Hexagonal tiling
In geometry, the hexagonal tiling or hexagonal tessellation is a regular tiling of the Euclidean plane, in which three hexagons meet at each vertex. It has Schläfli symbol of or t. English mathematician John Conway calls it a hextille; the internal angle of the hexagon is 120 degrees so three hexagons at a point make a full 360 degrees. It is one of three regular tilings of the plane; the other two are the square tiling. The hexagonal tiling is the densest way to arrange circles in two dimensions; the Honeycomb conjecture states that the hexagonal tiling is the best way to divide a surface into regions of equal area with the least total perimeter. The optimal three-dimensional structure for making honeycomb was investigated by Lord Kelvin, who believed that the Kelvin structure is optimal. However, the less regular Weaire–Phelan structure is better; this structure exists in the form of graphite, where each sheet of graphene resembles chicken wire, with strong covalent carbon bonds. Tubular graphene sheets have been synthesised.
They have many potential applications, due to electrical properties. Silicene is similar. Chicken wire consists of a hexagonal lattice of wires; the hexagonal tiling appears in many crystals. In three dimensions, the face-centered cubic and hexagonal close packing are common crystal structures, they are the densest known sphere packings in three dimensions, are believed to be optimal. Structurally, they comprise parallel layers of hexagonal tilings, similar to the structure of graphite, they differ in the way that the layers are staggered from each other, with the face-centered cubic being the more regular of the two. Pure copper, amongst other materials, forms a face-centered cubic lattice. There are three distinct uniform colorings of a hexagonal tiling, all generated from reflective symmetry of Wythoff constructions; the represent the periodic repeat of one colored tile, counting hexagonal distances as h first, k second. The same counting is used in the Goldberg polyhedra, with a notation h,k, can be applied to hyperbolic tilings for p>6.
The 3-color tiling is a tessellation generated by the order-3 permutohedrons. A chamferred hexagonal tiling replacing edges with new hexagons and transforms into another hexagonal tiling. In the limit, the original faces disappear, the new hexagons degenerate into rhombi, it becomes a rhombic tiling; the hexagons can be dissected into sets of 6 triangles. This process leads to two 2-uniform tilings, the triangular tiling: The hexagonal tiling can be considered an elongated rhombic tiling, where each vertex of the rhombic tiling is stretched into a new edge; this is similar to the relation of the rhombic dodecahedron and the rhombo-hexagonal dodecahedron tessellations in 3 dimensions. It is possible to subdivide the prototiles of certain hexagonal tilings by two, four or nine equal pentagons: This tiling is topologically related as a part of sequence of regular tilings with hexagonal faces, starting with the hexagonal tiling, with Schläfli symbol, Coxeter diagram, progressing to infinity; this tiling is topologically related to regular polyhedra with vertex figure n3, as a part of sequence that continues into the hyperbolic plane.
It is related to the uniform truncated polyhedra with vertex figure n.6.6. This tiling is a part of a sequence of truncated rhombic polyhedra and tilings with Coxeter group symmetry; the cube can be seen as a rhombic hexahedron. The truncated forms have regular n-gons at the truncated vertices, nonregular hexagonal faces. Like the uniform polyhedra there are eight uniform tilings that can be based from the regular hexagonal tiling. Drawing the tiles colored as red on the original faces, yellow at the original vertices, blue along the original edges, there are 8 forms, 7 which are topologically distinct. There are 3 types of monohedral convex hexagonal tilings, they are all isohedral. Each has parametric variations within a fixed symmetry. Type 2 contains glide reflections, is 2-isohedral keeping chiral pairs distinct. Hexagonal tilings can be made with the identical topology as the regular tiling. With isohedral faces, there are 13 variations. Symmetry given assumes all faces are the same color. Colors here represent the lattice positions.
Single-color lattices are parallelogon hexagons. Other isohedrally-tiled topological hexagonal tilings are seen as quadrilaterals and pentagons that are not edge-to-edge, but interpreted as colinear adjacent edges: The 2-uniform and 3-uniform tessellations have a rotational degree of freedom which distorts 2/3 of the hexagons, including a colinear case that can be seen as a non-edge-to-edge tiling of hexagons and larger triangles, it can be distorted into a chiral 4-colored tri-directional weaved pattern, distorting some hexagons into parallelograms. The weaved pattern with 2 colored faces have rotational 632 symmetry. A chevron pattern has pmg symmetry, lowered to p1 with 3 or 4 colored tiles; the hexagonal tiling can be used as a circle packing, placing equal diameter circles at the center of every point. Every circle is in contact with 3 other circles in the packing; the gap inside each hexagon allows for one circle, creating the densest packing from the triangular tiling, with each circle contact with the maximum of 6 circles.
There are 2 regular complex apeirogons, sharing the vertices of the
Hyperbolic geometry
In mathematics, hyperbolic geometry is a non-Euclidean geometry. The parallel postulate of Euclidean geometry is replaced with: For any given line R and point P not on R, in the plane containing both line R and point P there are at least two distinct lines through P that do not intersect R. Hyperbolic plane geometry is the geometry of saddle surfaces and pseudospherical surfaces, surfaces with a constant negative Gaussian curvature. A modern use of hyperbolic geometry is in the theory of special relativity Minkowski spacetime and gyrovector space; when geometers first realised they were working with something other than the standard Euclidean geometry they described their geometry under many different names. In the former Soviet Union, it is called Lobachevskian geometry, named after one of its discoverers, the Russian geometer Nikolai Lobachevsky; this page is about the 2-dimensional hyperbolic geometry and the differences and similarities between Euclidean and hyperbolic geometry. Hyperbolic geometry can be extended to three and more dimensions.
Hyperbolic geometry is more related to Euclidean geometry than it seems: the only axiomatic difference is the parallel postulate. When the parallel postulate is removed from Euclidean geometry the resulting geometry is absolute geometry. There are two kinds of absolute geometry and hyperbolic. All theorems of absolute geometry, including the first 28 propositions of book one of Euclid's Elements, are valid in Euclidean and hyperbolic geometry. Propositions 27 and 28 of Book One of Euclid's Elements prove the existence of parallel/non-intersecting lines; this difference has many consequences: concepts that are equivalent in Euclidean geometry are not equivalent in hyperbolic geometry. Further, because of the angle of parallelism, hyperbolic geometry has an absolute scale, a relation between distance and angle measurements. Single lines in hyperbolic geometry have the same properties as single straight lines in Euclidean geometry. For example, two points uniquely define a line, lines can be infinitely extended.
Two intersecting lines have the same properties as two intersecting lines in Euclidean geometry. For example, two lines can intersect in no more than one point, intersecting lines have equal opposite angles, adjacent angles of intersecting lines are supplementary; when we add a third line there are properties of intersecting lines that differ from intersecting lines in Euclidean geometry. For example, given 2 intersecting lines there are infinitely many lines that do not intersect either of the given lines; these properties all are independent of the model used if the lines may look radically different. Non-intersecting lines in hyperbolic geometry have properties that differ from non-intersecting lines in Euclidean geometry: For any line R and any point P which does not lie on R, in the plane containing line R and point P there are at least two distinct lines through P that do not intersect R; this implies that there are through P an infinite number of coplanar lines that do not intersect R.
These non-intersecting lines are divided into two classes: Two of the lines are limiting parallels: there is one in the direction of each of the ideal points at the "ends" of R, asymptotically approaching R, always getting closer to R, but never meeting it. All other non-intersecting lines have a point of minimum distance and diverge from both sides of that point, are called ultraparallel, diverging parallel or sometimes non-intersecting; some geometers use parallel lines instead of limiting parallel lines, with ultraparallel lines being just non-intersecting. These limiting parallels make an angle θ with PB. For ultraparallel lines, the ultraparallel theorem states that there is a unique line in the hyperbolic plane, perpendicular to each pair of ultraparallel lines. In hyperbolic geometry, the circumference of a circle of radius r is greater than 2 π r. Let R = 1 − K, where K is the Gaussian curvature of the plane. In hyperbolic geometry, K is negative, so the square root is of a positive number.
The circumference of a circle of radius r is equal to: 2 π R sinh r R. And the area of the enclosed disk is: 4 π R 2 sinh 2 r 2 R = 2 π R 2. Therefore, in hyperbolic geometry the ratio of a circle's circumference to its radius is always greater than 2 π, though
Hexagon
In geometry, a hexagon is a six-sided polygon or 6-gon. The total of the internal angles of any simple hexagon is 720°. A regular hexagon has Schläfli symbol and can be constructed as a truncated equilateral triangle, t, which alternates two types of edges. A regular hexagon is defined as a hexagon, both equilateral and equiangular, it is bicentric, meaning that it is both tangential. The common length of the sides equals the radius of the circumscribed circle, which equals 2 3 times the apothem. All internal angles are 120 degrees. A regular hexagon has 6 rotational symmetries and 6 reflection symmetries, making up the dihedral group D6; the longest diagonals of a regular hexagon, connecting diametrically opposite vertices, are twice the length of one side. From this it can be seen that a triangle with a vertex at the center of the regular hexagon and sharing one side with the hexagon is equilateral, that the regular hexagon can be partitioned into six equilateral triangles. Like squares and equilateral triangles, regular hexagons fit together without any gaps to tile the plane, so are useful for constructing tessellations.
The cells of a beehive honeycomb are hexagonal for this reason and because the shape makes efficient use of space and building materials. The Voronoi diagram of a regular triangular lattice is the honeycomb tessellation of hexagons, it is not considered a triambus, although it is equilateral. The maximal diameter, D, is twice the maximal radius or circumradius, R, which equals the side length, t; the minimal diameter or the diameter of the inscribed circle, d, is twice the minimal radius or inradius, r. The maxima and minima are related by the same factor: 1 2 d = r = cos R = 3 2 R = 3 2 t and d = 3 2 D; the area of a regular hexagon A = 3 3 2 R 2 = 3 R r = 2 3 r 2 = 3 3 8 D 2 = 3 4 D d = 3 2 d 2 ≈ 2.598 R 2 ≈ 3.464 r 2 ≈ 0.6495 D 2 ≈ 0.866 d 2. For any regular polygon, the area can be expressed in terms of the apothem a and the perimeter p. For the regular hexagon these are given by a = r, p = 6 R = 4 r 3, so A = a p 2 = r ⋅ 4 r 3 2 = 2 r 2 3 ≈ 3.464 r 2. The regular hexagon fills the fraction 3 3 2 π ≈ 0.8270 of its circumscribed circle.
If a regular hexagon has successive vertices A, B, C, D, E, F and if P is any point on the circumscribing circle between B and C PE + PF = PA + PB + PC + PD. The regular hexagon has Dih6 symmetry, order 12. There are 3 dihedral subgroups: Dih3, Dih2, Dih1, 4 cyclic subgroups: Z6, Z3, Z2, Z1; these symmetries express 9 distinct symmetries of a regular hexagon. John Conway labels these by a group order. R12 is full symmetry, a1 is no symmetry. P6, an isogonal hexagon constructed by three mirrors can alternate long and short edges, d6, an isotoxal hexagon constructed with equal edge lengths, but vertices alternating two different internal angles; these two forms have half the symmetry order of the regular hexagon. The
Kaleidoscope
A kaleidoscope is an optical instrument with two or more reflecting surfaces tilted to each other in an angle, so that one or more objects on one end of the mirrors are seen as a regular symmetrical pattern when viewed from the other end, due to repeated reflection. The reflectors are enclosed in a tube containing on one end a cell with loose, colored pieces of glass or other transparent materials to be reflected into the viewed pattern. Rotation of the cell causes motion of the materials, resulting in an ever-changing view being presented. Coined by its Scottish inventor David Brewster, "kaleidoscope" is derived from the Ancient Greek word καλός, "beautiful, beauty", εἶδος, "that, seen: form, shape" and σκοπέω, "to look to, to examine", hence "observation of beautiful forms." It was first published in the patent, granted on July 10, 1817. Multiple reflection by two or more reflecting surfaces has been known since antiquity and was described as such by Giambattista della Porta in his Magia Naturalis.
In 1646 Athanasius Kircher described an experiment with a construction of two mirrors, which could be opened and closed like a book and positioned in various angles, showing regular polygon figures consisting of reflected aliquot sectors of 360°. Mr. Bradley's New Improvements in Planting and Gardening described a similar construction to be placed on geometrical drawings to show an image with multiplied reflection. However, an optimal configuration that produces the full effects of the kaleidoscope was not recorded before 1815. In 1814 Sir David Brewster conducted experiments on light polarization by successive reflections between plates of glass and first noted "the circular arrangement of the images of a candle round a center, the multiplication of the sectors formed by the extremities of the plates of glass", he forgot about it, but noticed a more impressive version of the effect during further experiments in February 1815. A while he was impressed by the multiplied reflection of a bit of cement, pressed through at the end of a triangular glass trough, which appeared more regular and perfectly symmetrical in comparison to the reflected objects, situated further away from the reflecting plates in earlier experiments.
This triggered more experiments to find the conditions for the most beautiful and symmetrically perfect conditions. An early version had pieces of colored glass and other irregular objects fixed permanently and was admired by some Members of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, including Sir George Mackenzie who predicted its popularity. A version followed in which some of the objects and pieces of glass could move when the tube was rotated; the last step, regarded as most important by Brewster, was to place the reflecting panes in a draw tube with a concave lens to distinctly introduce surrounding objects into the reflected pattern. Brewster thought his instrument to be of great value in "all the ornamental arts" as a device that creates an "infinity of patterns". Artists could delineate the produced figures of the kaleidoscope by means of the solar microscope, magic lantern or camera lucida. Brewster believed it would at the same time become a popular instrument "for the purposes of rational amusement".
He decided to apply for a patent. British patent no. 4136 "for a new Optical Instrument called "The Kaleidoscope" for exhibiting and creating beautiful Forms and Patterns of great use in all the ornamental Arts" was granted in July 1817. The manufacturer engaged to produce the product had shown one of the patent instruments to some of the London opticians to see if he could get orders from them. Soon the instrument was copied and marketed before the manufacturer had prepared any number of kaleidoscopes for sale. An estimated two hundred thousand kaleidoscopes sold in London and Paris in just three months. Brewster figured at most a thousand of these were authorized copies that were constructed while the majority of the others did not give a correct impression of his invention; because so few people had experienced a proper kaleidoscope or knew how to apply it to ornamental arts, he decided to publicize a treatise on the principles and the correct construction of the kaleidoscope. It was thought that the patent was reduced in a Court of Law since its principles were already known.
Brewster stated that the kaleidoscope was different because the particular positions of the object and of the eye, played a important role in producing the beautiful symmetrical forms. Brewster's opinion was shared including James Watt. Philip Carpenter tried to produce his own imitation of the kaleidoscope, but was not satisfied with the results, he decided to offer his services to Brewster as manufacturer. Brewster agreed and Carpenter's models were stamped "sole maker". Realizing that the company could not meet the level of demand, Brewster gained permission from Carpenter in 1818 for the device to be made by other manufacturers. In his 1819 Treatise on the Kaleidoscope Brewster listed more than a dozen manufacturers/sellers of patent kaleidoscopes. Carpenter's company would keep on selling kaleidoscopes for 60 years. H. M. Quackenbush Co. based in upstate New York in the United States was another authorized manufacturer. In 1987, kaleidoscope artist Thea Marshall, working with the Willamette Science and Technology Center, a science museum located in the Eugene, Oregon and constructed a 1,000 square foot traveling mathematics and science exhibition, "Kaleidoscopes: Reflections of Science and Art."
With funding from the National Science Foundation, circulated under the auspices of the Smithsonian Insti
Isotoxal figure
In geometry, a polytope, or a tiling, is isotoxal or edge-transitive if its symmetries act transitively on its edges. Informally, this means that there is only one type of edge to the object: given two edges, there is a translation, rotation and/or reflection that will move one edge to the other, while leaving the region occupied by the object unchanged; the term isotoxal is derived from the Greek τοξον meaning arc. An isotoxal polygon is an equilateral polygon; the duals of isotoxal polygons are isogonal polygons. In general, an isotoxal 2n-gon will have Dn dihedral symmetry. A rhombus is an isotoxal polygon with D2 symmetry. All regular polygons are isotoxal, having double the minimum symmetry order: a regular n-gon has Dn dihedral symmetry. A regular 2n-gon is an isotoxal polygon and can be marked with alternately colored vertices, removing the line of reflection through the mid-edges. Regular polyhedra are isohedral and isotoxal. Quasiregular polyhedra are not isohedral. Not every polyhedron or 2-dimensional tessellation constructed from regular polygons is isotoxal.
For instance, the truncated icosahedron has two types of edges: hexagon-hexagon and hexagon-pentagon, it is not possible for a symmetry of the solid to move a hexagon-hexagon edge onto a hexagon-pentagon edge. An isotoxal polyhedron has the same dihedral angle for all edges. There are nine convex isotoxal polyhedra formed from the Platonic solids, 8 formed by the Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra, six more as quasiregular star polyhedra and their duals. There are at least 5 polygonal tilings of the Euclidean plane that are isotoxal, infinitely many isotoxal polygonal tilings of the hyperbolic plane, including the Wythoff constructions from the regular hyperbolic tilings, non-right groups. Table of polyhedron dihedral angles Vertex-transitive Face-transitive Cell-transitive Peter R. Cromwell, Cambridge University Press 1997, ISBN 0-521-55432-2, p. 371 Transitivity Grünbaum, Branko. C.. Tilings and Patterns. New York: W. H. Freeman. ISBN 0-7167-1193-1. CS1 maint: Multiple names: authors list Coxeter, Harold Scott MacDonald.
"Uniform polyhedra", Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series A. Mathematical and Physical Sciences, 246: 401–450, doi:10.1098/rsta.1954.0003, ISSN 0080-4614, JSTOR 91532, MR 0062446
Geometry
Geometry is a branch of mathematics concerned with questions of shape, relative position of figures, the properties of space. A mathematician who works in the field of geometry is called a geometer. Geometry arose independently in a number of early cultures as a practical way for dealing with lengths and volumes. Geometry began to see elements of formal mathematical science emerging in the West as early as the 6th century BC. By the 3rd century BC, geometry was put into an axiomatic form by Euclid, whose treatment, Euclid's Elements, set a standard for many centuries to follow. Geometry arose independently in India, with texts providing rules for geometric constructions appearing as early as the 3rd century BC. Islamic scientists expanded on them during the Middle Ages. By the early 17th century, geometry had been put on a solid analytic footing by mathematicians such as René Descartes and Pierre de Fermat. Since and into modern times, geometry has expanded into non-Euclidean geometry and manifolds, describing spaces that lie beyond the normal range of human experience.
While geometry has evolved throughout the years, there are some general concepts that are more or less fundamental to geometry. These include the concepts of points, planes, surfaces and curves, as well as the more advanced notions of manifolds and topology or metric. Geometry has applications to many fields, including art, physics, as well as to other branches of mathematics. Contemporary geometry has many subfields: Euclidean geometry is geometry in its classical sense; the mandatory educational curriculum of the majority of nations includes the study of points, planes, triangles, similarity, solid figures and analytic geometry. Euclidean geometry has applications in computer science and various branches of modern mathematics. Differential geometry uses techniques of linear algebra to study problems in geometry, it has applications in physics, including in general relativity. Topology is the field concerned with the properties of geometric objects that are unchanged by continuous mappings. In practice, this means dealing with large-scale properties of spaces, such as connectedness and compactness.
Convex geometry investigates convex shapes in the Euclidean space and its more abstract analogues using techniques of real analysis. It has close connections to convex analysis and functional analysis and important applications in number theory. Algebraic geometry studies geometry through the use of multivariate polynomials and other algebraic techniques, it has applications including cryptography and string theory. Discrete geometry is concerned with questions of relative position of simple geometric objects, such as points and circles, it shares many principles with combinatorics. Computational geometry deals with algorithms and their implementations for manipulating geometrical objects. Although being a young area of geometry, it has many applications in computer vision, image processing, computer-aided design, medical imaging, etc; the earliest recorded beginnings of geometry can be traced to ancient Mesopotamia and Egypt in the 2nd millennium BC. Early geometry was a collection of empirically discovered principles concerning lengths, angles and volumes, which were developed to meet some practical need in surveying, construction and various crafts.
The earliest known texts on geometry are the Egyptian Rhind Papyrus and Moscow Papyrus, the Babylonian clay tablets such as Plimpton 322. For example, the Moscow Papyrus gives a formula for calculating the volume of a truncated pyramid, or frustum. Clay tablets demonstrate that Babylonian astronomers implemented trapezoid procedures for computing Jupiter's position and motion within time-velocity space; these geometric procedures anticipated the Oxford Calculators, including the mean speed theorem, by 14 centuries. South of Egypt the ancient Nubians established a system of geometry including early versions of sun clocks. In the 7th century BC, the Greek mathematician Thales of Miletus used geometry to solve problems such as calculating the height of pyramids and the distance of ships from the shore, he is credited with the first use of deductive reasoning applied to geometry, by deriving four corollaries to Thales' Theorem. Pythagoras established the Pythagorean School, credited with the first proof of the Pythagorean theorem, though the statement of the theorem has a long history.
Eudoxus developed the method of exhaustion, which allowed the calculation of areas and volumes of curvilinear figures, as well as a theory of ratios that avoided the problem of incommensurable magnitudes, which enabled subsequent geometers to make significant advances. Around 300 BC, geometry was revolutionized by Euclid, whose Elements considered the most successful and influential textbook of all time, introduced mathematical rigor through the axiomatic method and is the earliest example of the format still used in mathematics today, that of definition, axiom and proof. Although most of the contents of the Elements were known, Euclid arranged them into a single, coherent logical framework; the Elements was known to all educated people in the West until the middle of the 20th century and its contents are still taught in geometry classes today. Archimedes of Syracuse used the method of exhaustion to calculate the area under the arc of a parabola with the summation of an infinite series, gave remarkably accurate approximations of Pi.
He studied the sp
Dual polyhedron
In geometry, any polyhedron is associated with a second dual figure, where the vertices of one correspond to the faces of the other and the edges between pairs of vertices of one correspond to the edges between pairs of faces of the other. Such dual figures remain combinatorial or abstract polyhedra, but not all are geometric polyhedra. Starting with any given polyhedron, the dual of its dual is the original polyhedron. Duality preserves the symmetries of a polyhedron. Therefore, for many classes of polyhedra defined by their symmetries, the duals belong to a symmetric class. Thus, the regular polyhedra – the Platonic solids and Kepler–Poinsot polyhedra – form dual pairs, where the regular tetrahedron is self-dual; the dual of an isogonal polyhedron, having equivalent vertices, is one, isohedral, having equivalent faces. The dual of an isotoxal polyhedron is isotoxal. Duality is related to reciprocity or polarity, a geometric transformation that, when applied to a convex polyhedron, realizes the dual polyhedron as another convex polyhedron.
There are many kinds of duality. The kinds most relevant to elementary polyhedra are polar reciprocity and topological or abstract duality; the duality of polyhedra is defined in terms of polar reciprocation about a concentric sphere. Here, each vertex is associated with a face plane so that the ray from the center to the vertex is perpendicular to the plane, the product of the distances from the center to each is equal to the square of the radius. In coordinates, for reciprocation about the sphere x 2 + y 2 + z 2 = r 2, the vertex is associated with the plane x 0 x + y 0 y + z 0 z = r 2; the vertices of the dual are the poles reciprocal to the face planes of the original, the faces of the dual lie in the polars reciprocal to the vertices of the original. Any two adjacent vertices define an edge, these will reciprocate to two adjacent faces which intersect to define an edge of the dual; this dual pair of edges are always orthogonal to each other. If r 0 is the radius of the sphere, r 1 and r 2 the distances from its centre to the pole and its polar, then: r 1.
R 2 = r 0 2 For the more symmetrical polyhedra having an obvious centroid, it is common to make the polyhedron and sphere concentric, as in the Dorman Luke construction described below. However, it is possible to reciprocate a polyhedron about any sphere, the resulting form of the dual will depend on the size and position of the sphere; the choice of center for the sphere is sufficient to define the dual up to similarity. If multiple symmetry axes are present, they will intersect at a single point, this is taken to be the centroid. Failing that, a circumscribed sphere, inscribed sphere, or midsphere is used. If a polyhedron in Euclidean space has an element passing through the center of the sphere, the corresponding element of its dual will go to infinity. Since Euclidean space never reaches infinity, the projective equivalent, called extended Euclidean space, may be formed by adding the required'plane at infinity'; some theorists prefer to say that there is no dual. Meanwhile, Wenninger found a way to represent these infinite duals, in a manner suitable for making models.
The concept of duality here is related to the duality in projective geometry, where lines and edges are interchanged. Projective polarity works well enough for convex polyhedra, but for non-convex figures such as star polyhedra, when we seek to rigorously define this form of polyhedral duality in terms of projective polarity, various problems appear. Because of the definitional issues for geometric duality of non-convex polyhedra, Grünbaum argues that any proper definition of a non-convex polyhedron should include a notion of a dual polyhedron. Any convex polyhedron can be distorted into a canonical form, in which a unit midsphere exists tangent to every edge, such that the average position of the points of tangency is the center of the sphere; this form is unique up to congruences. If we reciprocate such a canonical polyhedron about its midsphere, the dual polyhedron will share the same edge-tangency points and so must be canonical, it is the canonical dual, the two together form a canonical dual pair.
When a pair of polyhedra cannot be obtained by reciprocation from each other, they may be called duals of each other as long as the vertices of one correspond to the faces of the other, the edges of one correspond to the edges of the other, in an incidence-preserving way. Such pairs of polyhedra are abstractly dual; the vertices and edges of a convex polyhedron form a graph, embedded on a topological sphere, the surface of the polyhedron. The same graph can be projected to form