The Internet Archive launched the Wayback Machine in October 2001. It was set up by Brewster Kahle and Bruce Gilliat, and is maintained with content from Alexa Internet, the service enables users to see archived versions of web pages across time, which the archive calls a three dimensional index. Since 1996, the Wayback Machine has been archiving cached pages of websites onto its large cluster of Linux nodes and it revisits sites every few weeks or months and archives a new version. Sites can be captured on the fly by visitors who enter the sites URL into a search box, the intent is to capture and archive content that otherwise would be lost whenever a site is changed or closed down. The overall vision of the machines creators is to archive the entire Internet, the name Wayback Machine was chosen as a reference to the WABAC machine, a time-traveling device used by the characters Mr. Peabody and Sherman in The Rocky and Bullwinkle Show, an animated cartoon. These crawlers respect the robots exclusion standard for websites whose owners opt for them not to appear in search results or be cached, to overcome inconsistencies in partially cached websites, Archive-It.
Information had been kept on digital tape for five years, with Kahle occasionally allowing researchers, when the archive reached its fifth anniversary, it was unveiled and opened to the public in a ceremony at the University of California, Berkeley. Snapshots usually become more than six months after they are archived or, in some cases, even later. The frequency of snapshots is variable, so not all tracked website updates are recorded, Sometimes there are intervals of several weeks or years between snapshots. After August 2008 sites had to be listed on the Open Directory in order to be included. As of 2009, the Wayback Machine contained approximately three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of 100 terabytes each month, the growth rate reported in 2003 was 12 terabytes/month, the data is stored on PetaBox rack systems manufactured by Capricorn Technologies. In 2009, the Internet Archive migrated its customized storage architecture to Sun Open Storage, in 2011 a new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing.
The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a bit of material past 2008. In January 2013, the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of 240 billion URLs, in October 2013, the company announced the Save a Page feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL. This became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries, as of December 2014, the Wayback Machine contained almost nine petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of about 20 terabytes each week. Between October 2013 and March 2015 the websites global Alexa rank changed from 162 to 208, in a 2009 case, Netbula, LLC v. Chordiant Software Inc. defendant Chordiant filed a motion to compel Netbula to disable the robots. Netbula objected to the motion on the ground that defendants were asking to alter Netbulas website, in an October 2004 case, Telewizja Polska USA, Inc. v. Echostar Satellite, No.02 C3293,65 Fed. 673, a litigant attempted to use the Wayback Machine archives as a source of admissible evidence, Telewizja Polska is the provider of TVP Polonia and EchoStar operates the Dish Network
The descendants of Sakichi Toyoda who established Toyoda Automatic Loom Works, have long dominated the upper management of Toyota Motors, which was incorporated in 1937. His son, Akio Toyoda, was appointed president after Katsuaki Watanabe relinquished that post to become Chairman. Toyoda joined Toyota Motors in 1952 and he attended the Tokyo First Middle School, First High School （Tokyo University）, and graduated from Nagoya Imperial University in 1947 with a degree in engineering. The merger of the sales and production organizations in 1982 produced Toyota Motor Corporation, Toyoda became the new entitys first president. He served as chairman from 1992 to 1999, and he became chairman in 1999. 2007 – Induction into the Automotive Hall of Fame, Detroit, MI,1984,1985 – Medal of Honor. April 1995 – Grand Cordon of the Order of the Sacred Treasure, april 2002 – Grand Cordon of the Order of the Rising Sun. September 1995 – Grand Cross of the Order of Francisco de Miranda, march 1996 – Ordem Nacional do Cruzeiro do Sul, Brazil.
February 1998 – Order of Merit of the Republic of Turkey, june 1999 – Companion of the Order of Australia November 1999 – Grand Decoration of Honour in Gold with Star for Services to the Republic of Austria. March 2000 – Commander of the Order of Isabel the Catholic, may 2001 – Commanders Cross of the Bundesverdienstkreuz, Germany. April 2004 – Commanders Cross with Star of the Order of Merit of the Republic of Poland, december 2004 – Knight Grand Cordon of the Order of the Direkgunabhorn, First Class, Thailand. March 2005 – Grand Officer of the Legion dHonneur of France, april 2010 – Grand Collar of the Order of Lakandula of the Philippines Basu, Shankar. Corporate Purpose, Why it Matters More Than Strategy, ISBN 978-0-8153-3374-6 Hino and Andrew Dillon. Inside the Mind of Toyota, Management Principles for Enduring Growth, ISBN 978-1-56327-300-1, OCLC62127859 Toyota Motor Corporation, official bio
It is the largest of the Japanese new religions and holds the largest membership among Nichiren Buddhist groups. The Gakkai bases its teachings on Nichirens interpretation of the Lotus Sutra, the organization promotes its goals as supporting peace and education. The movement was founded by educators Makiguchi and Toda in November 18,1930 and it was disbanded during World War II when much of the leadership was imprisoned on the Peace Preservation Law violations and charges of lèse-majesté. After the war it expanded from an estimate of 3,000 members to a claimed total of 750,000 households in 1958 through explosive recruitment. Further expansion of the movement was led by its third president Daisaku Ikeda, according to its own account, it has 12 million members in 192 countries and territories around the world. From 1952 to 1991 it shared an association with the Nichiren Shōshū Buddhist sect, Komeito, a centre-right political party closely aligned with Soka Gakkai, joined the ruling government coalition in 1999.
Further, a persons social actions at every moment can lead to soka, societal change is facilitated through human revolution, a way of living in the world that creates value. The doctrine of the Soka Gakkai derives from Nichiren, who promulgated the Lotus Sutra as he perceived its application to the epoch in which he and this theory demonstrates that the entire phenomenal world exists in a single moment of life. From this, he concluded that Buddha is life, or life force and our health, wisdom, desire to improve, self-discipline, and so on, could all be said to depend on our life force, Ikeda says. Toda considered that the concept of Buddha as life means that Buddhism entails transforming society, according to religious historian Susumu Shimazono, Ikeda says Faith is firm belief in the universe and the life force. Only a person of faith can lead a good and vigorous life. Soka Gakkai teaches that this change in each individual – which Josei Toda began referring to as human revolution—is what leads to happiness.
While older schools taught the attainment of Buddhahood in this life through the Gohonzon, the Soka Gakkai liturgy refers to all of its first three presidents—Tsunesabura Makiguchi, Josei Toda and Daisaku Ikeda—as the eternal mentors of kosen-rufu. Chilson reports that as Soka Gakkais long-time leader, Ikeda is revered by Gakkai members, the relationship between members and their mentors is referred to as the oneness of mentor and disciple. The mentor is to lead and thereby improve the lives of his disciples, the mentors actions is seen as giving disciples confidence in their own unrealized potential. The role of disciples is seen as supporting their mentor and realizing his vision using their abilities and circumstances. The relationship is seen as non-hierarchical and mutually weighted, disciples are encouraged to be active creators rather than passive followers. Seager writes, The oneness of the relationship is described not in terms of demands and duties as many critics imagine it to be
Daisaku Ikeda is a Buddhist philosopher, educator and anti-nuclear activist. He served as the president and the honorary president of the Soka Gakkai. Ikeda is the president of the Soka Gakkai International, the worlds largest Buddhist lay organization, with approximately 12 million practitioners in 192 countries. Ikeda was born in Tokyo, Japan, in 1928, to a family of seaweed farmers. He survived the devastation of World War II as a teenager, Ikedas vision for the SGI has been described by academic observers as a borderless Buddhist humanism that emphasizes free thinking and personal development based on respect for all life. In the 1970s, he established the Soka Gakkai International and initiated numerous international educational and cultural exchanges for peace, since the 1980s, he has continually increased his anti-nuclear activism and citizen diplomacy. As of 2015, Ikeda has published more than 50 dialogues with scholars, peace activists, every year on the anniversary of the SGIs founding, January 26, Ikeda submits a peace proposal to the United Nations.
Ikeda was born in Ōta, Japan, on the 2nd of January,1928, Ikeda had four older brothers, two younger brothers, and a younger sister. His parents adopted two children, for a total of 10 children. Since the mid-nineteenth century, the Ikeda family had successfully farmed nori, edible seaweed, by the turn of the twentieth century, the Ikeda family business was the largest producer of nori in Tokyo. However, after the devastation of the 1923 Great Kantō earthquake, the enterprise was left in ruins. In 1937, full-blown war erupted between Japan and China, and Ikedas eldest brother, was drafted into military service, within a few years, Ikedas three other elder brothers were drafted as well. In 1942, while all of his brothers were overseas in the Asian theatres of World War II, Ikedas father, Nenokichi. To help support his family, at the age of 14, in May 1945, Ikedas home was destroyed by fire during an Allied air raid, and his family was forced to move to the Omori area of Tokyo. In May 1947, after having received no word from his eldest brother, for several years, Ikeda said he found in Toda an open and unaffected person, a man of unshakable conviction with a gift for explaining profound Buddhist concepts in logical, accessible terms.
As a result of this encounter, Ikeda immediately began practicing Nichiren Buddhism, shortly after the end of World War II, in January 1946, Ikeda gained employment with the Shobundo Printing Company in Tokyo. In March 1948, Ikeda graduated from Toyo Trade School and the following month entered the school extension of Taisei Gakuin where he majored in political science. During this time, he worked as an editor of the childrens magazine Shonen Nihon, in 1953, at the age of 25, Ikeda was appointed as one of the Soka Gakkais youth leaders
Toyota Motor Corporation is a Japanese automotive manufacturer headquartered in Toyota, Japan. In March 2014, the corporation consisted of 338,875 employees worldwide and. As of 2016, Toyota is the worlds second-largest automotive manufacturer behind German Volkswagen Group, Toyota was the worlds first automobile manufacturer to produce more than 10 million vehicles per year which it has done since 2012, when it reported the production of its 200-millionth vehicle. As of July 2014, Toyota was the largest listed company in Japan by market capitalization, Toyota is the worlds market leader in sales of hybrid electric vehicles, and one of the largest companies to encourage the mass-market adoption of hybrid vehicles across the globe. Cumulative global sales of Toyota and Lexus hybrid passenger car models achieved the 10 million milestone in January 2017 and its Prius family is the worlds top selling hybrid nameplate with over 6 million units sold worldwide as of January 2017. The company was founded by Kiichiro Toyoda in 1937, as a spinoff from his fathers company Toyota Industries to create automobiles.
Three years earlier, in 1934, while still a department of Toyota Industries, it created its first product, the Type A engine, and, in 1936, its first passenger car, the Toyota AA. Toyota Motor Corporation produces vehicles under five brands, including the Toyota brand, Lexus, Ranz, TMC is part of the Toyota Group, one of the largest conglomerates in the world. Toyota is headquartered in Toyota City, the main headquarters of Toyota is located in a 4-story building in Toyota. As of 2006, the office has the Toyopet Toyota logo. Vinod Jacob from The Hindu described the headquarters building as modest. In 2013, company head Akio Toyoda reported that it had difficulties retaining foreign employees at the due to the lack of amenities in the city. Its Tokyo office is located in Bunkyo and its Nagoya office is located in Nakamura-ku, Nagoya. In addition to manufacturing automobiles, Toyota provides financial services through its Toyota Financial Services division, since 1950, the two entities had existed as separate companies as a prerequisite for reconstruction in postwar Japan.
Shoichiro Toyoda presided over Toyota Motor Sales in preparation for the consummation of the merger occurred in 1982. Shoichiro succeeded his uncle Eiji as the President of the organization that became known as Toyota Motor Corporation. Announced the appointment of board members, this was a first for the corporation. Additionally, Vice Chairman Takeshi Uchiyamada replaced Fujio Cho as chairman, Toyota is publicly traded on the Tokyo, Nagoya and Sapporo exchanges under company code TYO,7203
International Standard Book Number
The International Standard Book Number is a unique numeric commercial book identifier. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an e-book, a paperback and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, the method of assigning an ISBN is nation-based and varies from country to country, often depending on how large the publishing industry is within a country. The initial ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 based upon the 9-digit Standard Book Numbering created in 1966, the 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108. Occasionally, a book may appear without a printed ISBN if it is printed privately or the author does not follow the usual ISBN procedure, this can be rectified later. Another identifier, the International Standard Serial Number, identifies periodical publications such as magazines, the ISBN configuration of recognition was generated in 1967 in the United Kingdom by David Whitaker and in 1968 in the US by Emery Koltay.
The 10-digit ISBN format was developed by the International Organization for Standardization and was published in 1970 as international standard ISO2108, the United Kingdom continued to use the 9-digit SBN code until 1974. The ISO on-line facility only refers back to 1978, an SBN may be converted to an ISBN by prefixing the digit 0. For example, the edition of Mr. J. G. Reeder Returns, published by Hodder in 1965, has SBN340013818 -340 indicating the publisher,01381 their serial number. This can be converted to ISBN 0-340-01381-8, the check digit does not need to be re-calculated, since 1 January 2007, ISBNs have contained 13 digits, a format that is compatible with Bookland European Article Number EAN-13s. An ISBN is assigned to each edition and variation of a book, for example, an ebook, a paperback, and a hardcover edition of the same book would each have a different ISBN. The ISBN is 13 digits long if assigned on or after 1 January 2007, a 13-digit ISBN can be separated into its parts, and when this is done it is customary to separate the parts with hyphens or spaces.
Separating the parts of a 10-digit ISBN is done with either hyphens or spaces, figuring out how to correctly separate a given ISBN number is complicated, because most of the parts do not use a fixed number of digits. ISBN issuance is country-specific, in that ISBNs are issued by the ISBN registration agency that is responsible for country or territory regardless of the publication language. Some ISBN registration agencies are based in national libraries or within ministries of culture, in other cases, the ISBN registration service is provided by organisations such as bibliographic data providers that are not government funded. In Canada, ISBNs are issued at no cost with the purpose of encouraging Canadian culture. In the United Kingdom, United States, and some countries, where the service is provided by non-government-funded organisations. Australia, ISBNs are issued by the library services agency Thorpe-Bowker
Joseph Sepp Blatter is a Swiss football administrator who was the eighth president of FIFA from 1998 to 2015. Blatter was re-elected in 2002,2007,2011, and 2015, like his predecessor Havelange, Blatter sought to increase the influence of African and Asian countries in world football through the expansion of participating teams in various FIFA tournaments. He has persistently been dogged by claims of corruption and financial mismanagement, criminal proceedings were announced against Blatter by the Swiss Attorney Generals office on 25 September 2015, regarding criminal mismanagement. On 24 February 2016, a FIFA appeals committee upheld the suspension, issa Hayatou served as the acting President of FIFA until an extraordinary FIFA Congress was held in late February, electing Gianni Infantino as the 9th president of FIFA. Blatter was born in Visp in the Swiss canton of Valais with the name of Josef. He studied in Saint Maurice, before getting a degree in business, Blatter has had a long and varied career, including posts such as head of public relations for the tourist board of his native canton, as well as general secretary of the Swiss Ice Hockey Federation.
He was Director of Sports Timing and Relations of Longines S. A. and was involved in the organization of the 1972 and 1976 Olympic Games. From 1975 onwards, Blatter worked at FIFA, first as director, general secretary. He was re-elected as head of FIFA in 2002, and was re-elected unopposed for four years on 31 May 2007. Blatter and FIFA have often been dogged by controversy and allegations of corruption and his tenure has seen controversy over allegations of financial mismanagement and the acceptance of bribes resulting in Qatars successful 2022 World Cup bid. Blatter has attracted criticism from the media, senior figures and players. These include the claim that Latin American countries would applaud John Terry for having an affair. He drew criticism at the 2014 FIFA World Cup seeding, when he interrupted a one-minute silence for former South-African president Nelson Mandela, who died the day before, after eleven seconds. Michael van Praag, the chairman of the Royal Dutch Football Association, called his behavior preposterous, in order to avoid protest, no speeches were given at the 2014 FIFA World Cup.
Sepp Blatters 1998 election to the presidency of FIFA over UEFA President Lennart Johansson occurred amidst much controversy and he claimed to regret his words and promised to officially apologise to Ivanov. However, this apology was never given, and the referee was removed from further officiating, Blatter was criticized in 2007 and 2008 for trying to change European Union employment law regarding the number of foreign players that football clubs could field at any one time. His plans were to set a restriction of five foreign players, Blatter believed this would help the countries national sides by having more national players playing in their leagues. Eleven bids were submitted in March 2009 covering 13 nations, five of the remaining nine bids—South Korea, Japan and the United States—were only for the 2022 World Cup, while all the others were bidding for both the 2018 and 2022 World Cups
New York City
The City of New York, often called New York City or simply New York, is the most populous city in the United States. With an estimated 2015 population of 8,550,405 distributed over an area of about 302.6 square miles. Located at the tip of the state of New York. Home to the headquarters of the United Nations, New York is an important center for international diplomacy and has described as the cultural and financial capital of the world. Situated on one of the worlds largest natural harbors, New York City consists of five boroughs, the five boroughs – Brooklyn, Manhattan, The Bronx, and Staten Island – were consolidated into a single city in 1898. In 2013, the MSA produced a gross metropolitan product of nearly US$1.39 trillion, in 2012, the CSA generated a GMP of over US$1.55 trillion. NYCs MSA and CSA GDP are higher than all but 11 and 12 countries, New York City traces its origin to its 1624 founding in Lower Manhattan as a trading post by colonists of the Dutch Republic and was named New Amsterdam in 1626.
The city and its surroundings came under English control in 1664 and were renamed New York after King Charles II of England granted the lands to his brother, New York served as the capital of the United States from 1785 until 1790. It has been the countrys largest city since 1790, the Statue of Liberty greeted millions of immigrants as they came to the Americas by ship in the late 19th and early 20th centuries and is a symbol of the United States and its democracy. In the 21st century, New York has emerged as a node of creativity and entrepreneurship, social tolerance. Several sources have ranked New York the most photographed city in the world, the names of many of the citys bridges, tapered skyscrapers, and parks are known around the world. Manhattans real estate market is among the most expensive in the world, Manhattans Chinatown incorporates the highest concentration of Chinese people in the Western Hemisphere, with multiple signature Chinatowns developing across the city. Providing continuous 24/7 service, the New York City Subway is one of the most extensive metro systems worldwide, with 472 stations in operation.
Over 120 colleges and universities are located in New York City, including Columbia University, New York University, and Rockefeller University, during the Wisconsinan glaciation, the New York City region was situated at the edge of a large ice sheet over 1,000 feet in depth. The ice sheet scraped away large amounts of soil, leaving the bedrock that serves as the foundation for much of New York City today. Later on, movement of the ice sheet would contribute to the separation of what are now Long Island and Staten Island. The first documented visit by a European was in 1524 by Giovanni da Verrazzano, a Florentine explorer in the service of the French crown and he claimed the area for France and named it Nouvelle Angoulême. Heavy ice kept him from further exploration, and he returned to Spain in August and he proceeded to sail up what the Dutch would name the North River, named first by Hudson as the Mauritius after Maurice, Prince of Orange
International Olympic Committee
The International Olympic Committee is the supreme authority of the worldwide Olympic movement. It is an international, non-profit, non-governmental organization based in Lausanne and its mission is enshrined in the Olympic Charter, to support the development of competitive sport by ethical and environmentally sustainable means. The IOC was created by Pierre de Coubertin, on 23 June 1894 with Demetrios Vikelas as its first president, today its membership consists of 100 active members,32 honorary members, and 1 honour member. The IOC is the authority of the worldwide modern Olympic movement. The IOC organises the modern Olympic Games and Youth Olympic Games, held in summer and winter, the first Summer Olympics organised by the IOC was held in Athens, Greece, in 1896, the first Winter Olympics was in Chamonix, France, in 1924. Until 1992, both Summer and Winter Olympics were held in the same year, the first Summer Youth Olympics were in Singapore in 2010 and the first Winter Youth Olympics were held in Innsbruck in 2012.
In 2009, the UN General Assembly granted the IOC Permanent Observer status and this decision enables the IOC to be directly involved in the UN Agenda and to attend UN General Assembly meetings where it can take the floor. This has provided the possibility to promote sport at a new level, during each proclamation at the Olympics, announcers speak in different languages, French is always spoken first followed by an English translation and the dominant language of the host nation. The stated mission of the International Olympic Committee is to promote Olympic throughout the world and it is the IOC’s supreme organ and its decisions are final. Extraordinary Sessions may be convened by the President or upon the written request of at least one third of the members, among others, the powers of the Session are, To adopt or amend the Olympic Charter. To elect the members of the IOC, the Honorary President, to elect the President, the Vice-Presidents and all other members of the IOC Executive Board. To elect the host city of the Olympic Games, the Olympic Laurel is awarded to individuals for promoting education, culture and peace through sport.
For most of its existence, the IOC was controlled by members who were selected by other members, countries that had hosted the Games were allowed two members. When named, they did not become the representatives of their countries to the IOC. The membership of IOC members ceases in the circumstances, Resignation. Non re-election, any IOC member ceases to be a member without further formality if they are not re-elected, age limit, any IOC member ceases to be a member at the end of the calendar year during which they reach the age of 80. Failure to attend Sessions or take part in IOC work for two consecutive years. Transfer of domicile or of main center of interests to an other than the country which was theirs at the time of their election