Reiner Kunze is a German writer and GDR dissident. He studied media and journalism at the University of Leipzig, in 1968, he left the GDR state party SED following the communist Warsaw Pact countries invasion of Czechoslovakia in response to the Prague Spring. He had to publish his work under various pseudonyms, in 1976, his most famous book The Lovely Years, which contained critical insights into the life, and the policies behind the Iron Curtain, was published in West Germany to great acclaim. In 1977, the GDR regime expatriated him, and he moved to West Germany and he now lives near Passau in Bavaria. His writings consists mostly of poetry, though he wrote prose as well and he is a translator of Czech poetry and prose. 1969 Der Löwe Leopold, fast Märchen, fast Geschichten,1976 The Tale of Dis.1976 Die Wunderbaren Jahre. 1990 Wohin der Schlaf sich Schlafen Legt,1991 Am Sonnenhang, Tagebuch eines Jahres. 1993 Steine und Lieder, Namibische Notizen und Fotos,1996 Ein Tag auf Dieser Erde. 1998 Nocturne in E.2001 Die Aura der Wörter,2002 Der Kuß der Koi.2002 Wo wir zu Hause das Salz haben.
2003 Bleibt Nur Die Eigne Stirn
Hessian Order of Merit
The Hessian Order of Merit is a civil order of merit, and the highest award of the German State of Hesse. The order was established 1 December 1989, the order is presented by the Minister-President of Hesse based on nominations from citizens, though self-nominations are not permitted. The order honours men and women for outstanding contributions to Hesse, the order is presented in two classes, the first class being worn around the neck, and the second class being worn suspended from a ribbon on the chest. The number of living recipients is limited to 2,000 for the class and 800 for the first class. The badge of the order is a gold rimmed white enamel cross, the center medallion is red with a gold rim. Upon the medallion is a lion as depicted on the Coat of arms of Hesse, between the arms of the cross are the gold rays of an eight pointed star. The cross is worn on a ribbon around his neck in the first class. Women wear the cross of the Order on a bow of ribbon below the left shoulder, christine Brückner Michael Herrmann Luc Jochimsen Steffi Jones
Gunda Niemann-Stirnemann is a former German speed skater. She is a three-time Olympic gold medallist, winning the 3000 metres in 1992 and 1998 and she won a total of eight Olympic medals. Born as Gunda Kleemann in Sondershausen, Bezirk Erfurt, East Germany and she changed her name to Gunda Niemann after her marriage in 1991 to judoka Detlev Niemann. After their divorce in 1995, she kept the name Niemann and she changed her name to Niemann-Stirnemann after marrying her longtime Swiss manager Oliver Stirnemann on 11 July 1997. The speed skating oval in Erfurt was named after her, before the German reunification in 1990, she skated for East Germany. Niemann-Stirnemann dominated womens speed skating for several years, especially on the longer distances and she has competed in four Olympics, from 1988 to 1998, and won eight Olympic medals. In the nine years from 1991 to 1999, she won the World Allround Championships every year except 1994 and she has a record number of 98 World Cup single distance victories and has won 19 overall World Cup titles.
She was European Allround Champion 8 times, over the course of her career, she set 18 world records. For her performances, she received the Oscar Mathisen Award three times, in 1995,1996 and 1997, Niemann-Stirnemann left speed skating in 2001 to give birth to a daughter, but returned to competition. She planned to one last comeback and participate in the 2006 Winter Olympics in Turin. At the end of October 2005, a few days before the German Championships and she skated in Olympic, World Cup and national championships to 215 medals, thereof 163 gold medals. Over the course of her career, Niemann-Stirnemann skated 18 world records, to put these personal records in perspective, the last column lists the official world records on the dates that Niemann-Stirnemann skated her personal records. Niemann-Stirnemann has an Adelskalender score of 160.167 points and her highest ranking on the Adelskalender was the first place
A medal may be awarded to a person or organization as a form of recognition for sporting, scientific, academic, or various other achievements. Military awards and decorations are more precise terms for types of state decoration. Medals may be created for sale to commemorate particular individuals or events, an artist who creates medals or medallions is called a medallist or medalist. There are devotional medals which may be worn for religious reasons, Medals have long been popular collectible items either as a variety of exonumia or of militaria. Medallions may be called table medals because they are too large to be worn and can only be displayed on a wall, table top, the word medallion has the same ultimate derivation, but this time through the Italian medaglione, meaning large medal. The main or front surface of a medal is termed the obverse, the reverse, or back surface of the medal, is not always used and may be left blank or may contain a secondary design. It is not uncommon to only an artistic rendering on the obverse, while all details.
The rim is only occasionally employed to display an inscription such as a motto, privy mark, engraver symbol, assayer’s marking. Medals that are intended to be hung from a ribbon include a suspension piece at the crest with which to loop a suspension ring through. It is through the ring that a ribbon is run or folded so the medal may hang pendent, Medals pinned to the breast use only a small cut of ribbon that is attached to a top bar where the brooch pin is affixed. Top bars may be hidden under the ribbon so they are not visible, be a device from which the ribbon attaches. Some top bars are elaborate and contain a whole design unto themselves, Medals that are made with inexpensive material might be gilded, silver-plated, chased, or finished in a variety of other ways to improve their appearance. Medals have made of rock, ivory, porcelain, terra cotta, wood, enamel, lacquerware. Honorary awards, as a button, which it is custom to give the kings kinsmen. Roman emperors used both military awards of medals, and political gifts of medallions that were very large coins, usually in gold or silver.
Both these and actual golden coins were often set as pieces of jewellery, the bracteate is a type of thin gold medal, usually plain on the reverse, found in Northern Europe from the so-called Dark Ages or Migration Period. They often have suspension loops and were intended to be worn on a chain as jewellery. They imitate, at a distance, Roman imperial coins and medallions, the surviving example is mounted for wearing as jewellery
Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany
The Order of Merit of the Federal Republic of Germany is the only federal decoration of Germany. It was created by the first President of the Federal Republic of Germany, Theodor Heuss, on 7 September 1951, and has been awarded to over 200,000 individuals in total, both Germans and foreigners. Since the 1990s the number of awards has declined from over 4,000, first to around 2, 300—2,500 per year. In recent years women have made up a steady 30—31% of recipients, the decorations of the different classes of the Order are known as the Federal Cross of Merit. Most of the German federal states have each their own order of merit as well, with the exception of the Free and Hanseatic Cities of Bremen and Hamburg, the order was established on 7 September 1951 by the decree of the Federal President Theodor Heuss. It is awarded to him in a ceremony by the President of the Bundestag, attended by the Chancellor of Germany, the President of the Bundesrat, other than the German president, only a foreign head of state and their spouse can be awarded with this highest class.
This Grand-Cross Special Issue has been awarded so far only twice, to former German chancellors Konrad Adenauer, the star is a golden star with straight rays, its size and points vary according to class, with the badge superimposed upon it. 8-pointed golden Star, Grand Cross Special Class 6-pointed golden Star, Grand Cross 1st Class 4-pointed golden Star, Grand Cross 2nd Class silver Square-upon-point, the riband is red with gold-black-gold stripes
Sarah Kirsch was a German poet. She was born Ingrid Bernstein in Limlingerode, Prussian Saxony and she changed her first name to Sarah in order to protest against her fathers anti-semitism. She studied biology in Halle and literature at the Johannes R. Becher Institute for Literature in Leipzig, in 1965, she co-wrote a book of poems with writer Rainer Kirsch, to whom she was married for ten years. She protested against East Germanys expulsion of Wolf Biermann in 1976, one year she left the country herself, nevertheless being critical of the west as well. She is mainly known for her poetry, but she wrote prose. She won many prizes and honors including the German international literary Petrarca-Preis in 1976, the Peter-Huchel Prize in 1993, from 1960-1968 she was married to lyricist Reiner Kunze. Kirsch died in May 2013 following a brief illness, Sarah Kirsch by Mererid Hopwood Media related to Sarah Kirsch at Wikimedia Commons
Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art
The Bavarian Maximilian Order for Science and Art was first established on 28 November 1853 by King Maximilian II. von Bayern. It is awarded to acknowledge and reward excellent and outstanding achievements in the field of science, from 1933 onwards the order was no longer awarded, until 1980 when it was reinstated by the Minister-President of the Free State of Bavaria Franz Josef Strauß. Since 1980 the order has been awarded to 184 recipients including 24 woman, the number of living members of the order cannot exceed 100. As of February 2013 there are 92 living members of the order, since 1932 the order has been issued 351 times. Overall the order was awarded to 535 people from 1853 to 2012, in continuation of a bavarian tradition, the Bavarian Maximialian Order for Art and Sciences was created. It is awarded to outstanding achievements in the field of science. The Maximilian Order is preferable awarded to German scientist and artist and it is not restricted to citizens of Bavaria. The order was instituted in one class and two sections, the order is restricted to 100 living members.
The Minister-President, the minister of state for their portfolio. These proposals are evaluated by an advisory committee and it gives its recommendation to the Minister-President for the final decision. All members of the committee are selected for a period of five years. The committee decides with the majority of its members, www. ordenmuseum. de, Der Bayerische Verdienstorden und Bayerischen Maximiliansorden für Wissenschaft und Kunst The law Information of the Bavarian State Chancellery