The transverse plane or axial plane is an imaginary plane that divides the body into superior and inferior parts. It is perpendicular to sagittal plane, it is one of the planes of the body used to describe the location of body parts in relation to each other. Transverse thoracic plane Xiphosternal plane Transpyloric plane Subcostal plane Umbilical plane Supracristal plane Intertubercular plane Interspinous plane The transverse thoracic plane Plane through T4 & T5 vertebral junction and sternal angle of Louis. Marks the: Attachment of costal cartilage of rib 2 at the sternal angle. Located at the level of S1. Anatomical terms of location Horizontal plane Coronal plane Sagittal plane
Hernia repair refers to a surgical operation for the correction of a hernia—a bulging of internal organs or tissues through the wall that contains it. It can be of two different types: herniorrhaphy; this operation may be performed to correct hernias of the abdomen, diaphragm, brain, or at the site of a previous operation. Hernia repair is performed as an ambulatory procedure; the first differentiating factor in hernia repair is whether the surgery is done open, or laparoscopically. Open hernia repair is. Laparoscopic hernia repair is when minimally invasive cameras and equipment are used and the hernia is repaired with only small incisions adjacent to the hernia; these techniques are similar to the techniques used in laparoscopic gallbladder surgery. An operation in which the hernia sac is removed without any repair of the inguinal canal is described as a herniotomy; when herniotomy is combined with a reinforced repair of the posterior inguinal canal wall with autogenous or heterogeneous material such as prolene mesh, it is termed hernioplasty as opposed to herniorrhaphy, in which no autogenous or heterogeneous material is used for reinforcement.
European Hernia Society guidelines on the treatment of inguinal hernia in adult patients. American Hernia Society Melbourne Hernia Clinic Surgery Methods, Inguinal Hernia, Comparison
A bull is an intact adult male of the species Bos taurus. More muscular and aggressive than the female of the species, the cow, the bull has long been an important symbol in many cultures, plays a significant role in both beef ranching and dairy farming, in a variety of other cultural activities; the female counterpart to a bull is a cow, while a male of the species, castrated is a steer, ox or bullock, although in North America this last term refers to a young bull, in Australia to a draught animal. Usage of these terms varies with area and dialect. Colloquially, people unfamiliar with cattle may refer to both castrated and intact animals as "bulls". A wild, unmarked bull is known as a micky in Australia. Improper or late castration on a bull results in it becoming a coarse steer known as a stag in Australia and New Zealand. In some countries an incompletely castrated male is known as a rig or ridgling; the word "bull" denotes the males of other bovines, including bison and water buffalo as well as many other species of large animals including elephants, seals & walruses, camels, elk, moose and antelopes.
Bulls are much more muscular than cows, with thicker bones, larger feet, a muscular neck, a large, bony head with protective ridges over the eyes. These features assist bulls in fighting for domination over a herd, giving the winner superior access to cows for reproduction; the hair is shorter on the body, but on the neck and head there is a "mane" of curlier, wooly hair. Bulls are about the same height as cows or a little taller, but because of the additional muscle and bone mass they weigh far more. Most of the time, a bull has a hump on his shoulders; when a bull is full-grown, he can weigh as much as 2,000 pounds. In horned cattle the horns of bulls tend to be thicker and somewhat shorter than those of cows, in many breeds they curve outwards in a flat arc rather than upwards in a lyre shape, it is not true, as is believed, bulls have horns and cows do not: the presence of horns depends on the breed, or in horned breeds on whether the horns have been disbudded. Cattle that do not have horns are referred to as polled, or muleys.
Castrated male cattle are physically similar to females in build and horn shape, although if allowed to reach maturity they may be taller than either bulls or cows, with muscled shoulders. Bulls become fertile at about seven months of age, their fertility is related to the size of their testicles, one simple test of fertility is to measure the circumference of the scrotum: a young bull is to be fertile once this reaches 28 centimetres. Bulls have a fibro-elastic penis. Given the small amount of erectile tissue, there is little enlargement after erection; the penis is quite rigid when non-erect, becomes more rigid during erection. Protrusion is not affected much by erection, but more by relaxation of the retractor penis muscle and straightening of the sigmoid flexure. Bulls are affected by a condition known as "corkscrew penis"; the penis of a mature bull is about 3–4 cm in diameter, 80–100 cm in length. The bull's glans penis has a elongated shape. A common misconception repeated in depictions of bull behavior is that the color red angers bulls, inciting them to charge.
In fact, like most mammals, cattle are red-green color blind. In bullfighting, it is the movement of the matador's cape, not the color, which provokes a reaction in the bull. Other than the few bulls needed for breeding, the vast majority of male cattle are castrated and slaughtered for meat before the age of three years, except where they are needed as work oxen for haulage. Most of these beef animals are castrated as calves to reduce aggressive behavior and prevent unwanted mating, although some are reared as uncastrated bull beef. A bull is ready for slaughter one or two months sooner than a castrated male or a female, produces proportionately more, leaner muscle. Frame score is a useful way of describing the skeletal size of other cattle. Frame scores can be used as an aid to predict mature cattle sizes and aid in the selection of beef bulls. Frame scores are calculated from hip age. In sales catalogues, this measurement is reported in addition to weight and other performance data such as estimated breed value.
Adult bulls may weigh between 1,000 kilograms. Most are capable of aggressive behavior and require careful handling to ensure safety of humans and other animals; those of dairy breeds may be more prone to aggression, while beef breeds are somewhat less aggressive, though beef breeds such as the Spanish Fighting Bull and related animals are noted for aggressive tendencies, which are further encouraged by selective breeding. It is estimated that 42% of all livestock-related fatalities in Canada are a result of bull attacks, fewer than one in twenty victims of a bull attack survives. Dairy breed bulls are dangerous and unpredictable. Being trampled, jammed against a wall or gored by a bull was one of the most frequent causes of death in the dairy industry before 1940. With regard to such risks, one popular farming magazine has suggested, "Handle with a staff and take no
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are a drug class that reduce pain, decrease fever, prevent blood clots and, in higher doses, decrease inflammation. Side effects depend on the specific drug, but include an increased risk of gastrointestinal ulcers and bleeds, heart attack and kidney disease; the term nonsteroidal distinguishes these drugs from steroids, which while having a similar eicosanoid-depressing, anti-inflammatory action, have a broad range of other effects. First used in 1960, the term served to distance these medications from steroids, which where stigmatised at the time due to the connotations with anabolic steroid abuse. NSAIDs work by inhibiting the activity of cyclooxygenase enzymes. In cells, these enzymes are involved in the synthesis of key biological mediators, namely prostaglandins which are involved in inflammation, thromboxanes which are involved in blood clotting. There are two types of NSAID available: COX-2 selective. Most NSAIDs are non-selective, inhibit the activity of both COX-1 and COX-2.
These NSAIDs, while reducing inflammation inhibit platelet aggregation and increase the risk of gastrointestinal ulcers/bleeds. COX-2 selective inhibitors have less gastrointestinal side effects, but promote thrombosis and increase the risk of heart attack; as a result, COX-2 selective inhibitors are contraindicated due to the high risk of undiagnosed vascular disease. These differential effects are due to the different roles and tissue localisations of each COX isoenzyme. By inhibiting physiological COX activity, all NSAIDs increase the risk of kidney disease and, through a related mechanism, heart attack; the most prominent NSAIDs are aspirin and naproxen, all available over the counter in most countries. Paracetamol is not considered an NSAID because it has only minor anti-inflammatory activity, it treats pain by blocking COX-2 in the central nervous system, but not much in the rest of the body. NSAIDs are used for the treatment of acute or chronic conditions where pain and inflammation are present.
NSAIDs are used for the symptomatic relief of the following conditions: Aspirin, the only NSAID able to irreversibly inhibit COX-1, is indicated for antithrombosis through inhibition of platelet aggregation. This is useful for the management of arterial thrombosis and prevention of adverse cardiovascular events like heart attacks. Aspirin inhibits platelet aggregation by inhibiting the action of thromboxane A2. In a more specific application, the reduction in prostaglandins is used to close a patent ductus arteriosus in neonates if it has not done so physiologically after 24 hours. NSAIDs are useful in the management of post-operative dental pain following invasive dental procedures such as dental extraction; when not contra-indicated they are favoured over the use of paracetamol alone due to the anti-inflammatory effect they provide. When used in combination with paracetamol the analgesic effect has been proven to be improved. There is weak evidence suggesting that taking pre-operative analgesia can reduce the length of post operative pain associated with placing orthodontic spacers under local anaesthetic.
Combination of NSAIDs with pregabalin as preemptive analgesia has shown promising results for decreasing post operative pain intensity. The effectiveness of NSAID's for treating non-cancer chronic pain and cancer-related pain in children and adolescents is not clear. There have not been sufficient numbers of high-quality randomized controlled trials conducted. NSAIDs may be used with caution by people with the following conditions: Irritable bowel syndrome Persons who are over age 50, who have a family history of GI problems Persons who have had past GI problems from NSAID useNSAIDs should be avoided by people with the following conditions: The widespread use of NSAIDs has meant that the adverse effects of these drugs have become common. Use of NSAIDs increases risk of a range of gastrointestinal problems, kidney disease and adverse cardiovascular events; as used for post-operative pain, there is evidence of increased risk of kidney complications. Their use following gastrointestinal surgery remains controversial, given mixed evidence of increased risk of leakage from any bowel anastomosis created.
An estimated 10–20% of NSAID patients experience dyspepsia. In the 1990s high doses of prescription NSAIDs were associated with serious upper gastrointestinal adverse events, including bleeding. Over the past decade, deaths associated with gastric bleeding have declined. NSAIDs, like all drugs, may interact with other medications. For example, concurrent use of NSAIDs and quinolones may increase the risk of quinolones' adverse central nervous system effects, including seizure. There is an argument over the benefits and risks of NSAIDs for treating chronic musculoskeletal pain; each drug has a benefit-risk profile and balancing the risk of no treatment with the competing potential risks of various therapies is the clinician's responsibility. If a COX-2 inhibitor is taken, a traditional NSAID should not be taken at the same time. In addition, people on daily aspirin therapy must be careful if they use other NSAIDs, as these may inhibit the cardioprotective effects of aspirin. Rofecoxib was shown to produce fewer gastrointestinal adverse drug reactions compared with naproxen.
This study, the VIGOR trial, raised the issue of the cardiovascular safety of the coxibs. A statistically significant increase in the incidence of myocardial infarctions was observed in patients on rofecoxib. Further data, from the APPROVe trial, s
Inflammation is part of the complex biological response of body tissues to harmful stimuli, such as pathogens, damaged cells, or irritants, is a protective response involving immune cells, blood vessels, molecular mediators. The function of inflammation is to eliminate the initial cause of cell injury, clear out necrotic cells and tissues damaged from the original insult and the inflammatory process, initiate tissue repair; the five classical signs of inflammation are heat, redness and loss of function. Inflammation is a generic response, therefore it is considered as a mechanism of innate immunity, as compared to adaptive immunity, specific for each pathogen. Too little inflammation could lead to progressive tissue destruction by the harmful stimulus and compromise the survival of the organism. In contrast, chronic inflammation may lead to a host of diseases, such as hay fever, atherosclerosis, rheumatoid arthritis, cancer. Inflammation is therefore closely regulated by the body. Inflammation can be classified as either chronic.
Acute inflammation is the initial response of the body to harmful stimuli and is achieved by the increased movement of plasma and leukocytes from the blood into the injured tissues. A series of biochemical events propagates and matures the inflammatory response, involving the local vascular system, the immune system, various cells within the injured tissue. Prolonged inflammation, known as chronic inflammation, leads to a progressive shift in the type of cells present at the site of inflammation, such as mononuclear cells, is characterized by simultaneous destruction and healing of the tissue from the inflammatory process. Inflammation is not a synonym for infection. Infection describes the interaction between the action of microbial invasion and the reaction of the body's inflammatory response—the two components are considered together when discussing an infection, the word is used to imply a microbial invasive cause for the observed inflammatory reaction. Inflammation on the other hand describes purely the body's immunovascular response, whatever the cause may be.
But because of how the two are correlated, words ending in the suffix -itis are sometimes informally described as referring to infection. For example, the word urethritis means only "urethral inflammation", but clinical health care providers discuss urethritis as a urethral infection because urethral microbial invasion is the most common cause of urethritis, it is useful to differentiate inflammation and infection because there are typical situations in pathology and medical diagnosis where inflammation is not driven by microbial invasion – for example, trauma and autoimmune diseases including type III hypersensitivity. Conversely, there is pathology where microbial invasion does not cause the classic inflammatory response – for example, parasitosis or eosinophilia. Acute inflammation is a short-term process appearing within a few minutes or hours and begins to cease upon the removal of the injurious stimulus, it involves a coordinated and systemic mobilization response locally of various immune and neurological mediators of acute inflammation.
In a normal healthy response, it becomes activated, clears the pathogen and begins a repair process and ceases. It is characterized by five cardinal signs:An acronym that may be used to remember the key symptoms is "PRISH", for pain, immobility and heat; the traditional names for signs of inflammation come from Latin: Dolor Calor Rubor Tumor Functio laesa The first four were described by Celsus, while loss of function was added by Galen. However, the addition of this fifth sign has been ascribed to Thomas Sydenham and Virchow. Redness and heat are due to increased blood flow at body core temperature to the inflamed site. Loss of function has multiple causes. Acute inflammation of the lung does not cause pain unless the inflammation involves the parietal pleura, which does have pain-sensitive nerve endings; the process of acute inflammation is initiated by resident immune cells present in the involved tissue resident macrophages, dendritic cells, Kupffer cells and mast cells. These cells possess surface receptors known as pattern recognition receptors, which recognize two subclasses of molecules: pathogen-associated molecular patterns and damage-associated molecular patterns.
PAMPs are compounds that are associated with various pathogens, but which are distinguishable from host molecules. DAMPs are compounds that are associated with host-related cell damage. At the onset of an infection, burn, or other injuries, these cells undergo activation and release inflammatory mediators responsible for the clinical signs of inflammation. Vasodilation and its resulting increased blood flow causes increased heat. Increased permeability of the blood vessels results in an exudation of plasma proteins and fluid into the tissue, which manifests itself as swelling; some of the released mediators such as bradykinin increase the sensitivity to pain. The mediator molecules alter the blood vessels to
A rooster known as a cockerel or cock, is a male gallinaceous bird, with cockerel being younger and rooster being an adult male chicken. Mature male chickens less than one year old are called cockerels; the term "rooster" originates in the United States, the term is used throughout North America, as well as Australia and New Zealand."Roosting" is the action of perching aloft to sleep at day, done by both sexes. The rooster can not guard several nests of eggs at once, he guards the general area where his hens are nesting, attacks other roosters that enter his territory. During the daytime, a rooster sits on a high perch 0.9 to 1.5 m off the ground, to serve as a lookout for his group. He sounds a distinctive alarm call if predators are nearby and will crow to assert his territory. Roosters always start crowing before four months of age. Although it is possible for a hen to crow as well, crowing is one of the clearest signs of being a rooster; the rooster is portrayed as crowing at the break of dawn.
However, while many roosters crow shortly after waking up, this idea is not true. A rooster will crow at any time of the day; some roosters are vociferous, crowing constantly, while others only crow a few times a day. These differences are dependent both upon individual personality. A rooster can be seen sitting on fence posts or other objects, where he crows to proclaim his territory. Roosters have several other calls as well, can cluck, similar to the hen. Roosters make a patterned series of clucks to attract hens to a source of food, the same way a mother hen does for her chicks. Rooster crowing contests are a traditional sport in several countries, such as Germany, the Netherlands, the United States and Japan; the oldest contests are held with longcrowers. Depending on the breed, either the duration of the crowing or the times the rooster crows within a certain time is measured. A capon is a castrated rooster. In the caponization procedure, the bird's testes are removed; as a result of this procedure, certain male physical characteristics will experience stunted development: The comb and wattles cease growing after castration, giving a capon's head a dwarfed appearance.
The hackle and saddle feathers grow unusually long. Caponization affects the disposition of the bird. Removal of the bird's testes eliminates the male sex hormones, lessening the male sex instincts and changing their behaviour: the birds become more docile, less active, tend not to fight; this procedure produces a unique type of poultry meat, favoured by a specialized market. The meat of normal uncastrated roosters has a tendency to become coarse and tough as the birds age; this process does not occur in the capon. As caponized roosters grow more than intact males, they accumulate more body fat; the concentration of fat in both the light and dark areas of the capon meat is greater than in that of the uncastrated males. Overall, it is thought that capon meat is more tender and flavorful than regular chicken. A cockfight is a contest held in a ring called a cockpit between two gamecocks or cocks, with the first use of the word gamecock appearing in 1646. After the term "cock of the game" used by George Wilson, in the earliest known book on the secular sport of cockfighting in The Commendation of Cocks and Cock Fighting in 1607.
Gamecocks are not typical farm chickens. The cocks are specially trained for increased stamina and strength; the comb and wattle are removed from a young gamecock because, if left intact, they would be a disadvantage during a match. This process is called dubbing. Sometimes the cocks are given drugs to increase their stamina or thicken their blood, which increases their chances of winning. Cockfighting is considered a traditional sporting event by some, an example of animal cruelty by others and is therefore outlawed in most countries. Wagers are made on the outcome of the match, with the surviving or last-bird-standing being declared the winner. There are religious significance and aspects of the rooster and the cockfight which are exampled by the religious belief of Tabuh Rah, a religious and spiritual cockfight where a rooster is used in religious custom by allowing him to fight against another rooster in the Balinese Hinduism spiritual appeasement exercise of Tabuh Rah, a form of animal sacrifice, where ritual fights take place outside the temple and follow an ancient and complex ritual as set out in the sacred lontar manuscripts.
Within the religious schema of Christianity and the cockfight within a religious and sacred context, there are numerous representations of the rooster or the cock and the cockfight as a religious vessel found in the Catacombs from the earliest period as well as similar illustrations of cocks in fighting stance taken from the Vivian Bible. The cockerel "waltz", when the cockerel struts in a half circle with one wing extended down, is an aggressive approach signifying to females his dominance, the female will submit by running or moving away from the cockerel in acknowledgement. On rare occasions, the hen will attempt to fight the cockerel for dominance. Once dominance is established, the cockerel will waltz again; when other cockerels are in the hen yard, this waltz is used more and most cockerels will waltz together if dominance has not been established.