters of the late 20th century. The Beach Boys were formed by Wilson with his brothers Carl and Dennis, their cousin Mike Love, friend Al Jardine. Brian, who grew up influenced by 1950s rock and roll and jazz-based vocal groups functioned as the band's songwriter, producer, co-lead vocalist, keyboardist, de facto leader. In 1964, he suffered a nervous breakdown and stopped touring with the group, which led to more personal work such as Pet Sounds and the unfinished Smile; as his mental health deteriorated, his contributions to the band diminished, over the next decade, he was reputed for his reclusive lifestyle and substance abuse.
Following a 1992 court-ordered removal from the care of psychologist Eugene Landy, Wilson started receiving conventional medical treatment, in the late 1990s, he began performing and recording as a solo artist. He remains a member of the Beach Boys' corporation, Brother Records Inc. Wilson was the first pop artist credited for writing, arranging and performing his own material, he is considered a major innovator in the field of music production, the principal originator of the California Sound, one of the first music producer auteurs, the first rock producer to use the studio as its own instrument. The unusual creative control Capitol gave him over his own records set a precedent that allowed other bands and artists to act as their own producers or co-producers. Wilson's success led to a proliferation of like-minded California producers who helped supplant New York as the center of popular records; the zeitgeist of the early 1960s is associated to his early songs, he was a major influence on the retrospectively-termed "sunshine pop" and Flower Power music that proceeded.
In years, Wilson became influential to the spirit of punk rock and was regarded as "godfather" to an era of indie musicians who were inspired by his melodic sensibilities, chamber pop orchestrations, recording explorations. His honors include being inducted into the 1988 Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and winning Grammy Awards for Brian Wilson Presents Smile and The Smile Sessions. In lists published by Rolling Stone, Wilson ranked 52 for the "100 Greatest Singers of All Time" in 2008 and 12 for the "100 Greatest Songwriters of All Time" in 2015. In 2012, music publication NME ranked Wilson number 8 in its "50 Greatest Producers Ever" list, elaborating "few consider quite how groundbreaking Brian Wilson's studio techniques were in the mid-60s", his life was dramatized in Mercy. Brian Douglas Wilson was born on June 20, 1942, at Centinela Hospital in Inglewood, the eldest son of Audree Neva and Murry Wilson, a musician and machinist, his two younger brothers were Carl. He has Dutch, German and Swedish ancestry.
When he was two, the family moved from Inglewood to 3701 West 119th Street in nearby Hawthorne, California. Speaking of Wilson's unusual musical abilities prior to his first birthday, his father said that, as a baby, he could repeat the melody from "When the Caissons Go Rolling Along" after only a few verses had been sung by the father. Murry Wilson said, "He was clever and quick. I just fell in love with him." At about age two, Wilson heard George Gershwin's Rhapsody in Blue, which had an enormous emotional impact on him. A few years he was discovered to have diminished hearing in his right ear; the exact cause of this hearing loss is unclear, though theories range from him being born deaf to a blow to the head from his father, or a neighborhood bully, being to blame. A minor musician and songwriter, Wilson's father encouraged his children in the music field in numerous ways. At an early age, Wilson was given six weeks of lessons on a "toy accordion" and, at seven and eight, sang solos in church with a choir behind him.
At Hawthorne High School, Wilson was on the football team as a quarterback, played baseball and was a cross-country runner in his senior year. He sang with various students at school functions and with his family and friends at home, teaching his two brothers harmony parts that all three would practice, he played piano obsessively after school, deconstructing the harmonies of the Four Freshmen by listening to short segments of their songs on a phonograph working to recreate the blended sounds note by note on the keyboard. He received a Wollensak tape recorder on his 16th birthday, allowing him to experiment with recording songs and early group vocals. One of Wilson's earliest public performances was at a fall arts program at his high school, he enlisted his cousin and frequent singing partner Mike Love, to entice Carl into the group, named the newly formed membership "Carl and the Passions." The performance featured tunes by Dion and the Belmonts and the Four Freshmen, the latter of which proved difficult for the ensemble.
The event was notable for the impression which it made on another musician and classmate of Wilson's in the audience that night, Al Jardine. Jardine would join the three Wilson brothers and Mike Love a few years in the Beach Boys. Wilson enrolled at El Camino College in Los Angeles, majoring in psychology, in September 1960, he continued his music studies at the
Contemporary Christian music
Contemporary Christian music is a genre of modern popular music, lyrically focused on matters concerned with the Christian faith. It formed as those affected by the 1960s Jesus movement revival began to express themselves in a more contemporary style of music than the hymns and Southern gospel music, prevalent in the church at the time. Today, the term is used to refer to pop, rock, or praise & worship styles, it has representation on several music charts including Billboard's Christian Albums, Christian Songs, Hot Christian AC, Christian CHR, Soft AC/Inspirational, Christian Digital Songs as well as the UK's Official Christian & Gospel Albums Chart. Top-selling CCM artists will appear on the Billboard 200. In the iTunes Store, the genre is represented as part of the Christian and gospel genre while the Google Play Music system labels it as Christian/Gospel; the growing popularity in the styles of Rock'n'Roll music in the 1950s was dismissed by the church because it was believed to encourage sinfulness.
Yet as evangelical churches adapted to appeal to more people, the musical styles used in worship changed as well by adopting the sounds of this popular style. The genre became known as contemporary Christian music as a result of the Jesus movement revival in the latter 1960s and early 1970s, was called Jesus music. "About that time, many young people from the sixties' counterculture professed to believe in Jesus. Convinced of the bareness of a lifestyle based on drugs, free sex, radical politics,'hippies' became'Jesus people'". However, there were people who felt that Jesus was another "trip", it was during the 1970s Jesus movement that Christian music started to become an industry within itself. "Jesus Music" started by playing instruments and singing songs about love and peace, which translated into love of God. Paul Wohlegemuth, who wrote the book Rethinking Church Music, said " 1970s will see a marked acceptance of rock-influenced music in all levels of church music; the rock style will become more familiar to all people, its rhythmic excesses will become refined, its earlier secular associations will be less remembered."Larry Norman is remembered as the "father of Christian rock", because of his early contributions to the developing new genre that mixed rock rhythms with the Christian messages.
Though his style was not well received by many in the Christian community of the time, he continued throughout his career to create controversial hard-rock songs such as "Why Should the Devil Have All the Good Music?". He is remembered as the artist "who first combined rock'n' roll with Christian lyrics" in the Gospel Music Hall of Fame. Though there were Christian albums in the 1960s that contained contemporary-sounding songs, there were two albums recorded in 1969 that are considered to be the first complete albums of "Jesus rock": Upon This Rock by Larry Norman released on Capitol Records, Mylon – We Believe by Mylon LeFevre, released by Cotillion, LeFevre's attempt at blending gospel music with southern rock. Unlike traditional or southern gospel music, this new Jesus music was birthed out of rock and folk music. Pioneers of this movement included Keith Green, 2nd Chapter of Acts, Barry McGuire, Andraé Crouch and the Disciples, Benny Hester, The Imperials, among others; the small Jesus music culture had expanded into a multimillion-dollar industry by the 1980s.
Many CCM artists such as Benny Hester, Amy Grant, DC Talk, Michael W. Smith and Jars of Clay found crossover success with Top 40 mainstream radio play; the genre became prevalent in the 1970s and 1980s. Beginning in July 1978, CCM Magazine began covering "Contemporary Christian Music" artists and a wide range of spiritual themes until it launched online publications in 2009, it has certain themes and messages behind the songs and their lyrics including Praise and worship, faith and prayer. These songs focus on themes of devotion, redemption and renewal. Many people listen to contemporary Christian music for comfort through tough times; the lyrics and messages conveyed in CCM songs are aimed to worship Jesus. One of the earliest goals of CCM was to spread the news of Jesus to non-Christians. In addition, contemporary Christian music strengthens the faith of believers. Contemporary Christian music has influences from folk, gospel and rock music. Genres of music such as soft rock, folk rock, hip-hop, etc. have played a large influence on CCM.
Charismatic churches have had a large influence on contemporary Christian music and are one of the largest producers of CCM. Hillsong Church is one of the many prominent CCM artists. Contemporary Christian music has expanded into many subgenres. Christian punk, Christian hardcore, Christian metal, Christian hip hop, although not considered CCM, can come under the genre's umbrella. Contemporary worship music is incorporated in modern CCM. Contemporary worship is both performed during church services; some prominent artists who assisted CCM to become popular include Amy Grant, Michael W. Smith, Phil Keaggy and John Elefante. Several mainstream artists, such as The Byrds, Bob Dylan, Van Morrison, Elvis Presley, Lifehouse and U2, have dealt with Christian themes in their music, yet are not part of the CCM industry. Other artists representing the genre include MercyMe, Casting Crowns, Jeremy Camp, Third Day, Matthew West, tobyMac, Chris Tomlin, Brandon Heath, Aaron Shust, Lauren Daigle. Jars of Clay, dc Talk, Steven Curtis Chapman and Newsboys have belonged to this genre.
Sir George Henry Martin, was an English record producer, composer, audio engineer, musician. He was referred to as the "Fifth Beatle" in reference to his extensive involvement on each of the Beatles' original albums. Martin produced 30 number-one hit singles in the United Kingdom and 23 number-one hits in the United States. Martin produced comedy and novelty records in the early 1950s, working with Peter Sellers, Spike Milligan, Bernard Cribbins, among others, his career spanned more than six decades of work in music, film and live performance. He held a number of senior executive roles at media companies and contributed to a wide range of charitable causes, including his work for The Prince's Trust and the Caribbean island of Montserrat. In recognition of his services to the music industry and popular culture, he was made a Knight Bachelor in 1996. Martin was born in London; when he was six, Martin's family acquired a piano. At eight years of age, Martin persuaded his parents and Betha Beatrice Martin, that he should take piano lessons, but those ended after only eight lessons because of a disagreement between his mother and the teacher.
As a child, he attended several schools, including a "convent school in Holloway", St Joseph's School, at St Ignatius' College, where he had won a scholarship. When WWII broke out, St. Ignatius College students were evacuated to Welwyn Garden City, his family left London, he was enrolled at Bromley Grammar School. I remember well the first time I heard a symphony orchestra. I was just in my teens when Sir Adrian Boult brought the BBC Symphony Orchestra to my school for a public concert, it was magical. Hearing such glorious sounds I found it difficult to connect them with ninety men and women blowing into brass and wooden instruments or scraping away at strings with horsehair bows. Despite Martin's continued interest in music, "fantasies about being the next Rachmaninov", he did not choose music as a career, he worked as a quantity surveyor, for the War Office as a Temporary Clerk, which meant filing paperwork and making tea. In 1943, when he was 17, he joined the Fleet Air Arm of the Royal Navy and became an aerial observer and a commissioned officer.
The war ended before Martin was involved in any combat, he left the service in 1947. Encouraged by Sidney Harrison Martin used his veteran's grant to attend the Guildhall School of Music and Drama from 1947 to 1950, where he studied piano and oboe, was interested in the music of Rachmaninoff and Ravel, as well as Cole Porter. Martin's oboe teacher was Margaret Eliot. After that, Martin explained. On 3 January 1948 – while still at the Academy – Martin married Sheena Chisholm, with whom he would have two children and Gregory Paul Martin, he married Judy Lockhart-Smith on 24 June 1966, they had two children and Giles Martin. Following his graduation, he worked for the BBC's classical music department joined EMI in 1950 as an assistant to Oscar Preuss, the head of EMI's Parlophone Records from 1950 to 1955. Although having been regarded by EMI as a vital German imprint in the past, it was not taken and only used for EMI's insignificant acts. After taking over Parlophone, as head of artists and repertoire, when Preuss retired in 1955, Martin recorded classical and Baroque music, original cast recordings, regional music from around Britain and Ireland.
Martin produced numerous comedy and novelty records. His first hit for Parlophone was the "Mock Mozart" single by Peter Ustinov with Antony Hopkins – a record reluctantly released in 1952 by EMI, only after Preuss insisted they give his young assistant, Martin, a chance; that decade Martin worked with Peter Sellers on two popular comedy LPs. One was released on 10 format and called The Best Of Sellers, the second was released in 1957, being called Songs for Swinging Sellers; as he had worked with Sellers, he came to know Spike Milligan, with whom he became a firm friend, best man at Milligan's second marriage: "I loved The Goon Show, issued an album of it on my label Parlophone, how I got to know Spike." The album was Bridge on the River Wye. It was a spoof of the film The Bridge on the River Kwai, being based on the 1957 Goon Show episode "An African Incident." It was intended to have the same name as the film, but shortly before its release, the film company threatened legal action if the name was used.
Martin edited out the'K' every time the word Kwai was spoken, with Bridge on the River Wye being the result. The River Wye is a river that runs through Wales; the album featured Milligan, Jonathan Miller, Peter Cook, playing various characters. Other comedians Martin worked with included Bernard Cribbins, Charlie Drake, Terry Scott, Bruce Forsyth, Michael Bentine, Dudley Moore and Swann, Lance Percival, Joan Sims, Bill Oddie, The Alberts. Martin worked with whom he had a number of hits. In early 1962, under the pseudonym "Ray Cathode," Martin released an early electronic dance single, "Time Beat" – recorded at the BBC Radiophonic Workshop; as Martin wanted to add rock and roll to Parlophone's repertoire, he struggled to find a "fireproof" hit-making pop artist or group. As a producer, Martin recorded the two-man show featuring Michael Flanders and Donald Swann, At the Drop of a Hat, which sold for
The Beatles were an English rock band formed in Liverpool in 1960. The line-up of John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr led the band to be regarded as the foremost and most influential in history. With a sound rooted in skiffle, beat and 1950s rock and roll, the group were integral to the evolution of pop music into an art form, to the development of the counterculture of the 1960s, they incorporated elements of classical music, older pop forms, unconventional recording techniques in innovative ways, in years experimented with a number of musical styles ranging from pop ballads and Indian music to psychedelia and hard rock. As they continued to draw influences from a variety of cultural sources, their musical and lyrical sophistication grew, they came to be seen as embodying the era's sociocultural movements. Led by primary songwriters Lennon and McCartney, the Beatles built their reputation playing clubs in Liverpool and Hamburg over a three-year period from 1960 with Stuart Sutcliffe playing bass.
The core trio of Lennon, McCartney and Harrison, together since 1958, went through a succession of drummers, including Pete Best, before asking Starr to join them in 1962. Manager Brian Epstein moulded them into a professional act, producer George Martin guided and developed their recordings expanding their domestic success after their first hit, "Love Me Do", in late 1962; as their popularity grew into the intense fan frenzy dubbed "Beatlemania", the band acquired the nickname "the Fab Four", with Epstein and other members of the band's entourage sometimes given the informal title of "fifth Beatle". By early 1964, the Beatles were international stars, leading the "British Invasion" of the United States pop market, breaking numerous sales records, they soon made their motion-picture debut with A Hard Day's Night. From 1965 onwards, they produced innovative recordings, including the albums Rubber Soul, Sgt. Pepper's The Beatles and Abbey Road. In 1968, they founded Apple Corps, a multi-armed multimedia corporation that continues to oversee projects related to the band's legacy.
After the group's break-up in 1970, all four members enjoyed success as solo artists. Lennon was shot and killed in December 1980. McCartney and Starr remain musically active; the Beatles are the best-selling band in history, with estimated sales of over 800 million records worldwide. They are the best-selling music artists in the US, with certified sales of over 178 million units, have had more number-one albums on the British charts, have sold more singles in the UK, than any other act; the group were inducted into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame in 1988, all four main members were inducted individually between 1994 and 2015. In 2008, the group topped Billboard magazine's list of the all-time most successful artists; the band have received an Academy Award and fifteen Ivor Novello Awards. They were collectively included in Time magazine's compilation of the twentieth century's 100 most influential people. In March 1957, John Lennon aged sixteen, formed a skiffle group with several friends from Quarry Bank High School in Liverpool.
They called themselves the Blackjacks, before changing their name to the Quarrymen after discovering that a respected local group was using the other name. Fifteen-year-old Paul McCartney joined them as a rhythm guitarist shortly after he and Lennon met that July. In February 1958, McCartney invited his friend George Harrison to watch the band; the fifteen-year-old auditioned for Lennon, impressing him with his playing, but Lennon thought Harrison was too young for the band. After a month of Harrison's persistence, during a second meeting, he performed the lead guitar part of the instrumental song "Raunchy" on the upper deck of a Liverpool bus, they enlisted him as their lead guitarist. By January 1959, Lennon's Quarry Bank friends had left the group, he began his studies at the Liverpool College of Art; the three guitarists, billing themselves at least three times as Johnny and the Moondogs, were playing rock and roll whenever they could find a drummer. Lennon's art school friend Stuart Sutcliffe, who had just sold one of his paintings and was persuaded to purchase a bass guitar, joined in January 1960, it was he who suggested changing the band's name to Beatals, as a tribute to Buddy Holly and the Crickets.
They used this name until May, when they became the Silver Beetles, before undertaking a brief tour of Scotland as the backing group for pop singer and fellow Liverpudlian Johnny Gentle. By early July, they had refashioned themselves as the Silver Beatles, by the middle of August shortened the name to The Beatles. Allan Williams, the Beatles' unofficial manager, arranged a residency for them in Hamburg, but lacking a full-time drummer they auditioned and hired Pete Best in mid-August 1960; the band, now a five-piece, left four days contracted to club owner Bruno Koschmider for what would be a 31⁄2-month residency. Beatles historian Mark Lewisohn writes: "They pulled into Hamburg at dusk on 17 August, the time when the red-light area comes to life... flashing neon lights screamed out the various entertainment on offer, while scantily clad women sat unabashed in shop windows waiting for business opportunities." Koschmider had converted a couple of strip clubs in the district into music venues, he placed the Beatles at the Indra Club.
Popular music is music with wide appeal, distributed to large audiences through the music industry. These forms and styles can be performed by people with little or no musical training, it stands in traditional or "folk" music. Art music was disseminated through the performances of written music, although since the beginning of the recording industry, it is disseminated through recordings. Traditional music forms such as early blues songs or hymns were passed along orally, or to smaller, local audiences; the original application of the term is to music of the 1880s Tin Pan Alley period in the United States. Although popular music sometimes is known as "pop music", the two terms are not interchangeable. Popular music is a generic term for a wide variety of genres of music that appeal to the tastes of a large segment of the population, whereas pop music refers to a specific musical genre within popular music. Popular music songs and pieces have singable melodies; the song structure of popular music involves repetition of sections, with the verse and chorus or refrain repeating throughout the song and the bridge providing a contrasting and transitional section within a piece.
In the 2000s, with songs and pieces available as digital sound files, it has become easier for music to spread from one country or region to another. Some popular music forms have become global, while others have a wide appeal within the culture of their origin. Through the mixture of musical genres, new popular music forms are created to reflect the ideals of a global culture; the examples of Africa and the Middle East show how Western pop music styles can blend with local musical traditions to create new hybrid styles. Scholars have classified music as "popular" based on various factors, including whether a song or piece becomes known to listeners from hearing the music. Sales of'recordings' or sheet music are one measure. Middleton and Manuel note that this definition has problems because multiple listens or plays of the same song or piece are not counted. Evaluating appeal based on size of audience or whether audience is of a certain social class is another way to define popular music, but this, has problems in that social categories of people cannot be applied to musical styles.
Manuel states that one criticism of popular music is that it is produced by large media conglomerates and passively consumed by the public, who buy or reject what music is being produced. He claims that the listeners in the scenario would not have been able to make the choice of their favorite music, which negates the previous conception of popular music. Moreover, "understandings of popular music have changed with time". Middleton argues that if research were to be done on the field of popular music, there would be a level of stability within societies to characterize historical periods, distribution of music, the patterns of influence and continuity within the popular styles of music. Anahid Kassabian separated popular music into four categories. A society's popular music reflects the ideals that are prevalent at the time it is performed or published. David Riesman states that the youth audiences of popular music fit into either a majority group or a subculture; the majority group listens to the commercially produced styles while the subcultures find a minority style to transmit their own values.
This allows youth to choose what music they identify with, which gives them power as consumers to control the market of popular music. Music critic Robert Christgau coined the term "semipopular music" in 1970, to describe records that seemed accessible for popular consumption but proved unsuccessful commercially. "I recognized that something else was going on—the distribution system appeared to be faltering, FM and all", he wrote in Christgau's Record Guide: Rock Albums of the Seventies, citing that records like The Velvet Underground and The Gilded Palace of Sin possessed populist qualities yet failed to impact the record charts. "Just as semiclassical music is a systematic dilution of highbrow preferences, semipopular music is a cross-bred concentration of fashionable modes." In his mind, a liking "for the nasty and short intensifies a common semipopular tendency in which lyrical and conceptual sophistication are applauded while musical sophistication—jazz chops or classical design or avant-garde innovation—is left to the specialists."
Form in popular music is most sectional, the most common sections being verse, chorus or refrain, bridge. Other common forms include thirty-two-bar form, chorus form *, twelve-bar blues. Popular music songs are composed using different music for each stanza of the lyrics; the verse and chorus are considered the primary elements. Each verse has the same melody, but the lyrics change for most verses; the chorus has a melodic phrase and a key lyrical line, repeated. Pop songs may have an introduction and coda, but these elements are not essential to the identity of most songs
Contemporary folk music
Contemporary folk music refers to a wide variety of genres that emerged in the mid 20th century and afterwards which were associated with traditional folk music. Starting in the mid-20th century a new form of popular folk music evolved from traditional folk music; this process and period is reached a zenith in the 1960s. The most common name for this new form of music is "folk music", but is called "contemporary folk music" or "folk revival music" to make the distinction; the transition was somewhat centered in the US and is called the American folk music revival. Fusion genres such as folk rock and others evolved within this phenomenon. While contemporary folk music is a genre distinct from traditional folk music, it shares the same English name and venues as traditional folk music. While the Romantic nationalism of the first folk revival had its greatest influence on art-music, the "second folk revival" of the 20th century brought a new genre of popular music with artists marketed through concerts and broadcasting.
One of the earliest figures in this revival was Woody Guthrie, who sang traditional songs in the 1930s and 1940s as well as composing his own. In the United Kingdom, the folk revival fostered a generation of singer-songwriters such as Donovan, who achieved initial prominence in the 1960s; the folk revival spawned Canada's first true wave of internationally successful artists such as Gordon Lightfoot, Leonard Cohen, Joni Mitchell, Buffy Sainte-Marie. Major performers who emerged from the 1940s to the early 1960s included Woody Guthrie, Pete Seeger, Joan Baez, Bob Dylan; the mid-1960s through the early 1970s was associated with large musical, political and counterculture changes. Folk music underwent a related rapid evolution and diversification at that same time. Major changes occurred through the evolution of established performers such as Bob Dylan, Joan Baez, Judy Collins, the Seekers and Peter Paul and Mary, through the creation of new fusion genres with rock and pop. During this period, the term "protest music" was used to characterize folk music with topical political themes.
The Canadian performers Gordon Lightfoot, Leonard Cohen, Bruce Cockburn and Joni Mitchell represented such fusions and enjoyed great popularity in the U. S. Starting in the 1970s folk music was fueled by new singer-songwriters such as Joni Mitchell, John Denver, Harry Chapin. Other subgenres of folk include anti folk, folk punk, indie folk, freak folk and Americana and fusion genres such as folk metal, progressive folk, psychedelic folk, neofolk. Definitions of "contemporary folk music" are vague and variable. Here, it is taken to mean all music, called folk, not traditional music, a set of genres that began with and evolved from the folk revival of the mid-20th century. According to Hugh Blumenfeld, for the American folk scene: This is the common use of the term "contemporary folk music", but is not the only case of evolution of new forms from traditional ones. Nueva canción, a similar evolution of a new form of committed music, occurred in several Spanish-speaking countries, for example. Contemporary country music descends from a rural American folk tradition, but has evolved differently.
Bluegrass music is a professional development of American old time music, intermixed with blues and jazz. While the Romantic nationalism of the folk revival had its greatest influence on art-music, the "second folk revival" of the 20th century brought a new genre of popular music with artists marketed through concerts and broadcasting; this is the genre that remains as "contemporary folk music" when traditional music is considered to be a separate genre. One of the earliest figures in this revival was Woody Guthrie, who sang traditional songs in the 1930s and 1940s as well as composing his own. Among Guthrie's friends and followers as a collector and composer was Pete Seeger. In the 1930s, Jimmie Rodgers, in the 1940s Burl Ives, in the early 1950s Seeger's group the Weavers and Harry Belafonte, in the late 1950s the Kingston Trio as well as other professional, commercial groups became popular; some who defined commercialization as the beginning of this phase consider the commercial hit Tom Dooley by the Kingston Trio in 1958 as marking the beginning of this era.
In 1963–1964, the ABC television network aired the Hootenanny television series devoted to this brand of folk music and published the associated magazine ABC-TV Hootenanny. Starting in 1950, the Sing Out!, The Little Sandy Review magazines helped spread both traditional and composed songs, as did folk-revival-oriented record companies. In the United Kingdom, the folk revival fostered young artists like the Watersons, Martin Carthy and Roy Bailey and a generation of singer-songwriters such as Bert Jansch, Ralph McTell and Roy Harper. Bob Dylan, Paul Simon and Tom Paxton visited Britain for some time in the early 1960s, the first two making use of the traditional English material they heard. In 1950, prominent American folklorist and collector of traditional songs Alan Lomax came to Britain and met A. L.'Bert' Lloyd and Ewan MacColl, a meeting credited as inaugurating the second British folk revival. In London, the colleagues opened the Ballads and Blues Club renamed the Singers' Club the first folk club in the UK.
As the 1950s progressed into the 1960s, the folk revival movement gathered momentum in both Britain and America. In much of rural Canad