Order of Merit
The Order of Merit is an order of merit recognising distinguished service in the armed forces, art, literature, or for the promotion of culture. Established in 1902 by King Edward VII, admission into the order remains the personal gift of its Sovereign—currently Edward VII's great-granddaughter, Queen Elizabeth II—and is restricted to a maximum of 24 living recipients from the Commonwealth realms, plus a limited number of honorary members. While all members are awarded the right to use the post-nominal letters OM and wear the badge of the order, the Order of Merit's precedence among other honours differs between countries; the first mention of a possible Order of Merit was made following the Battle of Trafalgar in 1805, in correspondence between First Lord of the Admiralty Lord Barham and William Pitt, though nothing came of the idea. It was thought by Queen Victoria, her courtiers, politicians alike, that a new order, based on the Prussian order Pour le Mérite, would make up for the insufficient recognition offered by the established honours system to achievement outside of public service, in fields such as art, literature and science.
Victoria's husband, Prince Consort, took an interest in the matter. The concept did not wither and, on 5 January 1888, British prime minister Lord Salisbury submitted to the Queen a draft constitution for an Order of Merit in Science and Art, consisting of one grade split into two branches of knighthood: the Order of Scientific Merit for Knights of Merit in Science, with the post-nominal letters KMS, the Order of Artistic Merit for Knights of Merit in Art, with the post-nominal letters KMA. However, Sir Frederic Leighton, President of the Royal Academy, advised against the new order because of its selection process. Victoria's son, King Edward VII founded the Order of Merit on 26 June 1902 as a means to acknowledge "exceptionally meritorious service in Our Navy and Our Army, or who may have rendered exceptionally meritorious service towards the advancement of Art and Science". All modern aspects of the order were established under his direction, including the division for military figures.
From the outset, prime ministers attempted to propose candidates or lobbied to influence the monarch's decision on appointments, but the Royal Household adamantly guarded information about potential names. After 1931, when the Statute of Westminster came into being and the Dominions of the British Empire became independent countries, equal in status to the UK, the Order of Merit continued as an honour open to all these realms and, in many, became a part of their national honours systems; the order's statutes were amended in 1935 to include members of the Royal Air Force and, in 1969, the definition of honorary recipients was expanded to include members of the Commonwealth of Nations that are not realms. From its inception, the order has been open to women, Florence Nightingale being the first woman to receive the honour, in 1907. Several individuals have refused admission into the Order of Merit, such as Rudyard Kipling, A. E. Housman, George Bernard Shaw. To date, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, remains the youngest person inducted into the Order of Merit, having been admitted by Queen Elizabeth II in 1968, when he was 47 years of age.
All citizens of the Commonwealth realms are eligible for appointment to the Order of Merit. There may be, only 24 living individuals in the order at any given time, not including honorary appointees, new members are selected by the reigning monarch of the realms Queen Elizabeth II, with the assistance of her private secretaries. Within the limited membership is a designated military division, with its own unique insignia. Honorary members form another group, to which there is no numerical limit, though such appointments are rare. Upon admission into the Order of Merit, members are entitled to use the post-nominal letters OM and are entrusted with the badge of the order, consisting of a golden crown from, suspended a red enamelled cross, itself centred by a disk of blue enamel, surrounded by a laurel wreath, bearing in gold lettering the words FOR MERIT; the ribbon of the Order of Merit is divided into two stripes of blue. Men wear their badges on a neck ribbon, while women carry theirs on a ribbon bow pinned to the left shoulder, aides-de-camp may wear the insignia on their aiguillettes.
Since 1991, it has been required. Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II Secretary and Registrar: The Lord Fellowes There have been no honorary members of the Order of Merit since the death of the last such member, Nelson Mandela, in December 2013; as the Order of Merit is open to the citizens of sixteen different countries, each with their own system of orders and medals, the order's place of precedence varies from country to country. While, in the United Kingdom, the o
Fount of honour
The fount of honour refers to a person, who, by virtue of his or her official position, has the exclusive right of conferring legitimate titles of nobility and orders of chivalry on other persons. During the High Middle Ages, European knights were armoured, mounted warriors. For most of the Middle Ages, it was possible for private individuals to form orders of chivalry; the oldest existing order of chivalry, the Sovereign Military Order of Malta, was formed as a private organization which received official sanction from church and state. The 13th century witnessed the trend of monarchs, beginning with Emperor Frederick II in 1231, retaining the right of fons honorum as a royal prerogative abrogating the right of knights to elevate their esquires to knighthood. After the end of feudalism and the rise of the nation-state and knighthoods, along with titles of nobility, became the domain of the monarchs to reward their loyal subjects – in other words, the heads of state became their nations' "fountains of honour".
Many of the old-style military knights resented what they considered to be a royal encroachment on their independence. The late British social anthropologist, Julian A. Pitt-Rivers, noted that "while the sovereign is the'fount of honour' in one sense, he is the enemy of honour in another, since he claims to arbitrate in regard to it." By the early thirteenth century, when an unknown author composed L'Histoire de Guillaume le Marechal), Richard W. Kaeuper notes that "the author bemoans the fact that, in his day, the spirit of chivalry has been imprisoned; the question whether an order is a legitimate chivalric order or a self-styled order coincides with the subject of the fons honorum. A legitimate fount of honour is a entity who holds sovereignty when the order is awarded. Other persons, whether commoners, knights, or noblemen, no longer have the right to confer titles of nobility, knighthood or orders of chivalry upon others; the official website of the British monarchy states: "As the'fountain of honour' in the United Kingdom, The Queen has the sole right of conferring all titles of honour, including life peerages and gallantry awards."
Some private societies in the United Kingdom have permission from the monarch to award medals which may be worn by those in uniform provided the private society's medal is worn on the right-side rather than the usual left. In Spain the fount of honour is King Felipe VI as the head of state. In France, only decorations recognised by the Grand Chancery of the Legion of Honour may be worn publicly, permission must be sought and granted to wear any foreign awards or decorations. Dynastic orders are prohibited unless the dynasty in question is recognised as sovereign. Failure to comply is punishable by law. A non-exhaustive list of collectively authorised orders is published by the government. "These two dispositions are meant to protect the ensemble of authentic national and foreign distinctions by attempting to prevent the attire of fake decorations. These may stem from territorial entities which have not acceded to sovereignty or from countries, empires or kingdoms that are the pure and simple products of someone's overactive imagination, a fan of fiction or a megalomaniac, if not purely mercantile acts or the patent intention to abuse and swindle others."The Papal Orders of Knighthood comprise five orders awarded directly by the Holy See and two others which it'recognises and supports': the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Order of the Holy Sepulchre.
In response to queries regarding the Catholic Church's relationship to a large number of self-proclaimed Roman Catholic chivalric orders, the Holy See issued a statement in 2012 stating that any body other than its own seven approved orders,'whether of recent origin or mediaeval foundation, are not recognised by the Holy See' and that'the Holy See does not guarantee their historical or juridical legitimacy, their ends or organisational structures... to prevent the continuation of abuses which may result in harm to people of good faith, the Holy See confirms that it attributes no value whatsoever to certificates of membership or insignia issued by these groups, it considers inappropriate the use of churches or chapels for their so-called "ceremonies of investiture".' Australian honours system British honours system Canadian honours system
Order of Saint John (chartered 1888)
The Order of St John, formally the Most Venerable Order of the Hospital of Saint John of Jerusalem and known as St John International, is a British royal order of chivalry first constituted in 1888 by royal charter from Queen Victoria. The Order traces its origins back to the Knights Hospitaller in the Middle Ages, known as the Order of Malta. A faction of them emerged in France in the 1820s and moved to Britain in the early 1830s, after operating under a succession of grand priors and different names, it became associated with the founding in 1882 of the St John Ophthalmic Hospital near the old city of Jerusalem and the St John Ambulance Brigade in 1887; the order is found throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Hong Kong, the Republic of Ireland, the United States of America, with the worldwide mission "to prevent and relieve sickness and injury, to act to enhance the health and well-being of people anywhere in the world." The order's 25,000 members, known as confrères, are of the Protestant faith, though those of other Christian denominations or other religions are accepted into the order.
Except via appointment to certain government or ecclesiastical offices in some realms, membership is by invitation only and individuals may not petition for admission. The Order of St John is best known for the health organisations it founded and continues to run, including St John Ambulance and St John Eye Hospital Group; as with the Order, the memberships and work of these organizations are not constricted by denomination or religion. The Order is a constituent member of the Alliance of the Orders of Saint John of Jerusalem, its headquarters are in London and it is a registered charity under English law. In 1823, the Council of the French Langues—a French state-backed and hosted faction of the Order of Malta —sought to raise through private subscription sufficient money to restore a territorial base for the Order of Malta and aid the Greek War of Independence; this was to be achieved by issuing bonds in London to form a mercenary army of demobilized British soldiers using available, cheap war surplus.
A deal transferring various islands to the Order of Malta, including Rhodes when captured, was struck with the Greek rebels, but the attempt to raise money failed when details leaked to the press, the French monarchy withdrew its backing of the council, the bankers refused the loan. The council was reorganised and the Marquis de Sainte-Croix du Molay became its head. In June 1826, a second attempt was made to raise money to restore a Mediterranean homeland for the order when Philippe de Castellane, a French Knight of Malta, was appointed by the council to negotiate with supportive persons in Britain. Scotsman Donald Currie was in 1827 given the authority to raise £240,000. Anyone who subscribed to the project and all commissioned officers of the mercenary army were offered the opportunity of being appointed knights of the order. Few donations were attracted and the Greek War of Independence was won without the help of the knights of the Council of the French Langues. De Castellane and Currie were allowed by the French Council to form the Council of the English Langue, inaugurated on 12 January 1831, under the executive control of Alejandro, conde de Mortara, a Spanish aristocrat.
It was headquartered at what Mortara called the "Auberge of St John", Clerkenwell. This was the Old Jerusalem Tavern, a public house occupying what had once been a gatehouse to the ancient Clerkenwell Priory, the medieval Grand Priory of the Knights Hospitaller, otherwise known as the Knights of Saint John; the creation of the langue has been regarded either as a revival of the Knights Hospitaller or the establishment of a new order. The Reverend Sir Robert Peat, the absentee perpetual curate of St Lawrence, Brentford, in Middlesex, one of the many former chaplains to Prince George, had been recruited by the council as a member of the society in 1830. On 29 January 1831, in the presence of Philip de Castellane and the Agent-General of the French Langues, Peat was elected Prior ad interim, he and other British members of the organisation, with the backing of the Council of the French Langues on the grounds that he had been selling knighthoods, expelled Mortara, leading to two competing English chivalric groups between early 1832 and Mortara's disappearance in 1837.
On 24 February 1834, three years after becoming prior ad interim, in order to publicly reaffirm his claim to the office of prior and in the hope of reviving a charter of Queen Mary I dealing with the original English branch of the Order of Malta, took the oath de fideli administratione in the Court of the King's Bench, before the Lord Chief Justice. Peat was thus credited as being the first grand prior of the association, however, "W. B. H." wrote in January 1919 to the journal Notes & Queries: "His name is not in the knights' lists, he was never'Prior in the Sovereign Order of St. John of Jerusalem': he became an ordinary member of that Order on Nov. 11, 1830." Sir Robert Peat died in April 1837 and Sir Henry Dymoke was appointed grand prior and re-established contact with the knights in France and Germany, into which the group had by that time expanded. However, until the late 1830s, the British arm of the organisation had only considered itself to be a grand priory and langue of the Order of St John, having never been recognized as such by the established order.
Dymoke sought to rectify this by seeking acknowledgement fro
Government House (Manitoba)
Government House of Manitoba is the official residence of the Lieutenant Governor of Manitoba, as well as that in Winnipeg of the Canadian monarch. It stands in the provincial capital, on the grounds of the Manitoba Legislative Building, at 10 Kennedy Street. Prior to the foundation of Manitoba, the Lieutenant Governor of the Northwest Territories occupied a designated residence within the walls of Upper Fort Garry. After the new province joined Confederation on 15 July 1870, a structure five kilometres outside of Winnipeg was leased for use as the lieutenant governor's residence, known as Silver Heights, but it was found unsuitable, given its size and distance from the capital. Instead, the lieutenant governor remained at Upper Fort Gary until the present Government House was completed; the house there, was in constant need of repair. Year before till middle of August..." Further, as the population of the province was increasing, the need for public buildings became more pressing, a delegation travelled to Ottawa to discuss with the Queen's Privy Council for Canada the matter of parliament allocating funds for a new legislative assembly and Government House for Manitoba.
This was approved, Thomas Seaton Scott, the Dominion architect set about drawing up plans for the structures. The current provincial royal residence was constructed in 1883, at a cost to the federal Crown of $23,995. However, the building was two years on 10 June, purchased by the provincial Crown for $1, with the provision that the house be used as a residence for the viceroy "and for no other purpose," as written by John A. Macdonald at the bottom of the Order in Council transferring the house. In 1901, the royal home played host to the Duke and Duchess of York, as well as the Duchess' brother, Prince Alexander of Teck, their daughter, Queen Elizabeth II, her husband, Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh, each of their children have stayed at Government House over the years. The architect Frank Worthington Simon included in his plans for the Manitoba Legislative Building a new Government House, to be constructed on the bank of the Assiniboine River, opposite the parliament; this plan never came to fruition and the Victorian Government House was adapted over time to suit the lieutenant governor's changing needs.
In 1978, the mansion was designated as a historical structure by the Manitoba Heritage Council and in 1999, at the initiative of Shirley Liba, wife of Lieutenant Governor Peter Liba, the house underwent a major renovation, in which many of the original features of the mansion were uncovered and restored. Government House, owned by the Queen in Right of Manitoba, is where members of the Canadian Royal Family and visiting foreign dignitaries are greeted and stay while in Winnipeg, it is where numerous royal and viceroyal events take place, such as the bestowing of provincial awards or inductions into the Order of Manitoba, as well as luncheons, dinners and speaking engagements. It is at the royal residence that the lieutenant governor will drop the writs of election and swear-in new members of the Executive Council; the viceroy's office is located behind Government House. Manitoba's Government house is a structure of solid masonry walls and timber floor framing, the original block being 18.3 metres square and four storeys in height, counting the basement level, covering a total of 20,000 sq ft, including the tower.
The volume and its facade composition was at first symmetrical along an east-west axis through the centre of the building, though this arrangement was altered by the addition of new wings. The overall design was described in 1883 as "Italian, modified to suit the requirements of the climate," though the same year an early visitor noted in the guest book: "It is an unpretending looking structure, of nondescript architecture and with no outside ornamentation." In 1953, the provincial architect said that Government House was the one "jarring note" on the grounds of the Legislative Building. By in the 20th century, provincial architects stated the house is "Victorian architecture with French influence from the Second Napoleonic Empire with the flat steep-sided Mansard roof"; when first built, the ground floor of Government House held a suite of interconnected rooms that, opened to one another, formed a suite 29 metres long and 6.1 metres wide. Altogether, these included, in a counter-clockwise array around the central stair hall, the library, immed
Order of Ontario
The Order of Ontario is the most prestigious official honour in the Canadian province of Ontario. Instituted in 1986 by Lieutenant Governor Lincoln Alexander, on the advice of the Cabinet under Premier David Peterson, the civilian order is administered by the Lieutenant Governor-in-Council and is intended to honour current or former Ontario residents for conspicuous achievements in any field; the Order of Ontario is intended to honour any current or former longtime resident of Ontario who has demonstrated a high level of individual excellence and achievement in any field, demonstrating "the best of Ontario's caring and diverse society and lives have benefited society in Ontario and elsewhere." Canadian citizenship is not a requirement and elected or appointed members of a governmental body are ineligible as long as they hold office. There are no limits on how many can belong to the order or be invested at one time, though the average number of new members stands at 24 per year; the process of finding qualified individuals begins with submissions from the public to the Ontario Honours and Awards Secretariat, which consists of the Chief Justice of Ontario, the Speaker of the Legislative Assembly, the Secretary of the Cabinet, up to six members of the Order of Ontario.
This committee meets once or twice yearly to make its selected recommendations to the Cabinet and works with that body in narrowing down the potential appointees to a list that will be submitted to the lieutenant governor. Since appointments to the Order of Ontario rely in part on ministerial advice, records of such proceedings are not publicly revealed, as affirmed in court proceedings undertaken in 2002 by an individual, mistakenly informed that she had been appointed to the order. Posthumous nominations are not accepted, though an individual who dies after his or her name was submitted to the Honours and Awards Secretariat can still be retroactively made a Member of the Order of Ontario; the lieutenant governor, ex officio a Member and the Chancellor of the Order of Ontario makes all appointments into the fellowship's single grade of membership by an Order in Council that bears the viceroyal sign-manual. Upon admission into the Order of Ontario, new Members are presented with the order's insignia.
The main badge consists of a gold medallion in the form of a stylized trillium, the official provincial flower. The obverse is white enamel with gold edging, bearing at its centre the escutcheon of the arms of Ontario, all surmounted by a St. Edward's Crown symbolizing the Canadian monarch's role as the fount of honour; the name of the Member is engraved on the reverse, along with the date of her investiture. The order's ribbon is patterned with vertical stripes in red, green and gold, reflecting the colours within the provincial coat of arms; the insignia is worn suspended from this ribbon at the collar. Members receive two lapel pins that can be worn during less formal occasions, an official certificate. To mark the 30th anniversary of the first investiture of the Order of Ontario, a collar featuring the insignia of the order and symbols of Canada and Ontario was unveiled for the use of the Lieutenant Governor as Chancellor of the Order of Ontario. Canadian order of precedence Symbols of Ontario Official website
In general, a civilian is "a person, not a member of the military or of a police or firefighting force". The definition distinguishes from persons whose duties involves risking their lives to protect the public at large from hazardous situations such as terrorism, conflagrations, or wars, it does not include "criminals" in the category, as authorities and the media wants to distinguish between those who are law-abiding and those who are not. Under the law of war, the term "civilian" is a person, not a combatant and is not a member of the military, it is different from a non-combatant, as some non-combatants are not civilians. Under international law, civilians in the territories of a party to an armed conflict are entitled to certain privileges under the customary laws of war and international treaties such as the Fourth Geneva Convention; the privileges that they enjoy under international law depends on whether the conflict is an internal one or an international one. The word "civilian" goes back to the late 14th century and is from Old French civilien, "of the civil law".
Civilian is believed to have been used to refer to non-combatants as early as 1829. The term "non-combatant" now refers to people in general who are not taking part of hostilities, rather than just civilians; the International Committee of the Red Cross 1958 Commentary on 1949 Geneva Convention IV Relative to the Protection of Civilian Persons in Time of War states: "Every person in enemy hands must have some status under international law: he is either a prisoner of war and, as such, covered by the Third Convention, a civilian covered by the Fourth Convention, or again, a member of the medical personnel of the armed forces, covered by the First Convention. There is no intermediate status. We feel that this is a satisfactory solution – not only satisfying to the mind and above all, satisfactory from the humanitarian point of view." The ICRC has expressed the opinion that "If civilians directly engage in hostilities, they are considered'unlawful' or'unprivileged' combatants or belligerents. They may be prosecuted under the domestic law of the detaining state for such action."Article 50 of the 1977 Protocol I Additional to the Geneva Conventions provides: 1.
A civilian is any person who does not belong to one of the categories of persons referred to in Article 4A, of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of this Protocol. In case of doubt whether a person is a civilian, that person shall be considered to be a civilian. 2. The civilian population comprises all persons. 3. The presence within the civilian population of individuals who do not come within the definition of civilians does not deprive the population of its civilian character; the definition is negative and defines civilians as persons who do not belong to definite categories. The categories of persons mentioned in Article 4A, of the Third Convention and in Article 43 of the Protocol I are combatants. Therefore, the Commentary to the Protocol pointed that, any one, not a member of the armed forces and does not take of hostilities is a civilian. Civilians cannot take part in armed conflict. Civilians are given protection under the Geneva Conventions and Protocols thereto. Article 51 describes the protection that must be given to the civilian population and individual civilians.
Chapter III of Protocol I regulates the targeting of civilian objects. Article 8 of the 1998 Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court includes this in its list of war crimes: "Intentionally directing attacks against the civilian population as such or against individual civilians not taking part in hostilities". Not all states have ratified 1977 Protocol I or the 1998 Rome Statute, but it is an accepted principle of international humanitarian law that the direct targeting of civilians is a breach of the customary laws of war and is binding on all belligerents; the actual position of the civilian in modern war remains problematic. It is complicated by a number of phenomena, including: the fact that many modern wars are civil wars, in which the application of the laws of war is difficult, in which the distinction between combatants and civilians is hard to maintain. Starting in the 1980s, it was claimed that 90 percent of the victims of modern wars were civilians; the claim was repeated on Wikipedia's Did You Know on 14 December 2010.
These claims, though believed, are not supported by detailed examination of the evidence that relating to wars that are central to the claims. In the opening years of the twenty-first century, despite the many problems associated with it, the legal category of the civilian has been the subject of considerable attention in public discourse, in the media and at the United Nations, in justification of certain uses of armed force to protect endangered populations, it has "lost none
Royal Victorian Order
The Royal Victorian Order is a dynastic order of knighthood established in 1896 by Queen Victoria. It recognises distinguished personal service to the monarch of the Commonwealth realms, members of the monarch's family, or to any viceroy or senior representative of the monarch; the present monarch, Queen Elizabeth II, is the sovereign of the order, the order's motto is Victoria, its official day is 20 June. The order's chapel is the Savoy Chapel in London. There is no limit on the number of individuals honoured at any grade, admission remains at the sole discretion of the monarch, with each of the order's five grades and one medal with three levels representing different levels of service. While all those honoured may use the prescribed styles of the order—the top two grades grant titles of knighthood, all grades accord distinct post-nominal letters—the Royal Victorian Order's precedence amongst other honours differs from realm to realm and admission to some grades may be barred to citizens of those realms by government policy.
Prior to the close of the 19th century, most general honours within the British Empire were bestowed by the sovereign on the advice of her British ministers, who sometimes forwarded advice from ministers of the Crown in the Dominions and colonies. Queen Victoria thus established on 21 April 1896 the Royal Victorian Order as a junior and personal order of knighthood that allowed her to bestow directly to an empire-wide community honours for personal services; the organisation was founded a year preceding Victoria's Diamond Jubilee, so as to give the Queen time to complete a list of first inductees. The order's official day was made 20 June of each year, marking the anniversary of Queen Victoria's accession to the throne. In 1902, King Edward VII created the Royal Victorian Chain "as a personal decoration for royal personages and a few eminent British subjects" and it was the highest class of the Royal Victorian Order, it is today distinct from the order, though it is issued by the chancery of the Royal Victorian Order.
After 1931, when the Statute of Westminster came into being and the Dominions of the British Empire became independent states, equal in status to Britain, the Royal Victorian Order remained an honour open to all the King's realms. The order was open to foreigners from its inception, the Prefect of Alpes-Maritimes and the Mayor of Nice being the first to receive the honour in 1896; the reigning monarch is at the apex of the Royal Victorian Order as its Sovereign, followed by the Grand Master. Queen Elizabeth II appointed her daughter, Princess Royal, to the position in 2007. Below the Grand Master are five officials of the organisation: the Chancellor, held by the Lord Chamberlain. Thereafter follow those honoured with different grades of the order, divided into five levels: the highest two conferring accolades of knighthood and all having post-nominal letters and, the holders of the Royal Victorian Medal in either gold, silver or bronze. Foreigners may be admitted as honorary members, there are no limits to the number of any grade, promotion is possible.
The styles of knighthood are not used by princes, princesses, or peers in the uppermost ranks of the society, save for when their names are written in their fullest forms for the most official occasions. Retiring Deans of the Royal Peculiars of St George's Chapel at Windsor Castle and Westminster Abbey are customarily inducted as Knights Commander. Prior to 1984, the grades of Lieutenant and Member were classified as Members and Members but both with the post-nominals MVO. On 31 December of that year, Queen Elizabeth II declared that those in the grade of Member would henceforth be Lieutenants with the post-nominals LVO; the current officers of the Royal Victorian Order are as follows: Sovereign: Queen Elizabeth II, since 1952 Grand Master: Anne, Princess Royal, since 2007 Chancellor: William Peel, 3rd Earl Peel, as Lord Chamberlain, since 2006 Secretary: Sir Alan Reid, as Keeper of the Privy Purse, since 2002 Registrar: Lieutenant Colonel Michael Vernon, as Secretary of the Central Chancery of the Orders of Knighthood Chaplain: Peter Galloway, as Chaplain of the Queen's Chapel of the Savoy, since 2008 Upon admission into the Royal Victorian Order, members are given various insignia of the organisation, each grade being represented by different emblems and robes.
Common for all members is the badge, a Maltese cross with a central medallion depicting on a red background the Royal Cypher of Queen Victoria surrounded by a blue ring bearing the motto of the order—VICTORIA—and surmounted by a Tudor crown. However, there are variations on the badge for each grade of the order: Knights and Dames Grand Cross wear the badge on a sash passing from the right shoulder to the left hip.