Queen Anne of Romania
Queen Anne of Romania was the wife of Michael I, former King of Romania. Anne was born in Paris, the only daughter of Prince René of Bourbon-Parma and Princess Margaret of Denmark. With her three brothers she spent her childhood in France, their holidays were spent alternately at the Villa Pianore in Lucca with their paternal grandmother the Dowager Duchess of Parma, or at Bernstorff Palace in Copenhagen with their maternal grandfather. In 1939 her family escaped to Spain. From there they went on to Portugal and to the United States, she attended the Parsons School of Design in New York City from 1940 to 1943. She worked as a sales assistant at Macy's department store. In 1943, she volunteered for military service in the French Army, she served in Algeria, Italy, Luxembourg and in liberated Germany, as an ambulance driver. Anne received the French Croix de guerre for her wartime service. In November 1947, Anne met King Michael I of Romania, visiting London for the wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip Mountbatten.
In fact, a year Queen Mother Elena had invited Anne, her mother, brothers for a visit to Bucharest, but the plan did not come off. Meanwhile, Michael requested a photograph from the film footage, she did not want to accompany her parents to London for the royal wedding as she wished to avoid meeting King Michael in official surroundings. Instead, she planned to stay behind, go alone to the Paris railway station and, pretending to be a passerby in the crowd observe the king as his entourage escorted him to his London-bound train. However, at the last moment she was persuaded by her first cousin, Prince Jean of Luxembourg, to come to London, where he planned to host a party. Upon arrival, she stopped by Claridge's to see her parents, found herself being introduced unexpectedly to King Michael. Abashed to the point of confusion, she clicked her heels instead of curtseying, fled in embarrassment. Charmed, the king saw her again the night of the wedding at the Luxembourg embassy soirée, confided in her some of his concerns about the Communist takeover of Romania and fears for his mother's safety, nicknamed her Nan.
They saw each other several times thereafter on outings in London, always chaperoned by her mother or brother. A few days she accepted an invitation to accompany Michael and his mother when he piloted a Beechcraft aeroplane to take his aunt Princess Irene, Duchess of Aosta, back home to Lausanne. Sixteen days after meeting, Michael proposed to Anne while the couple were out on a drive in Lausanne, she declined, but accepted after taking long walks and drives with him. Although Michael gave her an engagement ring a few days he felt obliged to refrain from a public announcement until he informed his government, despite the fact that the press besieged them in anticipation. Michael returned to Romania, where he was told by the prime minister that a wedding announcement was not "opportune", yet within days it was used as the government's public explanation for Michael's sudden "abdication", when in fact the king was deposed by the Communists on 30 December. Anne was unable to get further news of Michael.
They reunited in Davos on 23 January 1948. As a Bourbon, Anne was bound by the canon law of the Roman Catholic Church, which required that she receive a dispensation to marry a non-Catholic Christian. At the time, such a dispensation was only given if the non-Roman Catholic partner promised to allow the children of the marriage to be raised as Roman Catholics. Michael refused to make this promise since it would have violated Romania's monarchical constitution, would be to have a detrimental impact upon any possible restoration; the Holy See refused to grant the dispensation. Helen, Queen Mother of Romania and her sister Princess Irene of Greece and Denmark, Duchess of Aosta met with the fiancée's parents in Paris, where the two families resolved to take their case to the Vatican in person. In early March, the couple's mothers met with Pope Pius XII who, despite the entreaties of the Queen Mother and the fact that Princess Margrethe pounded her fist on the table in anger, refused permission for Anne to marry Michael.
It has been surmised that the Pope's refusal was, in part, motivated by the fact that when Princess Giovanna of Italy married Anne's cousin, King Boris III of Bulgaria, in 1930, the couple had undertaken to raise their future children as Roman Catholics, but had baptized them in the Orthodox faith in deference to Bulgaria's state religion. However, Michael declined to make a promise he could not keep politically, while Anne's mother was herself the daughter of a mixed marriage between a Catholic and a Protestant, who had abided by their pre-ne temere compromise to raise their sons as Protestant and their daughter, Margrethe, as Catholic. Although under a great deal of stress, the engaged couple resolved to proceed. Anne's paternal uncle, Duke of Parma, issued a statement objecting to any marriage conducted against the will of the Pope and the bride's family, it was he, not the Pontiff. Michael's spokesman declared on 9 June that the parents had been asked and had given their consent, that the bride's family would be represented at the nuptials by her maternal uncle, the Protestant Prince Erik of Denmark, to give the br
Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia
Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia, sometimes known as Helen, Helene, Yelena, Hélène, or Eleni, was a Russian grand duchess as the only daughter and youngest child of Grand Duke Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia and Duchess Marie of Mecklenburg-Schwerin. Her husband was Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark and they were both first cousins of Emperor Nicholas II of Russia. Elena and her three surviving older brothers, Kirill and Andrei, had an English nanny and spoke English as their first language; the young Elena was sometimes out of control. When she posed for an artist at age four, she grabbed a paper knife and threatened her nurse, who hid behind the artist. "The little lady transferred her attentions to me, her black eyes ablaze with fury," recalled the artist. Elena, raised by a mother, conscious of her social status, was considered snobbish by some. "Poor little thing, I feel sorry for her," wrote her mother's social rival, Dowager Empress Maria Feodorovna, "for she is quite sweet, but vain and pretty grandiose."
She was engaged to Prince Max of Baden, but Max backed out of the engagement. Elena's mother was furious and society gossiped about Elena's difficulty in finding a husband. At one point in 1899, the seventeen-year-old Elena was reputedly engaged to Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, however this came to nothing as he fell in love with Countess Sophie Chotek. Prince Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, the third son of George I of Greece, first proposed in 1900, but Elena's mother was reluctant to allow her daughter to marry a younger son with no real fortune or prospects of inheriting a throne, she agreed to let Elena marry Nicholas, Elena's second cousin through his mother Olga Constantinovna of Russia and her father Vladimir Alexandrovich of Russia, in 1902 after it became clear that no other offers were on the horizon. The couple were married on 29 August 1902 in Russia. Like many imperial weddings, it was a grand affair, was attended by the Emperor and Empress of Russia, the King and Queen of the Hellenes, among other royals and nobility of Russia.
The Dowager Empress wrote that Elena "has a brusque and arrogant tone that can shock people" and expected trouble in the marriage. Elena's "grand manner" did irritate some people at the court. Prince and Princess Nicholas had three daughters: Princess Olga of Denmark. Princess Olga was born 11 June at Tatoi Palace. Princess Elizabeth of Greece and Denmark. Born 24 May at Tatoi Palace. Princess Marina of Greece and Denmark. Born at Totoi Palace on 13 December. Grand Duchess Elena suffered from ill health after the birth of Princess Marina, which caused her husband anguish; the family was affected by the turmoil of the Russian Revolution of 1917 and the subsequent turmoil in Greece, which became a republic and resulted in the family living in France for a time. While living in France Grand Duchess Elena became involved in charity work for Russian exiles children. Short of money due to their exile from Greece and the loss of their Russian income, Prince Nicholas and his family lived in reduced, but elegant, circumstances.
Grand Duchess Elena's fabulous jewel collection, as well as Prince Nicholas' own artwork, were their sources of income. Princess Olga of Greece married Prince Paul of Yugoslavia. Grand Duchess Elena became a widow early in 1938, as Prince Nicholas suffered a heart attack and died suddenly, she remained in Greece throughout the Second World War, dying there in 1957. She bequeathed her personal library to the Anavryta School. 17 January 1882 – 29 August 1902: Her Imperial Highness Grand Duchess Elena Vladimirovna of Russia. 29 August 1902 - 13 March 1957: Her Imperial and Royal Highness Princess Nicholas of Greece and Denmark, Grand Duchess of Russia Dame Grand Cordon of the Order of Saint Catherine. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Olga and Sophia Paul Theroff, An Online Gotha Charlotte Zeepvat, The Camera and the Tsars: A Romanov Family Album, Sutton Publishing, 2004, ISBN 0-7509-3049-7
Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records, its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Armenian, Coptic and many other writing systems; the Greek language holds an important place in the history of Christianity. Greek is the language in which many of the foundational texts in science astronomy and logic and Western philosophy, such as the Platonic dialogues and the works of Aristotle, are composed. Together with the Latin texts and traditions of the Roman world, the study of the Greek texts and society of antiquity constitutes the discipline of Classics. During antiquity, Greek was a spoken lingua franca in the Mediterranean world, West Asia and many places beyond.
It would become the official parlance of the Byzantine Empire and develop into Medieval Greek. In its modern form, Greek is the official language in two countries and Cyprus, a recognised minority language in seven other countries, is one of the 24 official languages of the European Union; the language is spoken by at least 13.2 million people today in Greece, Italy, Albania and the Greek diaspora. Greek roots are used to coin new words for other languages. Greek has been spoken in the Balkan peninsula since around the 3rd millennium BC, or earlier; the earliest written evidence is a Linear B clay tablet found in Messenia that dates to between 1450 and 1350 BC, making Greek the world's oldest recorded living language. Among the Indo-European languages, its date of earliest written attestation is matched only by the now-extinct Anatolian languages; the Greek language is conventionally divided into the following periods: Proto-Greek: the unrecorded but assumed last ancestor of all known varieties of Greek.
The unity of Proto-Greek would have ended as Hellenic migrants entered the Greek peninsula sometime in the Neolithic era or the Bronze Age. Mycenaean Greek: the language of the Mycenaean civilisation, it is recorded in the Linear B script on tablets dating from the 15th century BC onwards. Ancient Greek: in its various dialects, the language of the Archaic and Classical periods of the ancient Greek civilisation, it was known throughout the Roman Empire. Ancient Greek fell into disuse in western Europe in the Middle Ages, but remained in use in the Byzantine world and was reintroduced to the rest of Europe with the Fall of Constantinople and Greek migration to western Europe. Koine Greek: The fusion of Ionian with Attic, the dialect of Athens, began the process that resulted in the creation of the first common Greek dialect, which became a lingua franca across the Eastern Mediterranean and Near East. Koine Greek can be traced within the armies and conquered territories of Alexander the Great and after the Hellenistic colonization of the known world, it was spoken from Egypt to the fringes of India.
After the Roman conquest of Greece, an unofficial bilingualism of Greek and Latin was established in the city of Rome and Koine Greek became a first or second language in the Roman Empire. The origin of Christianity can be traced through Koine Greek, because the Apostles used this form of the language to spread Christianity, it is known as Hellenistic Greek, New Testament Greek, sometimes Biblical Greek because it was the original language of the New Testament and the Old Testament was translated into the same language via the Septuagint. Medieval Greek known as Byzantine Greek: the continuation of Koine Greek, up to the demise of the Byzantine Empire in the 15th century. Medieval Greek is a cover phrase for a whole continuum of different speech and writing styles, ranging from vernacular continuations of spoken Koine that were approaching Modern Greek in many respects, to learned forms imitating classical Attic. Much of the written Greek, used as the official language of the Byzantine Empire was an eclectic middle-ground variety based on the tradition of written Koine.
Modern Greek: Stemming from Medieval Greek, Modern Greek usages can be traced in the Byzantine period, as early as the 11th century. It is the language used by the modern Greeks, apart from Standard Modern Greek, there are several dialects of it. In the modern era, the Greek language entered a state of diglossia: the coexistence of vernacular and archaizing written forms of the language. What came to be known as the Greek language question was a polarization between two competing varieties of Modern Greek: Dimotiki, the vernacular form of Modern Greek proper, Katharevousa, meaning'purified', a compromise between Dimotiki and Ancient Greek, developed in the early 19th century and was used for literary and official purposes in the newly formed Greek state. In 1976, Dimotiki was declared the official language of Greece, having incorporated features of Katharevousa and giving birth to Standard Modern Greek, used today for all official purposes and in education; the historical unity and continuing identity between the various stages of the Greek language is emphasised.
Although Greek h
Princess Marie Bonaparte
Princess Marie Bonaparte, known as Princess George of Greece and Denmark upon her marriage, was a French author and psychoanalyst linked with Sigmund Freud. Her wealth contributed to the popularity of psychoanalysis, enabled Freud's escape from Nazi Germany. Marie Bonaparte was a great-grandniece of Emperor Napoleon I of France, she was the only child of Prince Roland Marie-Félix Blanc. Her paternal grandfather was Prince Pierre Napoleon Bonaparte, son of Prince Lucien Bonaparte, one of Napoleon's rebellious and disinherited younger brothers. For this reason, despite her title Marie was not a member of the dynastic branch of the Bonapartes who claimed the French imperial throne from exile, her maternal grandfather was the principal real-estate developer of Monte Carlo. It was from this side of her family, she was born at Saint-Cloud, a town in Hauts-de-Seine, Île-de-France and called Mimi within the family. Her maternal grandfather had left an estimated fortune of FF 88M when he died in 1877. However, his widow, born Marie Hensel, left debts for her three children, including Marie's mother Marie-Félix, to pay off upon her death in July 1881.
Prince Roland protected his wife's fortune by persuading her to renounce that of her late mother before the amount of her debts became known. Marie-Felix died of an embolism shortly after Marie's birth, leaving half of her FF 8.4M dowry to her husband and half to her daughter. Most was managed in trust during Marie's youth by her father, who had few financial resources of his own. Marie lived with her father, a published geographer and botanist, in Paris and on various family country estates where he studied and lectured, leading an active life in Parisian academic circles and on expeditions abroad, while her daily life was supervised by tutors and servants. Afflicted by phobias and hypochondria as a youth, Marie spent much of her time in seclusion, reading literature and writing the personal journals which reveal her inquisitive spirit and early commitment to the scientific method reflected in her father's scholarship. Several candidates for future husband presented themselves or were considered by Prince Roland for his daughter's hand, notably a distant cousin of the princely House of Murat, Prince Hermann of Saxe-Weimar-Eisenach and Louis II, Prince of Monaco.
Following a Parisian luncheon Prince Roland hosted for King George I of Greece in September 1906 during which the king agreed to the prospect of a marriage between their children, Prince George of Greece and Denmark, second of the king's five sons, was introduced to Marie on 19 July 1907 at the Bonapartes' home in Paris. He courted her for twenty-eight days, confiding that from 1883, George had lived not at his father's Greek court in Athens, but at Bernstorff Palace near Copenhagen with Prince Valdemar of Denmark, his father's youngest brother; the queen had taken the boy to Denmark to enlist him in the Danish royal navy and consigned him to the care of Valdemar, an admiral in the Danish fleet. Feeling abandoned by his father on this occasion, George described to his fiancée the profound attachment he developed for his uncle, he admitted that, contrary to what he knew were her hopes, he could not commit to living permanently in France since he was obligated to undertake royal duties in Greece or on its behalf if summoned to do so.
Once his proposal of marriage was accepted, the bride's father was astonished when George waived any contractual clause guaranteeing an allowance or inheritance from Marie. On 21 November 1907 in Paris and George were married in a civil ceremony, with a subsequent Greek Orthodox ceremony on 12 December 1907, at Athens. Thereafter she was known as Princess Marie of Denmark. By March 1908 Marie was pregnant and, as agreed, the couple returned to France to take up residence; when George brought his bride to Denmark for the first visit with his uncle, Prince Valdemar's wife, Marie d'Orléans, was at pains to explain to Marie Bonaparte the intimacy which united uncle and nephew, so deep that at the end of each of George's several yearly visits to Bernstorff he would weep, Valdemar would fall sick, the women learned the patience not to intrude upon their husbands' private moments. During the first of these visits, Marie Bonaparte and Valdemar found themselves engaging in the kind of passionate intimacies she had looked forward to with her husband who, only seemed to enjoy them vicariously, sitting or lying beside his wife and uncle.
On a visit, Marie Bonaparte carried on a passionate flirtation with Prince Aage, Valdemar's eldest son. In neither case does it appear that George objected, or felt obliged to give the matter any attention. Marie Bonaparte came to admire the forbearance and independence of Valdemar's wife under circumstances which caused her bewilderment and estrangement from her own husband. Although Marie joined her husband in Greece or elsewhere for national holidays and dynastic ceremonies, their life together was spent on her estates in the French countryside. For months at a time, George was in Athens or Copenhagen, while Marie was in Paris, Vienna or traveling with the couple's children; that pattern allowed each to pursue activities. The couple had two children and Eugénie. From 1913 to early 1916, Marie carried on an intense flirtation with French prime minister Aristide Briand, but went no
Princess Eugénie of Greece and Denmark
Princess Eugénie of Greece and Denmark was the youngest child and only daughter of Prince George of Greece and Denmark and his wife, Princess Marie Bonaparte, daughter of Prince Roland Bonaparte, a great-nephew of Napoleon I. Her father was the second son of Olga Constantinovna of Russia; as a cousin of the bridegroom, she was a leading guest at the 1947 wedding of Princess Elizabeth and Philip, Duke of Edinburgh. She authored Le Tsarevitch, Enfant Martyr, a biography of Aleksey Nikolaevich, Tsarevich of Russia, written in French, published in 1990, she married Prince Dominik Rainer Radziwiłł on 30 May 1938 in Paris. They divorced in 1946, they had two children: Princess Tatiana Radziwiłł. Tatiana was a bridesmaid at the 1962 wedding of Prince Juan Carlos of Spain and Princess Sophia of Greece and Denmark. Prince Jerzy Andrzej Dominik Hieronim Piotr Leon Radziwiłł. Eugénie remarried on 28 November 1949 to Prince Raymundo della Torre e Tasso, Duke of Castel Duino, a cadet member of the House of Thurn and Taxis.
Their marriage ended in divorce, in 1965. They had one son: Duke di Castel Duino. Dame Grand Cross of the Order of Saints Olga and Sophia Descendants of William the Conqueror Paul Theroff's Online Gotha