Order of Merit of the Free State of Saxony
The Order of Merit of the Free State of Saxony is a civil order of merit, and the highest award of the German state of Saxony. First presented in 1997, it is awarded by the Minister-President of Saxony, the order is presented to individuals who have made outstanding contributions to the people and state of Saxony. The award is limited to a total of 500 living recipients, as of November 2012 it has been awarded 243 times. Kurt Biedenkopf Reiner Kunze Adolf Merckle Georg Milbradt Stanislaw Tillich Erwin Teufel Udo Zimmermann Prince Edward, Duke of Kent
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany is the only federal decoration of Germany. It was created by the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany, Theodor Heuss, on 7 September 1951, and has been awarded to over 200,000 individuals in total, both Germans and foreigners. Since the 1990s the number of awards has declined from over 4,000, first to around 2, 300—2,500 per year. In recent years women have made up a steady 30—31% of recipients, the decorations of the different classes of the Order are known as the Federal Cross of Merit. Most of the German federal states have each their own order of merit as well, with the exception of the Free and Hanseatic Cities of Bremen and Hamburg, the order was established on 7 September 1951 by the decree of the Federal President Theodor Heuss. It is awarded to him in a ceremony by the President of the Bundestag, attended by the Chancellor of Germany, the President of the Bundesrat, other than the German president, only a foreign head of state and their spouse can be awarded with this highest class.
This Grand-Cross Special Issue has been awarded so far only twice, to former German chancellors Konrad Adenauer, the star is a golden star with straight rays, its size and points vary according to class, with the badge superimposed upon it. 8-pointed golden Star, Grand Cross Special Class 6-pointed golden Star, Grand Cross 1st Class 4-pointed golden Star, Grand Cross 2nd Class silver Square-upon-point, the riband is red with gold-black-gold stripes
A medal may be awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for sporting, scientific, academic, or various other achievements. Military awards and decorations are more precise terms for types of state decoration. Medals may be created for sale to commemorate particular individuals or events, an artist who creates medals or medallions is called a medallist or medalist. There are devotional medals which may be worn for religious reasons, Medals have long been popular collectible items either as a variety of exonumia or of militaria. Medallions may be called table medals because they are too large to be worn and can only be displayed on a wall, table top, the word medallion has the same ultimate derivation, but this time through the Italian medaglione, meaning large medal. The main or front surface of a medal is termed the obverse, the reverse, or back surface of the medal, is not always used and may be left blank or may contain a secondary design. It is not uncommon to only an artistic rendering on the obverse, while all details.
The rim is only occasionally employed to display an inscription such as a motto, privy mark, engraver symbol, assayer’s marking. Medals that are intended to be hung from a ribbon include a suspension piece at the crest with which to loop a suspension ring through. It is through the ring that a ribbon is run or folded so the medal may hang pendent, Medals pinned to the breast use only a small cut of ribbon that is attached to a top bar where the brooch pin is affixed. Top bars may be hidden under the ribbon so they are not visible, be a device from which the ribbon attaches. Some top bars are elaborate and contain a whole design unto themselves, Medals that are made with inexpensive material might be gilded, silver-plated, chased, or finished in a variety of other ways to improve their appearance. Medals have made of rock, ivory, porcelain, terra cotta, wood, enamel, lacquerware. Honorary awards, as a button, which it is custom to give the kings kinsmen. Roman emperors used both military awards of medals, and political gifts of medallions that were very large coins, usually in gold or silver.
Both these and actual golden coins were often set as pieces of jewellery, the bracteate is a type of thin gold medal, usually plain on the reverse, found in Northern Europe from the so-called Dark Ages or Migration Period. They often have suspension loops and were intended to be worn on a chain as jewellery. They imitate, at a distance, Roman imperial coins and medallions, the surviving example is mounted for wearing as jewellery
Order of Merit of Rhineland-Palatinate
The Order of Merit of Rhineland-Palatinate is a civil order of merit, of the German State of Rhineland-Palatinate. The order is presented for outstanding service to the state and people of Rhineland-Palatinate, the Order of Merit of Rhineland-Palatinate was founded on 2 October 1981, and first awarded in 1982. The order is limited 800 living recipients, through 2009, the order had been awarded 991 times
Verdienstmedaille des Landes Rheinland-Pfalz
The gold Medal is awarded by the Minister-President of Rhineland-Palatinate and shows on their Front the sublime embossed and colored enamelled Coat of arms of Rhineland-Palatinate. Enclosed in this is from a vine leaf border, the Back, however, is smooth and shows the five-line inscription FOR SPECIAL / VOLUNTEER / MERITS / TO THE COMPANY / AND THOSE AROUND, which is surrounded by a vine border. It is supported medal at the left side of the chest on a black-red-golden ribbon. Instead of Merit Medal, a ribbon bar are worn
Order of Merit of Schleswig-Holstein
The Order of Merit of Schleswig-Holstein is an award presented by the Minister-President of German state Schleswig-Holstein. Established in 2008, it is the highest award of the state, prior to 2008, the Schleswig-Holstein-Medaille was the highest award of the state. In the establishing decree of the order it states prior recipients of the medal are members of the order, to preserve the exclusivity of the order it is limited to 500 living recipients. Dennis Snower Christoph Eschenbach Justus Frantz Klaus Fußmann Heinrich Schultz Angelika Volquartz Knut Kiesewetter Carl Holst
States of Germany
Germany is a federal republic consisting of sixteen federal states. Since todays Germany was formed from a collection of several states, it has a federal constitution. The remaining 13 states are called Flächenländer, the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany in 1949 was through the unification of the western states created in the aftermath of World War II. West Berlin, while not part of the Federal Republic, was largely integrated and considered as a de facto state. In 1952, following a referendum, Baden, Württemberg-Baden, in 1957, the Saar Protectorate rejoined the Federal Republic as the Saarland. Federalism is one of the constitutional principles of Germany. After 1945, new states were constituted in all four zones of occupation, in 1949, the states in the three western zones formed the Federal Republic of Germany. This is in contrast to the development in Austria, where the Bund was constituted first. The use of the term Länder dates back to the Weimar Constitution of 1919, before this time, the constituent states of the German Empire were called Staaten.
Today, it is common to use the term Bundesland. However, this term is not used officially, neither by the constitution of 1919 nor by the Basic Law of 1949, three Länder call themselves Freistaaten, Bavaria and Thuringia. He summarizes the arguments for boundary reform in Germany. The German system of dual federalism requires strong Länder that have the administrative and fiscal capacity to implement legislation, too many Länder make coordination among them and with the federation more complicated. But several proposals have failed so far, territorial reform remains a topic in German politics. Federalism has a tradition in German history. The Holy Roman Empire comprised many petty states numbering more than 300 around 1796, the number of territories was greatly reduced during the Napoleonic Wars. After the Congress of Vienna,39 states formed the German Confederation, the new German Empire included 25 states and the imperial territory of Alsace-Lorraine. The empire was dominated by Prussia, which controlled 65% of the territory, after the territorial losses of the Treaty of Versailles, the remaining states continued as republics of a new German federation
Order of Merit of North Rhine-Westphalia
The Order of Merit of North Rhine-Westphalia is a civil order of merit, of the German State of North Rhine-Westphalia. The Order of Merit of North Rhine-Westphalia was founded on 11 March 1986 and it is awarded to citizens representing all segments of the population who have made extraordinary contributions to the people and state of North Rhine-Westphalia. The order is limited to 2500 living recipients, from its founding through January 2010, a total of 1357 people have been awarded the Order of Merit of North Rhine-Westphalia. Administrative provisions to the Law on the Order of Merit of North Rhine-Westphalia
Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is a federal state in northern Germany. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is the sixth largest German state by area, and the least densely populated, three of Germanys fourteen national parks are in Mecklenburg-Vorpommern, in addition to several hundred nature conservation areas. Major cities include Rostock, Neubrandenburg, Greifswald, the University of Rostock and the University of Greifswald are among the oldest in Europe. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was the site of the 33rd G8 summit in 2007, due to its lengthy name, the state is often abbreviated as MV or shortened to MeckPomm. In English, it is translated as Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania or literally Mecklenburg-Cispomerania. Inhabitants are called either Mecklenburger or Pomeranians, the form is never used. The full name in German is pronounced and this is because the digraph <ck> marks a preceding short vowel in High German. Mecklenburg however is within the historical Low German language area, another explanation is that the c comes from a mannerism in High German officialese of writing unnecessary letters, a so-called Letternhäufelung.
Human settlement in the area of modern Mecklenburg and Vorpommern began after the Ice Age, about two thousand years ago, Germanic peoples were recorded in the area. Most of them left during the Migration Period, heading towards Spain, Italy, in the 6th century Polabian Slavs populated the area. While Mecklenburg was settled by the Obotrites, Vorpommern was settled by the Veleti, along the coast and Slavs established trade posts like Reric and Menzlin. In the 12th century and Vorpommern were conquered by Henry the Lion and incorporated into the Duchy of Saxony, all of Mecklenburg-Vorpommern was settled with Germans in the Ostsiedlung process, starting in the 12th century. In the late 12th century, Henry the Lion, Duke of the Saxons, conquered the Obotrites, subjugated its Nikloting dynasty, in the course of time, German monks, nobility and traders arrived to settle here. After the 12th century, the territory remained stable and relatively independent of its neighbours, Mecklenburg first became a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire in 1348.
Though partitioned and re-partitioned within the dynasty, Mecklenburg always shared a common history. The states of Mecklenburg-Schwerin and Mecklenburg-Strelitz became Grand Duchies in 1815, litererally Fore-Pomerania, is the smaller, western part of the former Prussian Province of Pomerania, the eastern part became part of Poland after the end of World War II. In the Middle Ages, the area was ruled by the Pomeranian dukes as part of the Duchy of Pomerania, Pomerania was under Swedish rule after the Peace of Westphalia from 1648 until 1815 as Swedish Pomerania. Pomerania became a province of Prussia in 1815 and remained so until 1945, wartime In May 1945, the armies of the Soviet Union and the Western allies met east of Schwerin