Order of Saint Lazarus (statuted 1910)

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Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem
Grandes armes OSLJ.svg
Coat of arms of the Order of Saint Lazarus
statuted in 1910.
Abbreviation MHOSLJ
Motto Atavis et armis
(English: By Ancestors and Arms)
Formation 1910
Type "Order of Christian chivalry"
/Revival order
Legal status Incorporated in various countries; disputed by some historians.
Purpose "Care and assistance of the sick and the poor, and to the support and defense of the Christian faith and the traditions and principles of Christian chivalry."
Headquarters
Membership
Christian; by invitation
Official language
Protector
Spiritual Protector
Secessions
  • 1. Malta-Paris obedience (since 2008)
  • 2. Orléans obedience (since 2004)
  • 3. Jerusalem obedience (since 2015)
Website

The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem (Latin: Ordo Militaris et Hospitalis Sancti Lazari Hierosolymitani) is a Christian ecumenical lay order statuted in 1910 by a council of Catholics in Paris, France, initially under the protection of Patriarch Cyril VIII Jaha of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church.[6]

Owing to schism in 1969 the order became divided into two competing "obediences", known as Malta and Paris; in 2008 these rival obediences were reconciled and reunited into a single order once again, led by a Grand Master, and with protection of the former Patriarch Gregorius III Laham of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church. However, during the period of separation, the Paris obedience had experienced further schism, with the creation in 2004 of the Orléans obedience, led by Count Jan Dobrzenský z Dobrzenicz with protection of Henri d'Orléans, Count of Paris, and this group then itself experienced schism in 2010, with the break-away of the Jerusalem obedience, led by Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma.

Claims to regularity[edit]

The modern Order of Saint Lazarus claims to maintain the spirit and history of the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus, although it does not claim historical continuity.

In 1572, the Order of St Lazarus in Italy was merged with the Order of St Maurice, under the Royal House of Saxony, forming the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus.

In 1608/1609, the Order of St Lazarus in France was merged with the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel, forming the Royal Military and Hospitaller Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel and Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem united, an order that appears to have ceased to exist in or before 1830.

Writing in 1999, the Revd Dr Michael Foster opines that the undisputed continuation of the Order of St Lazarus is in the Order of Saints Maurice and Lazarus which continues under the pretenders to the Italian crown.[7]

The basis of the current Order of St Lazarus's origin, and the authority for its statuting in 1910, has attracted controversy, the same is true of the order's current authority to operate as an apparent order of chivalry.

The essence of the claim that there is a measure of continuity from the medieval Order is that notwithstanding the abovementioned mergers of 1572 (Italy) and 1608/1609 (France), there were some Order of St Lazarus members in Italy and/or France who continued the Order of St Lazarus, and/or that the Order continued in countries other than Italy and France.

The 1910 reorganization is stated by the Order to have been within the framework of the Roman Canonical continuation of the order (Canon 120 §1and §2) which was never abolished by the Vatican. Consequently, St. Lazrarus continued as a creature of canon law for 100 years after the death of its last knight, the Marquis des Gouttes, who passed in 1857 assuring the order’s continuation until 1957, arguably buying time to find a protector and to reorganize,[8] it is relevant that no Pope has ever ordered a Melkite Patriarch to desist in this protection of the Order of St. Lazarus (which Popes had previously done for other orders) and Peter van Duren emphasized that "only a papal interdict against the order of St. Lazarus or the Patriarch could have prevented him [any Patriarch] from agreeing to become the spiritual Protector of the Order" [9]

Tradition holds that this reorganization came in 1841 under the aegis of Francophile Melkite Patriarch Maximos III, the evidence for this, albeit quite plausible, is circumstantial due to the destruction of pertinent records during the 1860 Druze/Marionite Mount Lebanon conflagration and further ruination of Patriarchal papers at Al-Ain in the 1983 civil war.[10] Nevertheless, a reorganization indisputably occurred under Patriarch Cyril VIII who became the order’s protector for a while in 1911 as did later patriarchs——all safely before the canonical extinction year of 1957, the debate about the historicity of the 1941 Melkite protection is moot, as the Declaration of Kevelaer in 2012 issued by Patriarch Gregorios III Laham, the current Melkite granting authority, confirms, by affidavit, the 1841 advent of the Melkite protection.[11]

Although no longer a Roman Catholic order of knighthood, it is, in many nations and sub-national jurisdictions, by Canon Law, an Association of the Faithful, such is the case, for example, with the order in the Czech Republic.[12] internationally, the Order's purpose is "care and assistance of the sick and the poor, and to the support and defense of the Christian faith and the traditions and principles of Christian chivalry."[13] Some 5,000 members are divided under three grand magistries with strongly debated historical claims, yet carrying out "praiseworthy charitable, humanitarian activity",[14] these widely lauded Hospitaller functions have led observers, like Augustan Society’s Chivalry Committee chair Jean-Paul Gauthier de la Martiniere to declare that St. Lazarus is certainly "much more than a self-styled order." [15]

The modern Order is recognized by many ecclesial, noble, princely and non reigning royal dignitaries. Nevertheless, the attributions to the medieval Catholic military order of the Order of Saint Lazarus, founded in 1119, are not recognized by the Holy See,[16] or other royal heads of state, nor by such private, non-governmental bodies[17] as the International Commission on Orders of Chivalry[18] It should be noted that the Holy See does not recognize any order but its own equestrian orders, or those under its protection (e.g., the Sovereign Military Order of Malta and the Order of the Holy Sepulchre). Consequently, even such undeniably ancient and legitimate house orders as the Constantinian Order of St. George or the Order of St. Maurice and St. Lazarus are not recognized by the Vatican—among very many others.

Unlike most dynastic or otherwise modern non-state orders of Chivalry, the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus has been recognized by the Hungarian Republic as an order of knighthood (28 August 1993 as confirmed on 9 September 2008) and on 5 July 2011 formally accepted the appointment of Countess Éva Nyáry (Malta-Paris obedience) as the new Head of the Representative Office of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem in Hungary.[19] Van Duren cites a formal Croatian government proclamation attesting that the Order is "as an Order of Knighthood legitimately active in the sovereign territory of Croatia".[20]

History[edit]

The turmoil of the French revolution (1789–1799) put an end to formal admission ceremonies to the medieval Order of Saint Lazarus though King Louis XVIII, previously grand master of the order admitted a number of knights while in exile, with the Bourbon Restoration, King Louis XVIII and his successor King Charles X both served as Protectors of the order which continued to be function under the management of a council of officers.

In 1831, the order lost its royal protection but was not abolished, since being originally a Papal-established order only the Pope could exclusively do so by a specific contrarius actus, this has never been forthcoming and hence the regulations relating to the order fall under the precepts of Canon Law which allows for an order to become extinct 100 years after the deaths of its last member. The last living member admitted before the French Revolution died in 1856. Hence, according to Canon law, the order would have become extinct in 1956, it has been argued that this itself was sufficient to allow the existence of the order right through the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries.[21]

Contemporary documentation confirms that the order was active philanthropically in the mid-nineteenth century in Haifa;[22] while definite admissions were made in the late nineteenth centuries. The order maintains that throughout the nineteenth century after 1841, the order enjoyed the protection of the Melkite Patriarch; in 1910, the order promulgated new statutes placing the management again under the Council of Officers and maintaining the protection of the Melkite Patriarch.[23] A Grand Magistracy was re-established in 1935 with the appointment of Francisco de Borbón y de la Torre.

Notably, no matter if the modern establishment is to be attributed to 1841 under the Patriarch, to 1910 under the council of officers, or to 1935 under the re-erected Grand Magistracy of Francisco de Borbón y de la Torre - whether considered laicized or not - the enact would arguably not strictly be contrary to canon law.[24]

Proposed early history of 1830–1910[edit]

After 1830, the French foundation of the Order of Saint Lazarus allegedly continued under the governance of a Council of Officers.[25]

In 1841, according to later dated church authorities, the council of officers invited the Patriarch of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church Maximos III Mazloum (1779–1855) to become spiritual protector of the order, thence re-establishing a tangible connection with the order's early roots in Jerusalem in the Holy Land.

Indications propose that members supported the rebuilding of the Mount Carmel Monastery in Haifa, Palestine, then under the responsibility of the Melkite Patriarch,[26] while contemporary biographies indicate late 19th-century individuals as having been members of the Order of Saint Lazarus.[27]

In the years that followed, according to the order's own accounts, new knights were admitted, these included admirals Ferdinand-Alphonse Hamelin and Louis Édouard Bouët-Willaumez (1853), comtes Louis François du Mesnil de Maricourt and Paul de Poudenx (1863), comte Jules Marie d'Anselme de Puisaye (1865), vicomte de Boisbaudry (1875), comte Jules Marie d'Anselme de Puisaye (1880 as a hospitaller while living in Tunisia), baron Yves de Constancin (1896), who was later to become commander of the Hospitaller Nobles of Saint Lazarus. The latter was also a knight of the Order of Isabella the Catholic and of Order of Saint Anna of Russia.

1910–1961[edit]

Patriarch Cyril VIII Jaha of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church, spiritual protector of the order (1910–1916).
A summary timeline of the Order, with the relationships of the current rival obediences.

In 1910, a statute was promulgated by a Council of Officers composed of Roman Catholics, subsequently including Paul Watrin, Anselme de la Puisaye, Alexandre Gallery de la Tremblaye, Charles Otzenberger-Detaille, as well as Polish Catholic priest John Tansky, among others.[6] This statute explicitly placed the governance in the hands of the magistracy whose decisions were sovereign and irrevocable, thus manifested as a laicised order, albeit with Patriarch Cyril VIII Jaha of the Melkite Greek Catholic Church as confirmed protector.

The order continually attracted members from the French nobility and by the early 20th century it was attracting knights from further afield, notably Spain and Poland.[28]

In 1935, Don Francisco de Borbón y de la Torre, Duke of Seville, Grand Bailiff of the order in Spain and Lieutenant-General of the Grand Magistracy since 1930, was appointed Grand Master, allegedly authorised so by his cousin, King Alfonso XIII of Spain - thus, according to the order's account, re-establishing the office, vacant since 1814 following the French Revolution.[29] Francisco de Borbón y de la Torre remained Grand Master of the order 1935–1952.

There has since been a Spanish Borbón Grand Master at the helm of the order except for a short interregnum where the Grand Master belonged to the French House of Bourbon family, which occurred in 1969, with the election of the Duke of Brissac as Grand Master with the approval of the Count of Paris, head of the Royal House of France, solicited by the Patriarch Maximos V.

1961 onwards; schisms and obediences[edit]

In 1961 Robert Gayre was appointed Bailiff and Commissioner-General for the order in the English-speaking world with responsibility for expanding the order's membership in that area. Up to then, non-Catholic Christians had been accepted only as affiliate members of the order. Gayre accepted the appointment on condition that henceforth Protestants would be eligible for full membership, the Paris authorities reluctantly agreed and Gayre took as a model to emulate the British Protestant Most Venerable Order of St. John.[30] From this time, although the majority of its members and clergy remained Roman Catholic, the order began to identify itself as an ecumenical order of chivalry,

In 1969, disagreement relating to the management and direction of the order led to a major schism which was to result in two major fractions, which came to be known as 'obediences', the majority of the membership, including nearly all the anglophone members, were led by a series of Spanish Bourbon Grand masters, and came to be known as the Malta obedience, as Gayre was headquartered there. The francophone members became the Paris obedience led by members of the de Brissac family as Grand masters.

The decades that followed were punctuated by a series of attempts at reuniting the two branches, most significantly in 1986, when a significant portion of the anglophone membership in the Malta obedience - including most of those in the U.S., rejoined the Paris obedience.

2004: Orléans obedience[edit]

In 2004, the Paris obedience underwent a further schism, breaking off from the de Brissac leadership, with the formation of the Orléans obedience under the headship of Prince Charles Philippe, Duke of Anjou, thus enjoying the temporal protection of the Head of the Royal House of France Henri d'Orléans, Count of Paris, le duc de l'oncle de Anjou.[31]

In 2010, Charles-Philippe resigned as 49th grand master to become Grand Master Emeritus, and was succeeded by his maternal uncle the Czech CountCount Jan Dobrzenský z Dobrzenicz.[32][33][34]

In 2012, Henri d'Orléans, Count of Paris, temporarily removed his royal protection from the Orleans Obedience.[33] Again, on 31 January 2014, Henri d'Orléans expressly stated that only he can represent the Royal House of France and that "cette protection temporelle leur a été retirée par ma démission es qualités, notifiée à Pâques 2012. .... Toute référence à une quelconque protection temporelle actuelle de la Maison Royale de France, est donc pure affabulation et mensonge".[33] which he reconstituted again, at least temporarily in February 2014.[35]

However, on 8 September 2014, Henri d'Orléans restored his temporal protection of the Order of Saint Lazarus (by jus sanguinis) and attached it as a Lieutenancy to his revival of the Order of Our Lady of Mount Carmel.[36] He explained that this amalgamation was established to defend the cultural heritage of France and to assure that the Order of Saint Lazarus continues its hospitaller missions of mercy and care.[35] A declaration published by the Order of Saint Lazarus by the Saint Lazarus Grand Magisterium, its Government Council and its Constitutional Council welcomed this amalgamation under Henri d'Orléans, Count of Paris, as affirming again, "more than ever" the legitimacy of the order.[37] An attached declaration confirmed that the protection of Saint Lazarus by the Royal House of France was represented within the order by Prince Charles Philippe, Duke of Anjou as Grand Master Emeritus and Grand Prior of France.[37] Moreover, the Count of Paris, noted in his blog, that the statutes of the ancient combined orders, as well as those of the attached Lieutenancy of Saint Lazarus, were in accordance with the 1901 French law on associations, deposited and accepted by the Grand Chancellor of the National Order of the Legion of Honor.[35]

There is no scholarly consensus of the exact scope of a dynast's fons hornorum, some argue that the heads of formerly regnant houses, like the Count of Paris, by right of blood (jure sanguinis), can (jus honorum) even create or revive household orders moto proprio as an inviolable family prerogative. Prominent Italian Jurist and president of chamber of the Italian Republic’ highest court of appeal the Corte Suprema di Cassazione, Ercole Tanturri expressed the idea of heritable sovereignty as "a perpetual quality, indelibly linked and united in the centuries to all the offspring of one who first achieved or claimed and is realized in the person of the Head of Name and Arms of Dynasty. . ." [38] This thinking is reflected in the February 2011 statement of legitimacy for the Order of St. Lazarus, which avers that "the temporal protection of the Order guaranteed by H.R.H. the Count of Paris, Duc de France, Head of the Royal House of France, as its fons honorum assures the traditional and historical legitimacy of the Order, with the added grace of ensuring that The Order is not in the patrimony of the Royal House of France."[39] Thus, even the Orleanist order of St. Lazar disavows that it is a dynastic foundation, but rather a historic canonical and French royal institution that is protected by the fons of the current claimant to the defunct French thrown, this debate, aside, the influential Genealogist Louis Mendola concede's that Henri’s royal patronage should certainly protect the Orleanist group from being lumped together with obviously "self-styled" groups and is at least, if not more, a "quasi-chivalric confraternity dedicated to charitable work."[40] Still others argue that the Count of Paris can simply do what he wants as a fountain of honor, including create a new order or revive an old one, this notion is captured in the idea that "Orléans' Order as protected by the count of Paris, is a "legitimate and valid chivalric order since the Royal House of France is indeed a fount of honor. One can even argue that it would be a sort of revival of the ancient Order that was merged with the Order of Mt. Carmel by the French Crown in the 17th century" [41] Finally, the formal link between the Orleanist Order and the Holy See has been ensured by the spiritual guidance of His Eminence Cardinal Dominik Duka, who followed in this role, Cardinal László Paskai, former Primate of Hungary where the order has formal governmental recognition.

On December 10, 2016 Jan Count Dobzensky z Dobrzenicz, 50th grand master of the Order of St. Lazarus was knighted by Pope Francis as a Commander of the Pontifical Equestrian Order of St. Gregory the Great. Also elevated into the order of Saint Sylvester Pope and Martyr, was the order's Herald for the Grand Priory of Bohemia, Chev. Zdirad Jan Krtitel Cech, who entered as a knight.[42]

2008: Malta-Paris obedience[edit]

Castello Lanzun, headquarters of the Malta-Paris obedience in Malta.

In 2008, the previously separate Malta and Paris obediences formally reunited into the Malta-Paris Obedience under the headship of Carlos Gereda y de Borbón and the Spiritual Protectorship of Melchite Greek Catholic Patriarch of Antioch Gregory III Laham.[32][43]

On 27 May 2012, Gregory III Laham signed the aforementioned declaration in Kevelaer, Germany, confirming the continuity of the order (under the united Malta-Paris obedience) under the Patriarchs of Antioch since his predecessor Patriarch Maximos III Mazloum had accepted the role of Spiritual Protector of the order in 1841.[44]

2008: Grand Priory of Carpathia[edit]

The Grand Priory of Carpathia is an alliance of Jurisdictions of the Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem which are located within the Carpathian Basin, or adjacent to it, or historically were part of the Kingdom of Hungary or the Austro-Hungarian Empire.

The Grand Prior is Colonel Andrew von Rhedey.

In 2004, the leaders broke from the then recognized Obediences. Efforts to achieve a reconciliation failed in 2008 when the Constitution of the new united Malta-Paris obedience was not accepted, from that time onward, the Grand Priory of Carpathia has functioned autonomously.

See website http://www.lazarusorder.net

2010: Jerusalem obedience[edit]

In 2010, there was a further split within the Orléans obedience, requiring the Count of Paris to clarify that his temporal protection would remain with the obedience under Count Jan Dobrzenský z Dobrzenicz (Orléanist) as opposed to those who had broken away to form their own group under the leadership of Count Philippe Piccapietra[45] who had previously been a member of the team led by Prince Charles Philippe, Duke of Anjou.

Piccapietra went on to establish Saint Lazare International in 2012 with its headquarters in Jerusalem,[46] this 'Jerusalem obedience' now has as its Grand Master, Prince Sixtus Henry of Bourbon-Parma and enjoys the spiritual patronage of Anglican Bishop Richard Gerard, emeritus Representative of the Archbishop of Canterbury to the Holy See.

2013: Royal Byelorussian Protectorate[edit]

In 2013, the Royal Byelorussian Protectorate of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem was set up as a breakaway from the Grand Priory of Carpathia, this Protectorate is sponsored by the Abbey-Principality of San Luigi, a body claiming to be the government-in-exile of a small sovereign nation-sate.

Organisation[edit]

Purpose[edit]

The purpose of the Order is to "care and assistance of the sick and the poor, and to the support and defense of the Christian faith and the traditions and principles of Christian chivalry."

Charity[edit]

In recent years the order participate in worldwide humanitarian efforts, it has been engaged in a major charitable program to revive Christianity in Eastern Europe: Russia, Ukraine, Armenia, Georgia, and the Near East: Lebanon, Syria, and the Palestinian territories. Millions of dollars worth of food, clothing, medical equipment and supplies have been distributed by the LHW-volunteers of the Humanitarian Grand Priory Europe (GPEU) in Poland, Hungary, Lithuania, Romania, Croatia and Macedonia. Because of this experience, the European Community commissioned the LHW-volunteer organisation Lazarus-Hilfswerk to transport more than 21,000 tons of food to the hungry in Russia and to distribute it in St. Petersburg, Novorod and Moscow, the Order organised with the LHW food aid and managed reconstruction projects after the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami.[47][48][49]

  • In New Zealand, the order supplied funds to "Victim Support" of Wellington to assist people to contending with the after-effects of earthquakes and floods.[50]
  • The Commandery in Lochore, Scotland, established a volunteer ambulance corps.[51]
  • The order in Malta funded the purchase by the "Emergency Fire and Rescue Unit" of a specialized stretcher purposely designed for particular rescue operations besides funding a number of philanthropic projects including support to organisations working with victims of Hansen's Disease.[52]
  • The order in Spain held a gala dinner to raise funds to benefit Cáritas, the Little Sisters of the Poor of Ronda, province of Málaga, and the Foundation Fontilles among other institutions.[53]
  • The order in Canada funds medical research, especially in leprosy, provides financial assistance to theology students by way of Saint Lazarus bursaries, and supports leprosy hospices.[54]

The various jurisdictions still undertake to support the modern fight against leprosy, also known as Hansen's disease (HD).

Insignia and vestments[edit]

Norman St John-Stevas, Baron St John of Fawsley, wearing the mantle of the Malta-Paris obedience of the order.

For the Order of Saint Lazarus ceremonial occasions, such as investitures, the members wear distinctive vestments and insignia, the mantle of the order is a black cloak with a green velvet collar and the cross of the order sewn onto the left side. The mantle is always worn at religious ceremonies; in addition to the mantle and insignia members of the order normally wear white gloves and ladies may also wear a mantilla in church.

The insignia of a knight is a badge with military trophy pendant from a green neck ribbon, and a golden breast star. Dames of the order wear the badge with wreath of laurel and oak springs from a ribbon bow and a golden breast star. A green button hole rosette may also be worn on a business suit by gentlemen of the order.[55]

Gallery[edit]

Membership[edit]

Membership of the Order of Saint Lazarus is by invitation only and is an honour granted by the Grand Magistry of the order, the order include among their members people of the European nobility, academics, politicians and senior clergy. Membership in the order is divided into two classes, knights of justice and knights of magistral grace, the former restricted to members of families with noble titles.[56] All members of the order are invested in one of the following ranks, regardless of whether they qualify for justice or magistral grace:

Lay Rank (Paris/Malta) Clergy Rank (Paris/Malta) Lay Rank (Orleans) Clergy Rank (Orleans)
Knight/Dame Grand Cross
GCLJ
Ecclesiastical Grand Cross
EGCLJ
Knight/Dame Grand Cross
GCLJ
Prelate Grand Cross
GCLJ
Knight/Dame Commander
KCLJ / DCLJ
Chaplain Commander
CCLJ
Knight/Dame Commander
KCLJ / DCLJ
Ecclesiastical Commander
ECLJ
Knight/Dame
KLJ / DLJ
Senior Chaplain
SChLJ
Knight/Dame
KLJ / DLJ
Senior Chaplain
SChLJ
Commander
CLJ
Chaplain
ChLJ
- -
Officer
OLJ
Assistant Chaplain
AChLJ
Serving Brother/Sister
SBLJ / SSLJ
Chaplain
ChLJ
Member
MLJ
- Brother / Sister
BLJ / SLJ
-

Men who are invested in the rank of knight (KLJ) or higher are entitled to the prenominal Chevalier. Women invested in the rank of Dame or higher are entitled to the prenominal Dame.

In the Orleans obedience, full membership is restricted to those aged 25 or above, although a noviciate membership level is open to those aged 18 or above.[57]

There is also a Companionate of Merit which is often used to honour individuals who are not members of the order, but have supported its work, or made a significant contribution to society,[58][59] those admitted may receive the grade of Member of Merit, Officer of Merit, Commander of Merit, Knight/Dame of Merit, or Knight/Dame Grand Cross of Merit.

Status, controversy and recognition[edit]

Former Patriarch of Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Gregory III Laham, Spiritual Protector of the Malta-Paris obedience.
Cardinal Dominik Duka, Archbishop of Prague, Spiritual Protector the Orléans obedience.

Although the Order enjoys the individual recognition of multiple ecclesial, royal and other dignitaries, the legitimacy including fount of honour of both branches of the modern Order of Saint Lazarus continues to be debated by historians [60] and by the private, self-appointed International Commission on Order of Chivalry (ICOC) which does not include the MHOLJ on its Provisional List of Orders (2010) and argues that:

Despite the claims of those who believe this Order continued to flourish during the 19th century, there is no evidence to support such a survival, which, in any case, would have had no legal or statutory basis; the present body styling itself the Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem is entirely a modern, 20th century, and private foundation. Accordingly, in France, the purported mother country of Saint Lazarus, the modern organization has been prohibited from using the designation ‘order’ and wear chivalric insignia.

Finally, the Order was originally a religious foundation, established by Papal Bull and the grant of various privileges by successive Popes, and the decision to allow the Order to become extinct was not challenged by the Holy See which has repeatedly condemned the modern revival.

It should be noted that Saint Lazarus, which thus cannot be considered an order of chivalry, carries out praiseworthy charitable, humanitarian activity producing numerous contributions to social works and therefore it might be included among in a category of Organisations inspired by Chivalry.

Catholic Church[edit]

The "condemnations" mentioned by the ICOC above were unofficially published in the L'Osservatore Romano, possibly in contravention of Canon Law, as the MHOLJ existed as Canonical entity until 1956.[61]

In a note of clarification from the Secretariat of State, headed by the Cardinal Secretary of State, the Holy See has made an official statement clarifying that it only recognizes its own orders:[16]

In response to frequent requests for information concerning the recognition by the Holy See of Equestrian Orders dedicated to the saints or to holy places, the Secretariat of State considers it opportune to reiterate what has already been published, namely that, other than its own Equestrian Orders (the Supreme Order of Christ, the Order of the Golden Spur, the Pian Order, the Order of Saint Gregory the Great, and the Order of Pope Saint Sylvester), the Holy See recognises and supports only the Sovereign Military Order of Malta - also known as the Sovereign Military Hospitaller Order of Saint John of Jerusalem of Rhodes and of Malta - and the Equestrian Order of the Holy Sepulchre of Jerusalem. The Holy See foresees no additions or innovations in this regard.

All other orders, whether of recent origin or mediaeval foundation, are not recognised by the Holy See. Furthermore, the Holy See does not guarantee their historical or juridical legitimacy, their ends or organisational structures.

To avoid any possible doubts, even owing to illicit issuing of documents or the inappropriate use of sacred places, and to prevent the continuation of abuses which may result in harm to people of good faith, the Holy See confirms that it attributes absolutely no value whatsoever to certificates of membership or insignia issued by these groups, and it considers inappropriate the use of churches or chapels for their so-called "ceremonies of investiture".

However, since 2012, the Vatican has ceased to specifically list orders it does not acknowledge in order to simply list those Catholic ones that it actually does.

The last living member admitted before the French Revolution died in 1856. Hence, according to Canon law, the order would have become extinct 100 years later, in 1956; in the interim, the order in 1910 had secularized itself under the protection of the Melkite Patriarch and hence was no longer under the precepts of the Roman Catholic Church. Notably, no matter if the modern establishment is to be attributed to 1841 under the Patriarch, to 1910 under the Council of Officers, or to 1935 under the re-erected Grand Magistracy of Francisco de Borbón y de la Torre - whether considered laicized or not - the enact would arguably not strictly be contrary to the Canon law.[24]

Notwithstanding, ever since the statutes of 1910, a number of prominent Catholic prelates, including Cardinals, have acted as chaplains in different positions of the order.

The Malta-Paris obedience enjoys as Spiritual Protector the former Patriarch of Melkite Greek Catholic Church, Gregory III Laham, on 27 May 2012, Gregory III Laham signed a declaration in Kevelaer, Germany, confirming the continuity of the order (under the united Malta-Paris obedience) under the Patriarchs of Antioch since his predecessor Patriarch Maximos III Mazloum had accepted the role of Spiritual Protector of the order in 1841.[44] Previously, Cardinal Basil Hume was a member of the order in England as is his successor Cardinal Cormac Murphy O'Connor. The Catholic Archbishop of Sydney, Cardinal George Pell[62][63] is a former national chaplain and member of the order in Australia. The present Ecclesiastical Grand Prior of the order is H.E. The Most Reverend Archbishop Michele Pennisi, EGCLJ (Sicily, Italy).

The Orléans obedience enjoys as Spiritual Protector Cardinal Dominik Duka, and previously enjoyed Cardinal László Paskai, former Primate of Hungary, in the position.[64]

National legal authorities[edit]

In Spain, the order received recognition from the state through a number of legal documents.[65]

The Orleans obedience enjoys perceived recognition as per a government communiqué and other cooperation efforts in and of Czech Republic.[66]

Royalties[edit]

Don Carlos Gereda y de Borbón, 49th Grand Master of the united Malta-Paris obedience.

King Juan Carlos I of Spain allowed his kinsman don Carlos Gereda y de Borbon to accept the position of Grand Master of the order (Malta-Paris obedience) in 2008.

The Orléans obedience claims the protection of Henri d'Orléans, Count of Paris.[67] In 2004, the count of Paris allowed his nephew Prince Charles Philippe, Duke of Anjou to take the position of 49th Grand Master of the order in the Orléans obedience. Following the split of the Paris obedience in 2004 that led to the establishment of the Orléans obedience of the Order of Saint Lazarus under Prince Charles Philippe, Duke of Anjou, Henri d'Orléans, Count of Paris, head of the Orléanist branch of the House of Bourbon, re-established his temporal protection.[67] In 2010, the Prince resigned and since, the Grand Master of the Orléans obedience is Count Jan Dobrzenský z Dobrzenicz.

Prominent members[edit]

Malta-Paris obedience[edit]

A number of royal houses are represented among the knights of the order, including Prince David Bagrationi of Moukhrani of Georgia, Zera Yacob Amha Selassie, Crown Prince of Ethiopia.

Also, the Patriarch Abune Paulos of the Ethiopian Orthodox Tewahedo Church.

In the United Kingdom the order has counted several senior aristocrats among its membership, the Rt. Hon. Earl Ferrers was the grand prior of England and Wales (Malta obedience) until March 2012 when he was replaced by the 22nd Earl of Shrewsbury, who was in turn replaced in 2013 by the Marquess of Lothian. In Scotland Viscount Gough is head of the grand bailiwick of Scotland.

In Ireland, Denis O'Conor Don, Chief of the Name O'Conor and principal claiment to the High Kingship of Ireland,[68] was a knight of justice in the order as well as Juge d'Armes of the Grand Priory of Ireland.[69] Other noble families are also represented among the order's membership in Ireland, including O'Morchoe, Bunbury and Guinness.

The grand priory of Australia is under the patronage of the Governor-General of Australia Quentin Bryce;[70] in New Zealand, the Governor General Sir Jerry Mateparae is both a knight and patron of the order, and the Māori King Tuheitia Paki is a knight commander of the order.

Orléans obedience[edit]

Count Jan Dobrzensky z Dobrzenic, 50th Grand Master of the Orléans obedience.

Martin Thacker, the feudal Baron of Fetternear, is the Grand Prior of Orléans obedience in Great Britain. In Portugal the Grand Prior is Francisco Fonseca da Silva, Marquis et Comte d' Ervededo, the Grand Prior for Lusophone Africa is Abel de Lacerda Botelho, Comte de Ribadouro.[71] In Poland the Spiritual Prior is Bishop Jan Tyrawa.[72]

Imitative bodies[edit]

Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem (1995)[edit]

Founded by John von Hoff (died 2017), its website states that a "Grand Priory of England, Wales, Isle of Man and Channel Islands", of which Niels Ole Larsen is now the Grand Master, was established in 1995, and that a wider body of "United Grand Priories" was set up in 1999, the organization claims it is not an order of chivalry and that it has no pretensions of being an order of chivalry directly descended from the original Order of Saint Lazarus, or from the order statuted in 1910.

Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem (1995)[edit]

This body's website states that an organization called "United Grand Priories of the Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem" was established in 1995, the organization claims to have a presence in many countries of the world and to have 14,000 members. It appears to be based in Edinburgh, Scotland, with an administrative presence in Malta, under the leadership of Richard Comyns of Luston (Supreme Grand Prior) and the spiritual direction of Mgr Joseph Vella Gauci (Grand Chaplain General), the organization claims to be chivalric, but makes no claim of being an order of chivalry descended directly from the original Order of Saint Lazarus, or from the order statuted in 1910.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ http://www.st-lazarus.net/en/the-order/castello-lanzun
  2. ^ http://www.st-lazarus.net/en/the-order/constitution
  3. ^ http://orderofsaintlazarus.com/pdf/3_3/constitutional-charter.pdf
  4. ^ http://www.st-lazarus.net/en/structure/persons/spiritual-protector
  5. ^ http://orderofsaintlazarus.com/organisation.php?lng=en&id_rub=2
  6. ^ a b de Jandriac. Les chevaliers Hospitaliers de Saint Lazare de Jerusalem et de Notre Dame de la Merci. Rivista Araldica, November 1913, XI(11):p.679–683
  7. ^ A Paper dated 1999, titled "Orders connected to the Order of St John of Jerusalem" published on the website http://www.orderstjohn.org/osj/otherord.htm#lazarus Retrieved 7 August 2017.
  8. ^ Nelson, H. W. & Ross, M. (2015). Exploring Legitimacy: The Controversial Case of the Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus. Journal of Alternative Perspectives 6, (4), 352-375.
  9. ^ Van Duren, Peter Bander. (1995). Orders of knighthood and of merit: the pontifical, religious and secularised Catholic-founded orders and their relationship to the Apostolic See.Gerrards Cross : Colin Smythe publishers
  10. ^ Savona-Ventura, Charles & Ross, Michael (Summer 2013). The heraldry and development of the Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. Retrieved August 17, 2014 at: http://www.lazarus-scotland.co.uk/stlazdouble%20tressure.pdf
  11. ^ Kevelaer Declaration at:the Declaration of Kevelaer in 2012 issued by Patriarch Gregorios III Laham
  12. ^ Decree of the Czech Episcopal Conference of 1 June 2012 ratifying the decision of the sitting of 24 April 2012.
  13. ^ "Constitution of The Order". The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. 2015. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  14. ^ http://www.icocregister.org/premise.htm
  15. ^ Pfeifle, F. & de la Martiniere, J.P.G. (2014). Dr. Hans von Leden, Grand Hospitaller of the Order of St. lazarus & Member of the Chivalry Committee. The Augustan Omnibus, vol. XXX, No. 2, Issue # 126, (pp.38-42)
  16. ^ a b "Note of clarification from the Secretariat of State" (Press release). Vatican City: Vatican Information Service, Holy See. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  17. ^ as the other International organizations of scholars in documentary sciences ie. groups as the International Academy of Heraldry and - AIH and International Academy for Genealogy - AIG
  18. ^ http://www.heraldica.org/topics/orders/lazarus.htm
  19. ^ Savona-Ventura, Charles & Ross, Michael. Frequent Questions and Answers about the Order of Saint Lazarus. Retrieved August 21, 2014 at: http://www.st-lazarus.net/international/qanda/faq.php?print=true&cat_name=Frequent%20Questions%20and%20Answers%20about%20the%20Order%20of%20Saint%20Lazarus&category_id=1javascript:submit_faq%28%27%27%29
  20. ^ refVan Duren, Peter Bander. (1995). Orders of knighthood and of merit: the pontifical, religious and secularised Catholic-founded orders and their relationship to the Apostolic See. Gerrards Cross : Colin Smythe publishers
  21. ^ C. Savona-Ventura and M.W. Ross: The Heraldry and Development of the Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem. Published in 'Double tressure: The Journal of the Heraldry Society of Scotland, Summer 2013, 36:+28p.
  22. ^ Adolphe Dumas. Temple et Hospice du Mont-Carmel en Palesine. Fain & Thunot, Paris, 1844, p.11–12
  23. ^ de Jandriac. Les chevaliers Hospitaliers de Saint Lazare de Jerusalem et de Notre Dame de la Merci. Rivista Araldica, November 1913, XI(11):p.679–683.
  24. ^ a b http://www.st-lazarus.net/en/the-order/q-a
  25. ^ Bander van Duren, Peter (1995) Orders of Knighthood and of Merit-The Pontifical, Religious and Secularised Catholic-founded Orders and their relationship to the Apostolic See, Buckinghamshire, ss. 495–513, XLV-XLVII
  26. ^ Adolphe Dumas. Temple et Hospice du Mont-Carmel en Palestine. Fain & Thunot, Paris, 1844, p. 11–12
  27. ^ P. Bertrand de la Grassiere: L'Ordre militaire et hospitalier de Saint-Lazare de Jerusalem: Son histoire - son action. Peyronnet et Cle, Paris, 1960, +188p.
  28. ^ P. Bertrand de la Grassiere: L'Ordre militaire et hospitalier de Saint-Lazare de Jerusalem: Son histoire - son action. Peyronnet et Cle, Paris, 1960, +188p
  29. ^ Les Chevaliers de Saint Lazare de 1789 à 1930, Guy Coutant de Saisseval, Drukkerij Weimar by The Hague, undated
  30. ^ "accessed online 5 May 2012". Maineworldnewsservice.com. Retrieved 2012-06-19. 
  31. ^ Solemn Declaration by His Royal Highness the Count of Paris, 12 September 2004.
  32. ^ a b "A Brief History of the Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem". The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem (Australia). Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  33. ^ a b c Comte de Paris, Henri (31 January 2014). "Communiqué de Monseigneur le Comte de Paris". La couronne (in French). La Couronne.org. Retrieved 25 May 2015. 
  34. ^ "Grand Master". The Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem (USA). 2011. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  35. ^ a b c http://leblogducomtedeparis.fr/
  36. ^ http://ordredeletoileetdumontcarmel.fr/
  37. ^ a b z Dobreznics, H. E. Jan Count Dobrezensky; Cardinal Duka, O.P., H. D. Dominik; d' Orleans, H. R. H. Prince Charles-Phillipee (February 2014). Declaration Portant Sur L'Ancien Ordre Royal Et Souverain De L' Etoile Et De Notre-DAme Du Mont-Carmel. Ordo Militaris et Hospitalaris Sancti Lazari Hierosolymitani. 
  38. ^ Journal of Heraldry and Genealogy No. 7-12 December 1954)
  39. ^ http://www.orderofsaintlazarus.com/pdf/3_3/declaration-legitimity.pdf
  40. ^ fMendola, L.(2006) Knighthood and knightly orders today: a concise Survey (2006). In the Order of Malta Studies. Retrieved July 11, 2014 at; http://www.regalis.com/malta/knights.htm>
  41. ^ Andreou, Kimon (December 2, 2014). IDTG http://www.idtg.org/archive/2021-further-on-the-order-of-st-lazarus-of-jerusalem/
  42. ^ Mathew Jackson(December 10th 2010).Press Release from the office of His Excellency the Grand Secretary Chevalier Matthew Jackson
  43. ^ "H.E. Don Carlos Gereda de Borbon, Marquis de Almazan, 49th Grand Master". Structure: Persons: Grand Master. Military and Hospitaller Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. Retrieved 24 May 2015. 
  44. ^ a b Declaration on the Ninth Centenary of the Royal Recognition of the Order St. Lazarus of Jerusalem, Kevekaer, Germany, 27 May 2012.
  45. ^ "After 700 years, the Knights of St. Lazarus return to Jerusalem... riding electric buggies". The Times of Israel. 
  46. ^ Saint Lazare International
  47. ^ Oslj.org (Paris obedience)
  48. ^ orderofsaintlazarus.com (Orléans obedience)
  49. ^ st-lazarus.net (Malta obedience)
  50. ^ "Vital support for the people of Canterbury", Victim Support, Wellington, NZ, April 20, 2015
  51. ^ "The Order of St Lazarus Emergency Ambulance Corps", St. Vincent's Chapel, Scottish Episcopal Church, Diocese of Edinburgh
  52. ^ [1]
  53. ^ "Great gala of the Order of Saint Lazarus", IGGA, July 27, 2013
  54. ^ "L'ordre Militaire Et Hospitalier De Saint-lazare-de-jerusalem Au Canada", Open Charity
  55. ^ * Morris of Balgonie, Stuart H., Ygr., The Insignia and Decorations of the Military and Hospitaller Order of Saint Lazarus of Jerusalem, Perthshire, 1986
  56. ^ Paris-Malta obedience membership details, Priory of Scotland.
  57. ^ Orealns obedience membership details.
  58. ^ "Paris/Orléans: Rank and insignia". 
  59. ^ "Malta: Rank and insignia". Oslj.org. Retrieved 2012-06-19. 
  60. ^ Van Duren, Peter Bander. (1995). Orders of knighthood and of merit : the pontifical, religious and secularised Catholic-founded orders and their relationship to the Apostolic See. Gerrards Cross : Colin Smythe publishers; also: Savona-Ventura, Charles & Ross, Michael (Summer 2013). The heraldry and development of the Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem. Retrieved August 17, 2014 at: http://www.lazarus-scotland.co.uk/stlazdouble%20tressure.pdf
  61. ^ Savona-Ventura, Charles & Ross, Michael (Summer 2013). The heraldry and development of the Order of St. Lazarus of Jerusalem: http://www.lazarus-scotland.co.uk/stlazdouble%20tressure.pdf
  62. ^ "(Austria)". St-lazarus.org.au. 2004-01-01. Retrieved 2012-06-19. 
  63. ^ "(Austria)". Abc.net.au. Retrieved 2012-06-19. 
  64. ^ "(Spiritual protector)". Oslj.org. 2005-05-21. Retrieved 2012-06-19. 
  65. ^ Journal Officiel de l'Etat, numero 131, du 10 Mai 1940, p.3177,3178
  66. ^ prap. Markéta Gecová (2012-03-15). "Představitelé armády a Vojenského špitálního řádu podepsali dohodu o spolupráci". Acr.army.cz. Retrieved 2012-06-19. 
  67. ^ a b Guy Stair Sainty, Rafal Heydel-Mankoo: World Orders of Knighthood and Merit, 2006, ISBN 0-9711966-7-2, vol. II, p.1859
  68. ^ Curley, W. Vanishing Kingdoms. Dublin. Lilliput Press.
  69. ^ http://www.stlazarus.ie
  70. ^ "Official Website of Governor General of Australia | Patronages". Retrieved 28 April 2011. 
  71. ^ http://www.orderofsaintlazarus.com/contact.php?lng=en
  72. ^ http://lazaruskrosn.nazwa.pl/?page_id=236

External links[edit]