Pope Clement XII
Pope Clement XII, born Lorenzo Corsini, was Pope from 12 July 1730 to his death in 1740. Clement presided over the growth of a surplus in the papal finances, in his 1738 bull In eminenti apostolatus, he provides the first public papal condemnation of Freemasonry, helping bring about the Catholic Churchs longstanding opposition to the order. Lorenzo Corsini was born in Florence in 1652 as the son of Bartolomeo Corsini, Marquis of Casigliano and his wife Elisabetta Strozzi, both of his parents belonged to the old Florentine nobility. He was a distant relative of Saint Andrea Corsini, Corsini studied at the Jesuit Collegio Romano in Rome and at the University of Pisa where he earned a doctorate in both civil law and canon law. Corsini practiced law under the direction of his uncle, Cardinal Neri Corsini. After the death of his uncle and his father, in 1685, now thirty-three, corsini’s home on the Piazza Novona, was the center of Rome’s scholarly and artistic life. In 1690 he was made titular Archbishop of Nicomedia and chosen nuncio to Vienna.
He did not proceed to the court, because Leopold I. In 1696, Corsini was appointed treasurer-general and governor of the Castel SantAngelo and he advanced still further under Pope Benedict XIII, who made him Prefect of the Apostolic Signatura, a judicial branch of the Roman Curia. He was successively appointed as the Cardinal-Priest of San Pietro in Vincoli, under Benedict XIII, the finances of the Papal States had been delivered into the hands of Cardinal Niccolò Coscia and other members of the curia, who had drained the financial resources of the see. Clement XII was one of the oldest men to be elected pope, as a Corsini, with his mother a Strozzi, the new pope represented a family in the highest level of Florentine society, with a cardinal in every generation for the previous hundred years. His first moves as Pope Clement XII were to restore the papal finances and he demanded restitution from the ministers who had abused the confidence of his predecessor. The chief culprit, Cardinal Niccolò Coscia, was fined and sentenced to ten years imprisonment.
Papal finances were improved through reviving the public lottery, which had been suppressed by the severe morality of Benedict XIII. A competition for the majestic façade of the San Giovanni in Laterano was won by architect Alessandro Galilei, the façade he designed is perhaps more palatial than ecclesiastic, and was finished by 1735. Clement XII erected in that ancient basilica a magnificent chapel dedicated to his 14th century kinsman and he restored the Arch of Constantine and built the governmental palace of the Consulta on the Quirinal. He purchased from Cardinal Alessandro Albani for 60,000 scudi a famous collection of statues, etc. and he paved the streets of Rome and the roads leading from the city, and widened the Corso. He began the triumphant Baroque Fontana di Trevi, one of the ornaments of Rome
Order of Louise
The Order of Louise was founded on 3 August 1814 by Frederick William III of Prussia to honor his late wife, the much beloved Queen Luise. This order was chivalric in nature, but was intended strictly for women whose service to Germany was worthy of high national recognition. Its dame companion members were limited to 100 in number, and were intended to be drawn from all classes, though the Prussian king was technically the Sovereign of the Orders of the realm, the Chief of the Order of Louise was the reigning queen. The Order of Louise was renewed with each successive king or emperor and it was, issued from its founding in 1814, renewed in 1850, in 1865, and in 1890. Faith and hope gave the mothers and daughters of the country the power… for the grand purpose and it is impossible to honor or for what they have accomplished, but We find it justified to lend them an honor, whose are especially acknowledged. We decree therefore hereby following,1, the honor shall bear the meaningful name, L u i s e n - O r d e n Establish that we with this, a small, black-enameled golden cross.
The on both sides will be of sky blue enamel, with the letter “L”, surrounded by a wreath of stars and this order is worn a bow of the white ribbon of the Iron Cross on the left breast. The award without consideration of position or rank, however only such persons can receive it, are. The number is restricted to one hundred, to its selection lets decree hereby a Capitel, under the chair of the woman princess Wilhelm Königl. Highness, out of four women …6, the bestowal / conferral of the award results then, after Our confirmation, under the signature of the Princess Wilhelm Königl. We hereby order the management of the membership to the field marshal count v. d, at its initial creation, in 1814, the Order was only available in one class. A second class was added during the reign of Wilhelm I, First Class, wore the black-enameled cross with its blue-enameled, medallion centerpiece, suspended from a predominantly white ribbon, with three black stripes, as tied in a bow. Though the statutes indicate that the badge was to be worn on the left breast, Second Class, wore a similarly-designed silver cross, minus the black enamel, which was worn suspended from the white and black bow.
The Prussian State Handbook of 1907 indicates further variants and subsets of the Second Class of the order, II.1 with silver crown, II.1, Saxony, Georg Joachim Goeschen,1819. Handbuch über den Königlich Preußischen Hof und Staat für das Jahr 1874, handbuch über den Königlich Preußischen Hof und Staat für das Jahr 1883. Handbuch über den Königlich Preußischen Hof und Staat für das Jahr 1907
Order of the Crown (Prussia)
The Order of the Crown was a Prussian order of chivalry. Officially the Order of the Red Eagle and the Order of the Crown were equal, most officials did however prefer to be appointed in the older Order of the Red Eagle. The Order of the Crown was often used as a decoration of someone who had to be rewarded while the Prussian government did not want to award the Order of the Red Eagle. The badge of the Order for the 1st to 4th classes was a gilt cross pattée, the obverse gilt central disc bore the crown of Prussia, surrounded by a blue enamel ring bearing the motto of the German Empire Gott Mit Uns. The reverse gilt disc has the Prussian royal monogram, surrounded by a blue ring with the date 18 October 1861. The star of the Order was a gilt eight-pointed star, a silver eight-pointed star, or a silver four-pointed star, the gilt central disc again bore the crown of Prussia, surrounded by a blue enamel ring bearing the motto Gott Mit Uns. The ribbon of the Order was blue, the order could be awarded in dozens of variations.
For example with superimposed Cross of Geneva, with swords and with oak leaves, the following lists show a fair cross section of individuals who were known to be conferred with the Order in its several classes, in order of precedence. Sir Christopher George Francis Maurice Cradock Baron Giacomo Natoli - 1st Class Mustafa Kemal Atatürk - 1st Class, Count Charles John dOultremont, Knight Grand Cross. Ernst von Bibra - 3rd Class 1869 Gen. Major-General Sir John McNeill - 1st class,1899 - in connection with the visit of Emperor Wilhelm II to the United Kingdom
Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria
Charles Theodore reigned as prince-elector and count palatine from 1742, as Duke of Jülich and Berg from 1742 and as prince-elector and Duke of Bavaria from 1777 to his death. He was a member of the House of Palatinate-Sulzbach, a branch of the House of Wittelsbach, Charles Theodore was of the Wittelsbach house Palatinate-Sulzbach. His father was Johann Christian, who became Count Palatine of Sulzbach and his mother was Marie-Anne-Henriette-Leopoldine de La Tour dAuvergne, margravine of Bergen op Zoom, a grandniece of Henri de la Tour dAuvergne, Vicomte de Turenne. Charles Theodore was born in Drogenbos near Brussels and educated in Mannheim, Charles Theodore was margrave of Bergen op Zoom from 1728 onwards. As reigning Prince Elector Palatine, Charles Theodore won the hearts of his subjects by founding an academy of science, stocking up the museums collections, when Maximilian III Joseph of Bavaria died in 1777, Charles Theodore became Elector and Duke of Bavaria and moved to Munich. Charles Theodore did not immediately take up his new title and he had several mistresses and many illegitimate children.
However, these people could inherit neither the Electorate of Bavaria nor that of the Palatine, Charles Theodore dreamed of resurrecting the Burgundian Empire of the Middle Ages. On 3 January 1778, shortly after the death of Max Joseph and they were supported by Frederick II of Prussia, and most of the German minor states. The ensuing diplomatic crisis led to the War of the Bavarian Succession, Charles Theodore accepted the Bavarian succession, but agreed that his illegitimate descendants could not inherit Bavaria. Austria acquired the Innviertel, a part of Bavaria in the basin of the Inn river, Charles Theodore had only one son with his wife, Countess Elizabeth Augusta of Sulzbach, who died a day after birth. In 1795, he married Maria Leopoldine of Austria-Este, Josephs niece, a second proposal to exchange Bavaria for the Austrian Netherlands in 1784 failed as Frederick II of Prussia initiated the Fürstenbund. When Charles Theodore died and the Electorate passed to his cousin, Max Joseph, Duke of Zweibrücken, the brother of Charles August.
Thomas is the scholar to produce such an analysis. It is more widely understood that Charles Theodore continued the despotic, Charles Theodore never became popular as a ruler in Bavaria according to his critic Lorenz von Westenrieder. He attempted, without success to exchange the ducal lands of Bavaria, for the Austrian Netherlands and a royal crown, after a dispute with Munichs city council, he even moved the electoral residence in 1788 to Mannheim but returned only one year later. In 1785, he appointed the American Loyalist exile Benjamin Thompson as his aide-de-camp, over the next 11 years, Thompson reformed the army and many aspects of the state, rising to high ministerial rank with Charles Theodores backing, and becoming Count von Rumford. Charles Theodore is known for disbanding Adam Weishaupts order of the Illuminati in 1785, in 1794, the armies of revolutionary France occupied the Duchy of Jülich, in 1795 they invaded the Palatinate, and in 1796 marched towards Bavaria. Charles Theodore begged Francis II for help that would have made Bavaria a puppet state of Austria, when he died of a stroke in Munich in 1799, the population in Munich celebrated for several days
Electorate of Bavaria
The Electorate of Bavaria was an independent hereditary electorate of the Holy Roman Empire from 1623 to 1806, when it was succeeded by the Kingdom of Bavaria. The Wittelsbach dynasty which ruled the Duchy of Bavaria was the branch of the family which ruled the Electorate of the Palatinate. The head of the branch was one of the seven prince-electors of the Holy Roman Empire according to the Golden Bull of 1356. At that point the two lines were joined in personal union until the end of the Holy Roman Empire. In 1805, after the Peace of Pressburg, the then-elector, Maximilian Joseph, raised himself to the dignity of King of Bavaria, the Electorate of Bavaria consisted of most of the modern regions of Upper Bavaria, Lower Bavaria, and the Upper Palatinate. Before 1779, it included the Innviertel, now part of modern Austria. This was ceded to the Habsburgs by the Treaty of Teschen, for administration purposes Bavaria was already from 1507 divided into four stewardships, Burghausen and Straubing.
With the acquisition of the Upper Palatinate during the Thirty Years War the stewardship Amberg was added, in 1802 they were abolished by the minister Maximilian von Montgelas. In 1805 shortly before the elevation Tirol and Vorarlberg were united with Bavaria, in the Council of Princes of the Diet prior to the personal union of 1777 he held individual voices as Duke of Bavaria and Princely Landgrave of Leuchtenberg. In the Imperial Circles he was, along with the Archbishop of Salzburg, co-Director of the Bavarian Circle and he held lands in the Swabian Circle. The finances and the system were reorganised, a class of civil servants and a national militia founded. In spite of subsequent reverses, Maximilian retained these gains at the Peace of Westphalia in 1648, during the years of this war Bavaria, especially the northern part, suffered severely. In 1632 the Swedes invaded, and when Maximilian violated the treaty of Ulm in 1647, the French, after repairing this damage to some extent, the elector died at Ingolstadt in September 1651, leaving his duchy much stronger than he had found it.
Whatever lustre the international position won by Maximilian I might add to the ducal house, in 1669, moreover, he again called a meeting of the diet, which had been suspended since 1612. Untaught by Maximilian II Emmanuels experience, his son, Charles Albert, devoted all his energies to increasing the European prestige and power of his house. Maximilian III Joseph, by the peace of Füssen signed on 22 April 1745, at his death, without issue, on 30 December 1777, the Bavarian line of the Wittelsbachs became extinct, and the succession passed to Charles Theodore, the elector palatine. After a separation of four and a half centuries, the Electorate of the Palatinate, to which the duchies of Jülich, the protests of the next heir, Charles II, Duke of Zweibrücken, supported by the king of Prussia, led to the War of Bavarian Succession. By the peace of Teschen the Innviertel was ceded to Austria, for Bavaria itself Charles Theodore did less than nothing
Franz, Duke of Bavaria
Franz, Duke of Bavaria, born 14 July 1933) is head of the House of Wittelsbach, the former ruling family of the Kingdom of Bavaria. His great-grandfather King Ludwig III was the last ruling monarch of Bavaria until deposed in 1918, during the Second World War, the Wittelsbachs were anti-Nazi. The family initially left Nazi Germany for Hungary but were arrested when Franz was aged 11. He spent time in several Nazi concentration camps, including Oranienburg, after the war, he was a student at the University of Munich and became a collector of modern art. Franz succeeded as head of the House of Wittelsbach, and as pretender to the Bavarian throne and he lives at the Nymphenburg Palace in Munich. A spokesman has said that the Duke generally does not comment on issues concerning his relationship to the Royal House of Stuart. Franz was born on 14 July 1933 in Munich, the son of Albrecht, Duke of Bavaria, and his wife, Countess Maria Draskovich of Trakostjan of the House of Drašković. On 18 May 1949, when Franz was 15, his grandfather Crown Prince Rupprecht recognised the marriage of Franzs parents as dynastic, the Wittelsbach dynasty were opposed to the Nazi regime in Germany, and in 1939, Franzs father Albrecht took his family to Hungary.
They lived in Budapest for four years before moving to their Castle at Sárvár in late 1943, in March 1944, Nazi Germany occupied Hungary, and on 6 October 1944 the entire family, including the 11-year-old Franz, were arrested. They were sent to a series of Nazi concentration camps, including Oranienburg, at the end of April 1945, they were liberated by the United States Third Army. After the war, Franz received his education at the Benedictine Abbey of Ettal. He studied management at the University of Munich and in Zurich. Franz developed a passion for collecting modern art, many items from his private collection are on permanent loan to the Pinakothek der Moderne in Munich. He is a trustee of the Museum of Modern Art in New York. Franz lives in a wing of Nymphenburg Palace, the summer residence of the Kings of Bavaria. His country retreat is Berg Castle, and he uses the former royal castle at Berchtesgaden and Hohenschwangau Castle. He speaks German, Hungarian and French, Franzs 80th birthday party, in 2013, was held at the Schleissheim Palace near Munich.
The party was attended by 2,500 guests, including the current Minister-President of Bavaria, the heir presumptive to the headship of the House of Wittelsbach is his brother Prince Max, Duke in Bavaria
Order of Saint John (Bailiwick of Brandenburg)
The Order is led by its thirty-seventh Herrenmeister, Prince Oskar of Prussia. Each of its knights, about four thousand men worldwide, is either a Knight of Justice or a Knight of Honor, although membership no longer is limited to the nobility, as it was until 1948, the majority of knights still are drawn from this class. The Order comprises seventeen commanderies in Germany, one each in Austria, France and Switzerland, with the Roman Catholic Sovereign Military Order of Malta, these four Alliance orders represent the legitimate heirs of the Knights Hospitaller. The Order and its orders in the Netherlands and Sweden. The SMOM, headquartered in Rome, admits only men and women of the Roman Catholic faith, in time, these landholdings were gathered into regional administrative divisions known as commanderies, each headed by a senior knight, or knight commander of the Order. The first commandery in the Germanies was founded in the mid-twelfth century, though separated from the Roman Catholic main stem of the Order of Saint John, the Bailiwick of Brandenburg continued to flourish.
Admitting only noblemen, principally from the Germanies, the Bailiwick maintained hospitals and other institutions to care for the poor, the sick, and the injured. The horrific Thirty Years War devastated the Bailiwick, resulting in the deaths of many knights and he established a similarly named order of merit, the Royal Prussian Order of Saint John, in its stead. He announced his election to the head of the Order of Malta, during the course of the nineteenth and twentieth centuries, the Order created and supported more and more charitable activities. It now owns and operates numerous hospitals, ambulance services, old-age homes, after World War II, with the Neumark given by the victorious Allies to Poland, the Order moved its headquarters to Bonn, West Germany. After the reunification of West and East Germany, the headquarters were moved again, more than location of the seat of the Order changed in the aftermath of the Second World War. The Finnish commandery, remains a purely noble society, as do the now independent Swedish, there are three active classes in the Order, Knight of Justice, and Knight of Honor.
These services are similar to the St. John Ambulance in many Commonwealth nations, all are carried out under the auspices of the Christian faith. Additionally, spiritual retreats and other activities of the Order concentrate on the spiritual formation, the cloak of the Order is plain black with a large, linen eight-pointed cross on the left breast. For most knights, the cloak is black woollen with a plain lining, the cloaks of most knights are closed only at the neck, but the Herrenmeister, Honorary Commanders, and Knights of Justice wear a long black cord called a cingulum. The insignia, known as crosses of honor, are no longer bestowed by the Order automatically, Knights of Honor now must have rendered five years of service to the Order before a cross of honor is granted. Promotion to Knight of Justice requires at least seven years of distinguished service, the basic insignia of the Order is a white-enamelled Maltese cross. Each cross is worn from a black-moire,4. 5-centimeter-wide ribbon worn about the neck, all members of the Order may wear a plain, Maltese cross as a star or breast badge
Order of the Red Eagle
The Order of the Red Eagle was an order of chivalry of the Kingdom of Prussia. It was awarded to military personnel and civilians, to recognize valor in combat, excellence in military leadership and faithful service to the kingdom. As with most German orders, the Order of the Red Eagle could only be awarded to commissioned officers or civilians of equivalent status. However, there was a medal of the order, which could be awarded to non-commissioned officers and enlisted men, lower ranking civil servants and other civilians. The predecessor to Order of the Red Eagle was founded on November 17,1705 and this soon fell into disuse but was revived in 1712 in Brandenburg-Bayreuth and again in 1734 in Brandenburg-Ansbach, where it first received the name Order of the Brandenburg Red Eagle. The statutes were changed in 1777 and the Order named therein as the Order of the Red Eagle, the Order was conferred in one class, limited to fifty knights. The Kingdom of Prussia absorbed both Brandenburg-Bayreuth and Brandenburg-Ansbach in January,1792, and on June 12,1792, King Frederick William II again revived the order as a Prussian royal order.
After the Order of the Black Eagle, the Red Eagle was the second highest order of the kingdom in order of precedence, in 1810, King Frederick William III revised the statutes of the Order, expanding it into three classes. In 1830, a breast star was authorized for the Second Class, the statutes were further revised in 1861, and a Grand Cross was established as the highest class of the Order. By 1918, an affiliated soldiers medal had been available to commoners. The monarchy collapsed on November 9,1918, a new German constitution was signed into law, August 11,1919, effectually putting a legal end to the monarchy. Among these were, All classes but the Medal of the Red Eagle Order could be awarded with swords for distinction in wartime, the swords passed through the arms of the cross behind the center medallion. All classes above the 4th Class could be awarded with Swords on Ring, indicating that the recipient of that class without swords had earlier received a class of the order with swords. A pair of crossed swords were worn above the cross on the ring or above the medallion on the upper arm of the breast star.
All classes could be awarded with or without crown as an added distinction, the Grand Cross, 1st and 2nd Class could be awarded with oak leaves, indicating prior receipt of the next lower class of the order, and/or with diamonds, as a special distinction. Royal family members were awarded the Grand Cross with crown, the Maltese cross badge was suspended from a miniature of the Prussian crown, which covered the usual suspension ring. The Grand Cross was awarded at least once with crossed marshals batons, the crossed batons were worn above the Maltese cross badge of the Grand Cross, on its suspension ring. The 3rd Class could be awarded with bow, indicating prior receipt of the 4th Class, prussians who were Knights of the Order of St. John of Malta
Order of Theresa
The Order of Theresa was an order for noble ladies in the Kingdom of Bavaria. It continues to today as an honorary society to which belong the princesses of the House of Wittelsbach as well as other ladies from Bavarian noble families. The order was founded December 12,1827 by Queen Therese of Bavaria and she established an endowment which paid an annual pension to twelve unmarried noble ladies, six of whom received 300 guilders and six of whom received 100 guilders. Various other ladies held the rank of Ehrendame including all the princesses of the House of Wittelsbach, Bavarian ladies paid a reception fee of 55 guilders while foreign ladies paid 220 guilders. The insignia of the order is worn on the left breast and consists of a blue-enameled Maltese cross with a white edge. In the four angles of the cross are lozenges with the arms of Bavaria. At the centre of the cross is a gold bordered white circular medallion decorated with the letter T, on the back of the medallion is the year 1827 and the motto of the order “Unser Leben sey Glaube an das Ewige”.
The ribbon of the order is white with two sky-blue stripes at the edge, the inner stripe being narrower than the outer stripe, the sash of the order is a similarly-coloured broad ribbon, worn diagonally from the right shoulder to the left hip. Among the current Ladies of Honour of the order is the Hereditary Princess of Liechtenstein
Princess Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen
Marie of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was a Princess of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen, simply of Hohenzollern, and mother of King Albert I of Belgium. Marie was considered as a wife to the future Edward VII of the United Kingdom. Though she was considered quite lovely by his family, her Roman Catholic religion barred her from being a suitable consort and she married on 25 April 1867 in Berlin with Prince Philippe, Count of Flanders, second son of King Leopold I of Belgium and Louise-Marie of Orléans. They had 5 children, Princess Marie was an accomplished artist and she had a literary salon, which was the gathering place of many authors as well as a feature of Brussels social life for forty years. She demonstrated appreciation for music, on one occasion awarding a medal to the Zoellner Quartet after it performed for the Belgian royalty. Marie Luise died in Belgium in 1912 at the age of 67 and she was buried in the Church of Our Lady of Laeken. Dame of the Order of Louise Spain, 823rd Dame of the Order of Queen Maria Luisa -, Edward VII, The Last Victorian King
Archduchess Gisela of Austria
Her German title was Gisela Louise Marie, Erzherzogin von Österreich, Prinzessin von Bayern. Although christened Gisella, after a 10th-century Habsburg ancestress, she only ever wrote her name with one L, just like her older sister Archduchess Sophie and her brother Crown Prince Rudolf, Gisela was raised by her paternal grandmother, Princess Sophie of Bavaria. A sober nature like her father, she kept a reserved attitude towards her mother and she had a very close relationship with her brother, whose suicide hit her hard. Her father collected some the familys personal items, such as the first pair of shoes worn by each of his children. Among these keepsakes was a written for him by a young Gisela one Christmas - the poem was said to be the most treasured item among this collection. Archduchess Gisela was known to paint in her years, on 20 April 1873, at the age of 16, Gisela was married to Prince Leopold of Bavaria in Vienna. Prince Leopold was a son of Prince Regent Luitpold of Bavaria and Auguste Ferdinande of Austria, Leopold had initially fallen for Princess Amalie of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha, however, Empress Elisabeths younger brother Duke Maximilian Emanuel in Bavaria intended to marry.
The empress therefore arranged an encounter of Leopold and Gisela at Gödöllő Palace and it seems he felt he had to secure the only viable candidate to whom he could give Gisela with confidence. Prince Leopold received the dowry of a half a million guilders. Giselas mother remained absent during the wedding celebrations, the young couple was made welcome in Munich by her husbands family, and went on to live in the Palais Leopold residence in Schwabing. The street opposite the Palais was renamed Giselastraße in her honor in 1873, a year after her wedding, she gave birth to her first child and even Empress Elisabeth was present during the baptism. During World War I she ran a hospital in her Palais while her husband was a field marshal on the eastern front. Gisela and her husband celebrated their wedding anniversary in 1923. Her husband died in 1930, and Gisela only survived him by two years and she died aged 76 in Munich on 27 July 1932, and is buried next to Prince Leopold in the Colombarium at the St.