Kelso, Scottish Borders
Kelso is a market town in the Scottish Borders area of Scotland. Within the boundaries of the historic county of Roxburghshire, it lies where the rivers Tweed and Teviot have their confluence; the town has a population of 5,639 according to the 2011 census and based on the 2010 definition of the locality. Kelso's main tourist draws are the ruined Kelso Abbey and Floors Castle, a William Adam designed house completed in 1726; the Kelso Bridge was designed by John Rennie who built London Bridge. The town of Kelso came into being as a direct result of the creation of Kelso Abbey in 1128; the town's name stems from the fact that the earliest settlement stood on a chalky outcrop, the town was known as Calkou in those early days, something, remembered in the modern street name, "Chalkheugh Terrace". Standing on the opposite bank of the River Tweed from the now-vanished royal burgh of Roxburgh and its sister hamlet of Wester Kelso were linked to the burgh by a ferry at Wester Kelso. A small hamlet existed before the completion of the abbey in 1128 but the settlement started to flourish with the arrival of the monks.
Many were skilled craftsmen, they helped the local population as the village expanded. The abbey controlled much of life in Kelso-area burgh of barony, called Holydean, until the Reformation in the 16th century. After that, the power and wealth of the abbey declined; the Kerr family of Cessford took over the many of the abbey's properties around the town. By the 17th century, they owned Kelso. In Roxburgh Street is the outline of a horseshoe petrosomatoglyph where the horse of Charles Edward Stuart cast a shoe as he was riding it through the town on his way to Carlisle in 1745, he is said to have planted a white rosebush in his host's garden, descendants of which are still said to flourish in the area. For some period of time the Kelso parish was able to levy a tax of 2 pence on every Scottish pint of ale, beer or porter sold within the town; the power to do this was extended for 21 years in 1802 under the Kelso Two Pennies Scots Act when the money was being used to replace a bridge across the River Tweed, destroyed by floods.
The war memorial was erected in 1921 to a design by Sir Robert Lorimer. Kelso High School provides secondary education to the town, primary education is provided by Edenside Primary and Broomlands Primary; the town has much sport and recreation, the River Tweed at Kelso is renowned for its salmon fishing, there are two eighteen-hole golf courses as well as a National Hunt horse racing track, Kelso Racecourse is known as "Britain's Friendliest Racecourse", racing first took place in Kelso in 1822. In 2005 the town hosted the'World Meeting of Citroën 2CV Friends' in the grounds of nearby Floors Castle. Over 7,000 people took over the town and are said to have brought in more than £2 million to the local economy. According to a letter dated 17 October 1788,'The workmen now employed in digging the foundations of some religious houses which stood upon St. James' Green, where the great annual fair of that name is now held in the neighbourhood of this town, have dug up two sone coffins of which the bones were entire, several pieces of painted glass, a silver coin of Robert II, other antique relics'.
The town's rugby union club are respected, their annual rugby sevens tournament takes place in early May. Famous former players include John Jeffrey, Roger Baird, Andrew Ker and Adam Roxburgh, all of whom featured in 7s teams that dominated the Borders circuit in the 1980s, including several wins in the blue ribbon event at Melrose. Kelso RFC hold an annual rugby fixture; the fixture was founded some 47 years ago by Ian Henderson, a local Kelso businessman and Tom Owen fixture Secretary of Pontrhydyfen RFC. The two teams play for the DT Owen Cup; this fixture has nurtured generations of friendships and the 50th anniversary of this fixture will be held in 2013. Every year in July, the town celebrates the border tradition of Common Riding, known as Kelso Civic Week; the festival is headed by the Kelsae Laddie with his Right and Left Hand Men. The Laddie and his followers visit neighbouring villages on horseback with the climax being the Yetholm Ride on the Saturday. Kelso hosts its annual fair on the first weekend of September.
The festivities include street entertainers, live music, stalls and a free concert. The fair attracts about 10,000 people to the town. Sir Walter Scott attended Kelso Grammar School in 1783 and he said of the town, "it is the most beautiful if not the most romantic village in Scotland". Another attraction is the Cobby Riverside Walk which goes from the town centre to Floors Castle along the banks of the Tweed passing the point where it is joined by the River Teviot. Kelso has three bridges that span the River Tweed, "Rennie's Bridge" was completed in 1803 to replace an earlier one washed away in the floods of 1797, it was built by John Rennie of Haddington, who went on to build Waterloo Bridge in London, his bridge in Kelso is a smaller and earlier version of Waterloo Bridge; the bridge was the cause of local rioting in 1854 when the Kelso population objected to paying tolls when
Abancourt is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. Communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file
Hauts-de-France, is a region of France created by the territorial reform of French Regions in 2014, from a merger of Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardy. Its capital is Lille; the new region came into existence on 1 January 2016, after the regional elections in December 2015. France's Conseil d'État approved Hauts-de-France as the name of the region on 28 September 2016, effective 30 September 2016. With 6,009,976 inhabitants, a population of 189 inhabitants/km2, it represents the 3rd most populous region in France and the 2nd most densely populated in metropolitan France after Île-de-France; the region covers an area of more than 31,813 km2. It borders Normandy, Grand Est, Île-de-France and the United Kingdom via the English Channel; the region's interim name Nord-Pas-de-Calais-Picardie was a hyphenated placename, created by hyphenating the merged regions' names—Nord-Pas-de-Calais and Picardie—in alphabetical order. On 14 March 2016, well ahead of the 1 July deadline, the Regional council decided on Hauts-de-France as the region's permanent name.
The provisional name of the region was retired on 30 September 2016, when the new name of the region, Hauts-de-France, took effect. The region borders Belgium to the northeast, the English Channel to the northwest, as well as the French regions of Grand Est to the southeast, Île-de-France to the south, Normandy to the southwest, it is connected to the United Kingdom via the Channel Tunnel. Hauts-de-France comprises five departments: Aisne, Oise, Pas-de-Calais, Somme. Lille Amiens Roubaix Tourcoing Dunkirk Calais Villeneuve-d'Ascq Saint-Quentin Beauvais Valenciennes The region was a pivotal center of mulquinerie Nord-Pas-de-Calais Picardy Regions of France Canadian National Vimy Memorial Battle of Vimy Ridge Regional Council of the Hauts-de-France Official website Merger of the regions - France 3
Amfroipret is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. Communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file
Assevent is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. Communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file
Abscon is a commune in the Nord department in northern France. Communes of the Nord department INSEE commune file
The Scottish Borders is one of 32 council areas of Scotland. It borders the City of Edinburgh and Galloway, East Lothian, South Lanarkshire, West Lothian and, to the south-west and east, the English counties of Cumbria and Northumberland; the administrative centre of the area is Newtown St Boswells. The term Scottish Borders is used to designate the areas of southern Scotland and northern England that bound the Anglo-Scottish border; the Scottish Borders are in the eastern part of the Southern Uplands. The region is hilly and rural, with the River Tweed flowing west to east through it. In the east of the region, the area that borders the River Tweed is flat and is known as'The Merse'; the Tweed and its tributaries drain the entire region with the river flowing into the North Sea at Berwick-upon-Tweed, forming the border with England for the last twenty miles or so of its length. The term Central Borders refers to the area in which the majority of the main towns of Galashiels, Hawick, Earlston, Newtown St. Boswells, St Boswells, Peebles and Tweedbank are located.
Two of Scotland's 40 national scenic areas lie within the region: The Eildon and Leaderfoot National Scenic Area covers the scenery surrounding Eildon Hill, extends to include the town of Melrose and Leaderfoot Viaduct. The Upper Tweeddale National Scenic Area covers the scenery surrounding the upper part of the River Tweed between Broughton and Peebles. 2011 Galashiels: 14,994 Hawick: 14,294 Peebles: 8,376 Selkirk: 5,784 Kelso: 5,639 Jedburgh: 4,030 Eyemouth: 3,546 Innerleithen: 3,031 Duns: 2,753 Melrose: 2,307 Coldstream: 1,946 Earlston: 1,779 The term Borders has a wider meaning, referring to all of the counties adjoining the English border including Dumfriesshire and Kirkcudbrightshire – as well as Northumberland and Westmorland in England. Roxburghshire and Berwickshire bore the brunt of the conflicts with England, both during declared wars such as the Wars of Scottish Independence, armed raids which took place in the times of the Border Reivers. Thus, across the region are to be seen the ruins of many castles and towns.
The council area was created in 1975, by merging the historic counties of Berwickshire, Peeblesshire and Selkirkshire and part of Midlothian, as a two-tier region with the districts of Berwickshire and Lauderdale, Tweeddale within it. In 1996 the region became the districts were wound up; the region was created with the name Borders. Following the election of a shadow area council in 1995 the name was changed to Scottish Borders with effect from 1996. Although there is evidence of some Scottish Gaelic in the origins of place names such as Innerleithen and Longformacus, which contain identifiably Goidelic rather than Brythonic Celtic elements and are an indication of at least a Gaelic-speaking elite in the area, the main languages in the area since the 5th century appear to have been Brythonic and Old English, the latter of which developed into its modern forms of English and Scots. There are two British Parliamentary constituencies in the Borders. Berwickshire and Selkirk covers most of the region and is represented by John Lamont of the Conservatives.
The western Tweeddale area is included in the Dumfriesshire, Clydesdale & Tweeddale constituency and is represented by David Mundell of the Conservatives. At Scottish Parliament level, there are two seats; the eastern constituency is Ettrick and Berwickshire, represented by Conservative Rachael Hamilton. The western constituency is Midlothian South and Lauderdale and is represented by SNP Christine Grahame. Following the 2012 local elections, the council administration was a coalition of Independents, Scottish National Party and Liberal Democrats. Prior to the election a coalition of Conservatives, Liberal Democrats and Independents ruled; the Conservatives were the biggest party on the council with 10 seats, the Liberal Democrats had six. The SNP had nine seats and the Independents had seven. Two councillors form the Borders Party. Following the 2017 local elections, the council is now a coalition of Independents and Conservatives; the Conservatives became the largest party on the council with 15, an increase of 5.
At the Census held on 27 March 2011, the population of the region was 114,000, an increase of 6.78% from the 106,764 enumerated at the previous Census. The region had until September 2015 no working railway stations. Although the area was well connected to the Victorian railway system, the branch lines that supplied it were closed in the decades following the Second World War. A bill was passed by the Scottish Parliament to extend the Waverley Line, which aimed to re-introduce a commuter service from Edinburgh to Stow and Tweedbank; this section of the route re-opened on 6 September 2015, under the Borders Railway branding. The other railway route running through the region is the East Coast Main Line, with Edinburgh Waverley and Berwick being the nearest stations on that line, all of which are outwith the Borders. Since 2014 there has been discussion of re-opening the station at Reston, within the region and would serve Eyemouth. To the west, Carlisle and Lockerbie are the nearest stations on the West Coast Main Line.
The area is served by buses. Express bus services link the main towns with rail stations at Edinburgh and