Order (biology)

In biological classification, the order is a taxonomic rank used in the classification of organisms and recognized by the nomenclature codes. Other well-known ranks are life, kingdom, class, family and species, with order fitting in between class and family. An higher rank, may be added directly above order, while suborder would be a lower rank. A taxonomic unit, a taxon, in that rank. In that case the plural is orders. Example: All owls belong to the order StrigiformesWhat does and does not belong to each order is determined by a taxonomist, as is whether a particular order should be recognized at all. There is no exact agreement, with different taxonomists each taking a different position. There are no hard rules that a taxonomist needs to follow in recognizing an order; some taxa are accepted universally, while others are recognised only rarely. For some groups of organisms, consistent suffixes are used to denote; the Latin suffix -formes meaning "having the form of" is used for the scientific name of orders of birds and fishes, but not for those of mammals and invertebrates.

The suffix -ales is for the name of orders of plants and algae. For some clades covered by the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature, a number of additional classifications are sometimes used, although not all of these are recognised. In their 1997 classification of mammals, McKenna and Bell used two extra levels between superorder and order: "grandorder" and "mirorder". Michael Novacek inserted them at the same position. Michael Benton inserted them between magnorder instead; this position was adopted by others. In botany, the ranks of subclass and suborder are secondary ranks pre-defined as above and below the rank of order. Any number of further ranks can be used as long as they are defined; the superorder rank is used, with the ending -anae, initiated by Armen Takhtajan's publications from 1966 onwards. The order as a distinct rank of biological classification having its own distinctive name was first introduced by the German botanist Augustus Quirinus Rivinus in his classification of plants that appeared in a series of treatises in the 1690s.

Carl Linnaeus was the first to apply it to the division of all three kingdoms of nature in his Systema Naturae. For plants, Linnaeus' orders in the Systema Naturae and the Species Plantarum were artificial, introduced to subdivide the artificial classes into more comprehensible smaller groups; when the word ordo was first used for natural units of plants, in 19th century works such as the Prodromus of de Candolle and the Genera Plantarum of Bentham & Hooker, it indicated taxa that are now given the rank of family. In French botanical publications, from Michel Adanson's Familles naturelles des plantes and until the end of the 19th century, the word famille was used as a French equivalent for this Latin ordo; this equivalence was explicitly stated in the Alphonse De Candolle's Lois de la nomenclature botanique, the precursor of the used International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants. In the first international Rules of botanical nomenclature from the International Botanical Congress of 1905, the word family was assigned to the rank indicated by the French "famille", while order was reserved for a higher rank, for what in the 19th century had been named a cohors.

Some of the plant families still retain the names of Linnaean "natural orders" or the names of pre-Linnaean natural groups recognised by Linnaeus as orders in his natural classification. Such names are known as descriptive family names. In zoology, the Linnaean orders were used more consistently; that is, the orders in the zoology part of the Systema Naturae refer to natural groups. Some of his ordinal names are still in use. In virology, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses's virus classification includes fifteen taxa: realm, kingdom, phylum, class, order, family, genus and species, to be applied for viruses and satellite nucleic acids. There are fourteen viral orders, each ending in the suffix -virales. Biological classification Cladistics Phylogenetics Rank Rank Systematics Taxonomy Virus classification McNeill, J.. R.. R.. L.. S.. F.. F.. H.. J.. International Code of Nomenclature for algae and plants adopted by the Eighteenth International Botanical Congress Melbourne, July 2011. Regnum Vegetabile 154.

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John Brinkerhoff

John R. Brinkerhoff was the associate director for national preparedness of the United States Federal Emergency Management Agency from 1981 to 1983. Before joining FEMA, Brinkerhoff served as the Department of Defense Acting Deputy Assistant Secretary for Reserve Affairs. After 29 years of service in the U. S. Army, Brinkerhoff retired in 1974 at the rank of Colonel. Brinkerhoff served tours of duty in Korea and Vietnam while in the service, he was notable for his role in planning REX-84, along with Lieutenant-Colonel Oliver North. Brinkerhoff graduated from Santa Ana High School in Santa Ana, CA in 1946. Brinkerhoff obtained his BS in Engineering from the United States Military Academy, Class of 1950 and received his MS in Civil Engineering from the California Institute of Technology, he obtained his MA in Geography from Columbia University, an MSA in Operations Research from George Washington University. Brinkerhoff has written countless articles as well as two books. Posse comitatus Louis O. Giuffrida Iran-Contra Google Books results for: "John Brinkerhoff" FEMA


Kebab Norwegian is an ethnolect variety of Norwegian that incorporates words from languages of non-Western immigrants to Norway, such as Turkish, Arabic, Pashto, Persian and Chilean Spanish. Kebab Norwegian has its origin among immigrant youths and those growing up with immigrant youths in the eastern parts of Oslo. Kebab Norwegian was first identified in the 1990s. In 1995, Stine Aasheim wrote an M. A. thesis on the phenomenon: "Kebab-norsk: fremmedspråklig påvirkning på ungdomsspråket i Oslo". Andreas Eilert Østby, who used Kebab Norwegian in his translation of Jonas Hassen Khemiri's novel Ett öga rött about immigrants speaking a similar dialect of Swedish, published a Kebab Norwegian dictionary in the same year, 2005. In 2007, a hip-hop Kebab Norwegian version of Romeo and Juliet was staged in Oslo. In 2008, 99% Ærlig, a film about East Oslo youth, featured Kebab Norwegian; the name "Kebab Norwegian" is taken from the kebab and based on stereotypes of users, who tend not to refer to it by that name, perceive it as referring to "bad Norwegian".

Academic researchers more refer to it as an ethnolect "Norwegian multiethnolect". It includes words from about 20 languages, including Japanese and a "surprisingly large amount of Spanish"; the dialect continues to evolve. As is characteristic of immigrant ways of speaking, it is used by native-born young people when speaking with their peers, users code-switch and avoid it in situations such as job interviews. Norwegian dialects Rinkeby Swedish Perkerdansk Andreas Eilert Østby. Kebabnorsk ordbok. Oslo: Gyldendal, 2005. ISBN 82-05-33910-4 Håkon Bolstad, Typisk norsk, NRK 12 May 2004, with a list of words and their origins. Kebabnorsk on Typisk norsk, YouTube