Orders of precedence in China
The Orders of precedence in China is the ranking of political leaders in China for the purposes of event protocol and to arrange the ordering of names in official news bulletins, both written and televised. It is sometimes used to assess perceived level of political power. Although there is no formally published ranking, there is an established convention and protocol, the relative positions of Chinese political figures can be deduced from the order in meetings and by the time and order in which figures are covered by the official media. Depending on the person and the time period, the hierarchy will vary accordingly. Since the 1980s, Chinese political positions have become institutionalized. However, part of the power Chinese leaders carry still derives from who they are, rather than what position they hold. Individuals can hold multiple top leadership titles but be unable to claim to be the de facto ruler as was the case with Chairman Hua Guofeng, when "paramount leader" Deng Xiaoping was present.
The traditional ranking system was based upon the hierarchical line of the politburo standing committee. The names on this list includes all those considered "Party and State Leaders"; the Order of Precedence has become normalized as the institutions of the Communist Party and the People's Republic became more established and stable. Internal publications and official media adhere to strict ranking protocol when reporting news items or public announcements that involve multiple leaders; the order is adhered to when seating leaders at official meetings and functions. State media news programs, such as Xinwen Lianbo, overlook the actual importance of the story attached to each leader. Rather the news order is determined by political ranking alone. For instance, if a higher-ranked leader is chairing a routine meeting, while a lower-ranked leader is visiting an earthquake disaster zone, the routine meeting will take precedence over the disaster in the order that they are reported. Protocol ordering of leaders is most visible at large gatherings of party and state leaders, such as Party Congresses, National People's Congresses, the funeral or memorial service of former leaders, or major anniversary celebrations.
The current order of precedence applies to party and military leaders. It follows an order set out by the institutions to which these leaders belong. Where an individual belongs to numerous party and state institutions, they are only mentioned on first instance for their highest-ranking post; the organs of the party and military, have a applied rank order, as follows: Central Committee of the Communist Party of China Central Politburo Central Secretariat Central Government of the People's Republic of China Standing Committee of the National People's Congress Presidency State Council The National Committee of the Chinese People's Political Consultative Conference Central Military Commission CMC of the Communist Party of China CMC of the People's Republic of China Central Commission for Discipline Inspection of the Communist Party of China Highest judicial organs Supreme People's Court Supreme People's Procuratorate Current members of the CPC Central Politburo Standing Committee including: General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee President of the People's Republic of China Premier of the State Council Chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee Chairperson of the CPPCC National Committee Chairman of the Central Military Commission Other members of the Politburo Standing Committee including: First-ranked Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection First-ranked Vice Premier of the State Council Former General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Other current members of the Politburo including: Vice President Vice Premiers of the State Council Vice Chairman of the Central Military Commission Former members of the Central Politburo Standing Committee Current Members of the CPC Central Secretariat Vice Chairpersons of the National People's Congress Standing Committee State Councilors President of the Supreme People's Court Procurators-General of the Supreme People's Procuratorate Vice Chairpersons of the CPPCC National Committee, at the bottom of the list of the current national-level "Leaders of the Party and the State" Retired "Leaders of the Party and the State", except former members of the Politburo Standing Committee, ranked by the highest office they held, repeating the same order above.
Central Military Commission members except chairpersons and vice-chairpersons are not considered national-level "Leaders of the Party and State" but leaders of the People's Liberation Army, listed separately by protocol. Current CMC members Former CMC members Provincial-ministerial level officials Current General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Former General Secretary of the CPC Central Committee Current members of the CPC Central Politburo Standing Committee except General Secretary including: President of the People's Republic of China Premier of the State Council Chairperson of the NPC Standing Committee Chairperson of the CPPCC National Committee Chairman of the Central Military Commission Other members of the Politburo Standing Committee including: First-ranked Secretary of the CPC Central Secretariat Secretary of the Central Commission for Discipline Inspection First-ranked Vice Premier of the State Council Former members of the Ce
German order of precedence
The German order of precedence is a symbolic hierarchy of the five highest federal offices in Germany used to direct protocol. It has been established in practical use; the President of Germany, the head of state of Germany. The President of the Bundestag, the speaker of the German parliament, the Bundestag; the Chancellor of Germany, the head of the government of Germany. The President of the Bundesrat, the speaker of the Bundesrat, a federal legislative chamber, in which the governments of the sixteen german states are represented, he or she is ex officio deputy to the President of Germany. Thus, he or she becomes first in the order, while acting on behalf of the President or while acting as head of state during a vacancy of the presidency; the President of the Federal Constitutional Court, the supreme court of Germany. The order of precendence is observed with respect to former office-holders in some cases, for example if they participate in official ceremonies as honoured guests. Horst Köhler, 9th President of Germany Christian Wulff, 10th President of Germany Joachim Gauck, 11th President of Germany Rita Süssmuth, 10th President of the Bundestag Wolfgang Thierse, 11th President of the Bundestag Norbert Lammert, 12th President of the Bundestag Gerhard Schröder, 7th Chancellor of Germany, 51st President of the Bundesrat Bernhard Vogel, 28th and 40th President of the Bundesrat Hans-Ulrich Klose, 31st President of the Bundesrat Björn Engholm, 41st President of the Bundesrat Walter Momper, 42nd President of the Bundesrat Alfred Gomolka, 44th President of the Bundesrat Berndt Seite, 45th President of the Bundesrat Oskar Lafontaine, 46th President of the Bundesrat Klaus Wedemeier, 47th President of the Bundesrat Edmund Stoiber, 49th President of the Bundesrat Erwin Teufel, 50th President of the Bundesrat Hans Eichel, 52nd President of the Bundesrat Roland Koch, 53rd President of the Bundesrat Kurt Biedenkopf, 54th President of the Bundesrat Kurt Beck, 55th President of the Bundesrat Klaus Wowereit, 56th President of the Bundesrat Wolfgang Böhmer, 57th President of the Bundesrat Dieter Althaus, 58th President of the Bundesrat Matthias Platzeck, 59th President of the Bundesrat Peter Harry Carstensen, 60th President of the Bundesrat Harald Ringstorff, 61st President of the Bundesrat Ole von Beust, 62nd President of the Bundesrat Peter Müller, 63rd President of the Bundesrat Jens Böhrnsen, 64th President of the Bundesrat Hannelore Kraft, 65th President of the Bundesrat Horst Seehofer, 66th President of the Bundesrat Winfried Kretschmann, 67th President of the Bundesrat Stephan Weil, 68th President of the Bundesrat Volker Bouffier, 69th President of the Bundesrat Stanislaw Tillich, 70th President of the Bundesrat Malu Dreyer, 71st President of the Bundesrat Michael Müller, 72nd President of the Bundesrat Hans-Jürgen Papier, 8th President of the Federal Constitutional Court As of January 2019, 103 persons have held at least one of the five highest german federal offices.
Six of them were female: Annemarie Renger, 5th President of the Bundestag Rita Süssmuth, 10th President of the Bundestag Angela Merkel, 8th Chancellor of Germany Hannelore Kraft, 65th President of the Bundesrat Malu Dreyer, 71st President of the Bundesrat Jutta Limbach, 7th President of the Federal Constitutional Court The following persons have held two different of these offices: Karl Carstens, 5th President of Germany, 6th President of the Bundestag Roman Herzog, 7th President of Germany, 6th President of the Federal Constitutional Court Johannes Rau, 8th President of Germany, 34th and 48th President of the Bundesrat Kai-Uwe von Hassel, 4th President of the Bundestag, 7th President of the Bundesrat Kurt-Georg Kiesinger, 3rd Chancellor of Germany, 14th President of the Bundesrat Willy Brandt, 4th Chancellor of Germany, 9th President of the Bundesrat Gerhard Schröder, 7th Chancellor of Germany, 51st President of the Bundesrat The following persons have held one of these offices two times: Hans Ehard, 2nd and 13th President of the Bundesrat Georg-August Zinn, 5th and 16th President of the Bundesrat Peter Altmeier, 6th and 17th President of the Bundesrat Franz-Josef Röder, 11th and 21st President of the Bundesrat Hans Koschnick, 22nd and 33rd President of the Bundesrat Bernhard Vogel, 28th and 40th President of the Bundesrat Johannes Rau, 34th and 48th President of the Bundesrat
Greek order of precedence
The order of precedence of Greece is fixed by the Decree 52749/2006 of the Minister of the Interior, prescribes the protocollary hierarchy of the Greek political leadership. The President, as head of state, is first, the Prime Minister, as head of government, is second. President of Greece Prime Minister of Greece Speaker of the Hellenic Parliament Archbishop of Athens and All Greece Leader of the Official Opposition Former President of Greece Vice President of the Government
Order of precedence in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth
The order of precedence for members of the Sejm of the Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth was created at the same time as the Commonwealth itself – at the Lublin Sejm in 1569. The Commonwealth was a union, in existence from 1569 to 1795, of two constituent nations: the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland and the Grand Duchy of Lithuania; the union's legislative power was vested in a diet known as the Sejm which consisted of the three Estates of the Sejm: the monarch, holding the titles of King of Poland and Grand Duke of Lithuania. The order of precedence indicated where senators and deputies would sit during parliamentary sessions and in what order they cast their votes; the order was followed at other formal occasions, such as royal coronations. The order of precedence remained unchanged from its inception in 1569 until the ultimate partition of Poland in 1795; the only changes were made to reflect the addition of new territories as the Commonwealth expanded eastwards during the 16th and 17th centuries.
Territitorial losses incurred during Poland's decline in the second half of the 17th and throughout the 18th century had less bearing on the composition of the Sejm, as titular senators and deputies continued to sit in the parliament despite the loss of the lands they represented. The Senate traced its roots to the royal privy council and consisted of individuals appointed by the king to specified senatorial offices; the senatorial offices may be divided into three types: ecclesiastical, the entire Roman Catholic episcopate of the Commonwealth. Bishops and castellans of major cities were considered greater senators, or chair senators as they were entitled to sit in designated armchairs during the Senate's sessions; the remaining lesser senators were known as bench senators as they were sitting wherever they could find a place behind the chair senators. The Archbishop of Gniezno, Poland's first capital city until 1038 holding the title of Primate of Poland, was the highest ranking senator who served as an interrex during a vacancy of the royal throne.
The Castellan of Kraków, Poland's capital until 1596, was the highest ranking secular senator. His precedence before the Voivode of Kraków dated back to a rebellion led by Voivode Skarbimir in 1117, for which Duke Boleslaus the Wrymouth punished him by blinding and by making his office inferior to that of the local castellan. Deputies elected in local sejmiks. Administrative division of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Offices in the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth Polish order of precedence Gloger, Zygmunt. Geografia historyczna ziem dawnej Polski. Kraków: Spółka Wydawnicza Polska. Koneczny, Feliks. Dzieje administracji w Polsce w zarysie. Vilnius: Okręgowa Szkoła Policji Państwowej Ziemi Wileńskiej. ISBN 83-87809-20-9