Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin is a Russian politician. Putin is the current President of the Russian Federation, holding the office since 7 May 2012 and he was Prime Minister from 1999 to 2000, President from 2000 to 2008, and again Prime Minister from 2008 to 2012. During his second term as Prime Minister, he was the Chairman of the ruling United Russia Party, born in Leningrad, Putin studied German in high school and speaks the language fluently. He studied Law at the Saint Petersburg State University, graduating in 1975, Putin was a KGB Foreign Intelligence Officer for 16 years, rising to the rank of Lieutenant Colonel before retiring in 1991 to enter politics in Saint Petersburg. He moved to Moscow in 1996 and joined President Boris Yeltsins administration, rising quickly through the ranks and becoming Acting President on 31 December 1999, when Yeltsin resigned. Putin won the subsequent 2000 Presidential election by a 53% to 30% margin, thus avoiding a runoff with his Communist Party of the Russian Federation opponent and he was re-elected President in 2004 with 72% of the vote.
During Putins first presidency, the Russian economy grew for eight straight years, the growth was a result of the 2000s commodities boom, high oil prices, and prudent economic and fiscal policies. Because of constitutionally mandated term limits, Putin was ineligible to run for a third presidential term in 2008. The 2008 Presidential election was won by Dmitry Medvedev, who appointed Putin Prime Minister, in September 2011, after presidential terms were extended from four to six years, Putin announced he would seek a third term as president. He won the March 2012 Presidential election with 64% of the vote, under Putins leadership, Russia has scored poorly on both the Democracy index and the Corruption index. Putin has enjoyed high approval ratings during his career. In 2007, he was the Time Person of the Year, in 2015, he was #1 on the Times Most Influential People List. Forbes ranked him the Worlds Most Powerful Individual every year from 2013 to 2016, Vladimir Vladimirovich Putin was born on 7 October 1952 in Leningrad, Russian SFSR, Soviet Union, the youngest of three children of Vladimir Spiridonovich Putin and Maria Ivanovna Putina.
His birth was preceded by the death of two brothers and Albert, born in the mid-1930s, Albert died in infancy and Viktor died of diphtheria during the Siege of Leningrad. Putins mother was a worker and his father was a conscript in the Soviet Navy. Early in World War II, his father served in the battalion of the NKVD. Later, he was transferred to the army and was severely wounded in 1942. On 1 September 1960, Putin started at School No.193 at Baskov Lane and he was one of a few in the class of approximately 45 pupils who was not yet a member of the Young Pioneer organization
Venezuela, officially the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a federal republic located on the northern coast of South America. It is bordered by Colombia on the west, Brazil on the south, Guyana on the east, Venezuela covers 916,445 km2 and has an estimated population of 31775371. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples and it gained full independence as a separate country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. This new constitution changed the name of the country to República Bolivariana de Venezuela. Venezuela is a presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, oil was discovered in the early 20th century, and Venezuela has the worlds largest known oil reserves and has been one of the worlds leading exporters of oil. Previously an underdeveloped exporter of commodities such as coffee and cocoa, oil quickly came to dominate exports.
The recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave Venezuela oil funds not seen since the 1980s, the Venezuelan government established populist policies that initially boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, significantly reducing economic inequality and poverty. However, such policies became controversial since they destabilized the economy, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, so he named the region Veneziola Piccola Venezia. The name acquired its current spelling as a result of Spanish influence, where the suffix -uela is used as a term, thus. The German language 16th century-term for the area, Klein-Venedig, means little Venice, Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that they found people who called themselves the Veneciuela.
Thus, the name Venezuela may have evolved from the native word and it is not known how many people lived in Venezuela before the Spanish conquest, it has been estimated at around one million. In addition to indigenous peoples known today, the population included historic groups such as the Kalina, Auaké, Mariche, the Timoto-Cuica culture was the most complex society in Pre-Columbian Venezuela, with pre-planned permanent villages, surrounded by irrigated, terraced fields. They stored water in tanks and their houses were made primarily of stone and wood with thatched roofs. They were peaceful, for the most part, and depended on growing crops, regional crops included potatoes and ullucos
Rafael Vicente Correa Delgado is an Ecuadorian politician and economist who has served as President of Ecuador since 2007. The leader of the PAIS Alliance political movement, Correa is a democratic socialist, internationally, he served as president pro tempore of the Union of South American Nations. Returning to Ecuador, in 2005 he became the Minister for the Economy in President Alfredo Palacios government, successfully lobbying Congress for increased spending on health, Correa won the presidency in the 2006 general election on a platform criticizing the established political elites. Taking office in January 2007, he sought to move away from Ecuadors neoliberal economic model by reducing the influence of the World Bank and he oversaw the introduction of a new constitution, and was re-elected in 2009. Correa was re-elected in the 2013 general election, Ecuador was able to achieve political stability. Eventually, some Ecuadorians had grown disenchanted with corruption, as well as Correas confrontational behavior with media organizations, according to Transparency International, corruption decreased under Correas government.
Between 2006 and 2016, poverty decreased from 36. 7% to 22. 5%, at the same time, inequalities, as measured by the Gini index, decreased from 0.55 to 0.47. Correas father was Rafael Correa Icaza, born in the Province of Los Ríos, Ecuador and he had three siblings, Fabricio Correa, Pierina Correa and Bernardita Correa. Having grown up in the city of Guayaquil, he has described his family background as being that of the lower middle class. When Correa was five, his father was arrested and imprisoned for three years attempting to smuggle illegal narcotics into the United States. Publicly acknowledging this incident while president, Correa stated that I do not condone what he did drug smugglers are not criminals and they are single mothers or unemployed people who are desperate to feed their families. Correa was 18 years of age before he was told about his fathers actions, Correas family faced financial hardship when he was 17, but a family friend paid for him to be educated at an elite local school, where he excelled.
During his secondary studies he was president of the Lasallian Student Cultural Association and it was here that he furthered his faith in Catholicism, and developed a working understanding of the Quechua language spoken by most of Ecuadors indigenous people. In Zumbahua he became aware of the poverty that afflicted Ecuadors indigenous population. He received a Master of Arts in Economics from the Université Catholique de Louvain in June 1991, in 1993 he was a director at the Ministry of Education and Culture in Ecuador, with administrative oversight and supervision of improvement programs for the national educational system. The improvement programs were funded by the Inter-American Development Bank, Correa was able to afford a university education with the aid of funding grants. He studied at the University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, where he earned a Master of Science in Economics in May 1999, during graduate studies, he came under the particular influence of the left-leaning economist Joseph Stiglitz.
Correas adviser at the University of Illinois was Werner Baer, who commented that at the time Correa did not seem anti-capitalist but was concerned by uneven income distribution in society
Hamad bin Khalifa Al Thani
Sheikh Hamad bin Khalifa bin Hamad bin Abdullah bin Jassim bin Mohammed Al Thani is a member of the ruling Al Thani Qatari royal family. He was the ruling Emir of Qatar from 1995 to 2013, the Qatari government now refers to him as His Highness the Father Emir. Hamad seized power in a palace coup détat in 1995. C. Volkswagen and Royal Dutch Shell, during Hamads rule, Qatar hosted two US military bases. It remained close with Hamas and Iran and he supported and funded rebel movements, particularly in Libya and Syria during the Arab Spring, while maintaining political stability at home. The Sheikh founded news media group Al Jazeera, through which he maintained his influence over the Arab World and he played a part in negotiations between the US and the Taliban. In June 2013, Hamad, in a televised address, announced that he would hand power to his fourth son. His mother died soon after the birth and he was raised by his uncle and he graduated from the British Royal Military Academy at Sandhurst in 1971 and commissioned as a lieutenant colonel.
After graduation he was commander of a mobile brigade, which became a force called Hamad Brigade. In 1972 Hamad had the rank of general, and became chief of staff. Next he was appointed commander-in-chief of Qatars armed forces with the rank of major general, in 1977 he was named minister of defense. Hamad was appointed Heir Apparent of Qatar in 1977 and held the post until 1995, in the early 1980s, he led the Supreme Planning Council, which sets Qatars basic economic and social policies. From 1992 Hamad had a responsibility for the day-to-day running of the country, including the development of Qatars oil. On 27 June 1995, after deposing his father in a palace coup, in the early 1980s, Hamad led the Supreme Planning Council, which sets Qatars basic economic and social policies. However, his father ultimately retained control over state finances, with the support of his family, Hamad took control of the country in 1995 while his father was on vacation abroad. While his father Khalifa bin Hamad Al Thani was in Geneva, the deposition came after a falling out between Hamad bin Khalifa and his father, who had tried regaining some of the authority he bestowed upon Hamad in early 1995.
Hamad engaged an American law firm to freeze his fathers bank accounts abroad, his father lived in exile in France and Abu Dhabi until he returned to Qatar in 2004. In a break with the role, his second wife Sheikha Mozah bint Nasser Al Missned has been a visible advocate for education
Henry Conger Pratt
In the 1930s he became one of the senior leaders of the Air Corps and was nearly chosen to become Chief of Air Corps in 1935. Pratt was the first member in its history to be appointed to the permanent establishment rank of general of the line. In 1938, after becoming an officer, Pratt was assigned non-aviation command billets including ground forces commands. During World War II Pratt did not serve as a general in the Army Air Forces but as commander of service and he was carried on the retired list of the United States Air Force as a major general after the creation of that service in 1947. During the pre-war years 1935-1940, Pratt commanded both an air wing and an army division. Captain Pratt died in March 1887 when his son was just four years old, Conger Pratt was the grandson of Colonel Henry Clay Pratt, West Point Class of 1837, who had been cited for gallantry during the Mexican-American War and served 42 years in the Army. In 1909, while serving as an aide in Washington. Conger Pratt met Sadie De Russy Murray,20 year old daughter of Brigadier General Arthur Murray, the Chief of Coast Artillery, at her debut.
He remained associated with General Murray and his family for years, and in October 1913, while he was stationed in California. They remained wedded until her death in October 1963, by War Department General Orders No. 121, dated July 11,1904, he was appointed a lieutenant in Troop E, 4th Cavalry. Following their overseas service, his transferred to Fort Snelling, Minnesota. In April 1909, Pratt was appointed aide-de-camp to President William Howard Taft with concurrent duty as assistant to the Officer-in-charge, Public Buildings, after arrival in San Antonio, Pratt was promoted to first lieutenant on March 30, filling a vacancy in the 9th Cavalry. In August he returned to Washington and finished his tour in December 1911. Next assigned as aide-de-camp to Major General Arthur Murray, who had completed his term as Chief of Coast Artillery, Pratt performed troop duties at numerous locations in California during 1913-1914, including six months at the regiments camp in Yosemite National Park between May and November 1913.
He spent most of 1915 as Murrays aide again, to the retirement in December. There he was promoted to captain, 1st Cavalry, on July 1, in October he was assigned as assistant adjutant of the District. On January 31,1917, Pratt left El Paso to rejoin his original regiment, after the United States entered World War I in April, Pratt received temporary promotion to major in his branch
Golda Meir was an Israeli teacher, kibbutznik and politician and the fourth elected Prime Minister of Israel. Meir was elected Prime Minister of Israel on March 17,1969, after serving as Minister of Labour and Foreign Minister. Former Prime Minister David Ben-Gurion used to call Meir the best man in the government, she was portrayed as the strong-willed, straight-talking. Meir resigned as minister in 1974, the year following the Yom Kippur War. She died in 1978 of lymphoma, Golda Mabovitch was born on May 3,1898, in Kiev, Russian Empire, present-day Ukraine, to Blume Neiditch and Moshe Mabovitch, a carpenter. Meir wrote in her autobiography that her earliest memories were of her father boarding up the front door in response to rumours of an imminent pogrom and she had two sisters and Tzipke, as well as five other siblings who died in childhood. She was especially close to Sheyna, Moshe Mabovitch left to find work in New York City in 1903. In his absence, the rest of the moved to Pinsk to join her mothers family.
In 1905, Moshe moved to Milwaukee, Wisconsin, in search of higher-paying work, the following year, he had saved up enough money to bring his family to the United States. Blume ran a store on Milwaukees north side, where by age eight Golda had been put in charge of watching the store when her mother went to the market for supplies. Golda attended the Fourth Street Grade School from 1906 to 1912, a leader early on, she organised a fund raiser to pay for her classmates textbooks. After forming the American Young Sisters Society, she rented a hall and she went on to graduate as valedictorian of her class. At 14, she studied at North Division High School and worked part-time and her mother wanted her to leave school and marry, but she demurred. She bought a ticket to Denver and went to live with her married sister. The Korngolds held intellectual evenings at their home, where Meir was exposed to debates on Zionism, womens suffrage, trade unionism, in her autobiography, she wrote, To the extent that my own future convictions were shaped and given form.
Those talk-filled nights in Denver played a considerable role, in Denver, she met Morris Meyerson, a sign painter, whom she married on December 24,1917. In 1913 she returned to North Division High, graduating in 1915, while there, she became an active member of Young Poale Zion, which became Habonim, the Labor Zionist youth movement. She spoke at meetings, embraced Socialist Zionism and hosted visitors from Palestine