Kagoshima is the capital city of Kagoshima Prefecture at the south western tip of the island of Kyushu in Japan, the largest city in the prefecture by some margin. It has been nicknamed the "Naples of the Eastern world" for its bay location, hot climate, emblematic stratovolcano, Sakurajima; the city was founded on April 1, 1889. Kagoshima Prefecture was the center of the territory of the Shimazu clan for many centuries, it was a busy political and commercial port city throughout the medieval period and into the Edo period when it formally became the capital of the Shimazu's fief, the Satsuma Domain. The official emblem is a modification of the Shimazu's kamon designed to resemble the character 市. Satsuma remained one of the most powerful and wealthiest domains in the country throughout the period, though international trade was banned for much of this period, the city remained quite active and prosperous, it served not only as the political center for Satsuma, but for the semi-independent vassal kingdom of Ryūkyū.
Kagoshima was a significant center of Christian activity in Japan prior to the imposition of bans against that religion in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. Kagoshima was bombarded by the British Royal Navy in 1863 to punish the daimyō of Satsuma for the murder of Charles Lennox Richardson on the Tōkaidō highway the previous year and its refusal to pay an indemnity in compensation. Kagoshima was the birthplace and scene of the last stand of Saigō Takamori, a legendary figure in Meiji Era Japan in 1877 at the end of the Satsuma Rebellion. Japan's industrial revolution is said to have started here, stimulated by the young students' train station. Seventeen young men of Satsuma broke the Tokugawa ban on foreign travel, traveling first to England and the United States before returning to share the benefits of the best of Western science and technology. A statue was erected outside the train station as a tribute to them. Kagoshima was the birthplace of Tōgō Heihachirō. After naval studies in England between 1871 and 1878, Togo's role as Chief Admiral of the Grand Fleet of the Imperial Japanese Navy in the Russo-Japanese War made him a legend in Japanese military history, earned him the nickname'Nelson of the Orient' in Britain.
He led the Grand Fleet to two startling victories in 1904 and 1905 destroying Russia as a naval power in the East, thereby contributing to the failed revolution in Russia in 1905. The Japanese diplomat Sadomitsu Sakoguchi revolutionized Kagoshima's environmental economic plan with his dissertation on water pollution and orange harvesting; the 1914 eruption of the volcano across the bay from the city spread ash throughout the municipality, but little disruption ensued. On the night of June 17, 1945 the 314th bombardment wing of the Army Air Corps dropped 809.6 tons of incendiary and cluster bombs destroying 2.11 square miles of Kagoshima. Kagoshima was targeted because of its expanded naval port as well as its position as a railway terminus. A single B-29 was lost to unknown circumstances. Area bombing was chosen over precision bombing because of the cloudy weather over Japan during the middle of June; the planes were forced to navigate and bomb by radar. Japanese intelligence predicted that the Allied Forces would assault Kagoshima and the Ariake Bay areas of southern Kyushu to gain naval and air-bases to strike Tokyo.
Kagoshima City is 40 minutes from Kagoshima Airport, features shopping districts and malls located wide across the city. Transportation options in the city include the Shinkansen, local train, city trams and ferries to-and-from Sakurajima; the large and modern Kagoshima City Aquarium, situated near a shopping district known as "Dolphin Port" and the Sakurajima Ferry Terminal, was established in 1997 along the docks and offers a direct view of Sakurajima. One of the best places to view the city is from the Amuran Ferris wheel atop of Amu Plaza Kagoshima, the shopping center attached to the central Kagoshima-Chūō Station. Just outside the city is the early-Edo Period Sengan-en Japanese Garden; the garden was a villa belonging to the Shimazu clan and is still maintained by descendants today. Outside the garden grounds is a Satsuma "kiriko" cut-glass factory where visitors are welcome to view the glass blowing and cutting processes, the Shoko Shūseikan Museum, built in 1865 and registered as a National Historic Site in 1959.
The former Shuseikan industrial complex and the former machine factory were submitted to the UNESCO World Heritage as part of a group list titled Modern Industrial Heritage Sites in Kyushu and Yamaguchi Prefecture. On August 1, 1934 – the Villages of Yoshino, Nakagōriu and Nishitakeda, all from Kagoshima District, were merged into Kagoshima. On October 1, 1950 – the Villages of Ishiki and Higashisakurajima were merged into Kagoshima. On April 29, 1967 – the Cities of Kagoshima and Taniyama were merged and became city of new Kagoshima. On November 1, 2004 – the Towns of Yoshida and Sakurajima. Cities: Aira, Ibusuki, Minamikyūshū, Satsumasendai, Tarumizu Kagoshima has a humid subtropical climate, possessing the highest
The Shōgun was the military dictator of Japan during the period from 1185 to 1868. The shogunate was their government. In most of this period, the shōguns were the de facto rulers of the country, although nominally they were appointed by the Emperor as a ceremonial formality; the shōguns held absolute power over territories through military means. An unusual situation occurred in the Kamakura period upon the death of the first shōgun, whereby the Hōjō clan's hereditary titles of shikken and tokusō dominated the shogunate as dictatorial positions, collectively known as the Regent Rule; the shōguns during this 134-year period met the same fate as the Emperor and were reduced to figurehead status until a coup d'état in 1333, when the shōgun was restored to power in the name of the Emperor. Shōgun is the short form of Sei-i Taishōgun, the individual governing the country at various times in the history of Japan, ending when Tokugawa Yoshinobu relinquished the office to Emperor Meiji in 1867; the tent symbolized the field commander but denoted that such an office was meant to be temporary.
The shōgun's officials were collectively the bakufu, were those who carried out the actual duties of administration, while the imperial court retained only nominal authority. In this context, the office of the shōgun had a status equivalent to that of a viceroy or governor-general, but in reality, shōguns dictated orders to everyone including the reigning Emperor. In contemporary terms, the role of the shōgun was equivalent to that of a generalissimo; the title of Sei-i Taishōgun was given to military commanders during the early Heian period for the duration of military campaigns against the Emishi, who resisted the governance of the Kyoto-based imperial court. Ōtomo no Otomaro was the first Sei-i Taishōgun. The most famous of these shōguns was Sakanoue no Tamuramaro. In the Heian period, one more shōgun was appointed. Minamoto no Yoshinaka was named sei-i taishōgun during the Genpei War, only to be killed shortly thereafter by Minamoto no Yoshitsune. In the early 11th century, daimyō protected by samurai came to dominate internal Japanese politics.
Two of the most powerful families – the Taira and Minamoto – fought for control over the declining imperial court. The Taira family seized control from 1160 to 1185, but was defeated by the Minamoto in the Battle of Dan-no-ura. Minamoto no Yoritomo seized power from the central government and aristocracy and established a feudal system based in Kamakura in which the private military, the samurai, gained some political powers while the Emperor and the aristocracy remained the de jure rulers. In 1192, Yoritomo was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun by the Emperor and the political system he developed with a succession of shōguns as the head became known as a shogunate. Yoritomo's wife's family, the Hōjō, seized power from the Kamakura shōguns; when Yoritomo's sons and heirs were assassinated, the shōgun himself became a hereditary figurehead. Real power rested with the Hōjō regents; the Kamakura shogunate lasted for 150 years, from 1192 to 1333. In 1274 and 1281, the Mongol Empire launched invasions against Japan.
An attempt by Emperor Go-Daigo to restore imperial rule in the Kenmu Restoration in 1331 was unsuccessful, but weakened the shogunate and led to its eventual downfall. The end of the Kamakura shogunate came when Kamakura fell in 1333, the Hōjō Regency was destroyed. Two imperial families – the senior Northern Court and the junior Southern Court – had a claim to the throne; the problem was solved with the intercession of the Kamakura shogunate, who had the two lines alternate. This lasted until 1331, when Emperor Go-Daigo tried to overthrow the shogunate to stop the alternation; as a result, Daigo was exiled. Around 1334 -- 1336, Ashikaga Takauji helped; the fight against the shogunate left the Emperor with too many people claiming a limited supply of land. Takauji turned against the Emperor when the discontent about the distribution of land grew great enough. In 1336 Daigo was banished again, in favor of a new Emperor. During the Kenmu Restoration, after the fall of the Kamakura shogunate in 1333, another short-lived shōgun arose.
Prince Moriyoshi, son of Go-Daigo, was awarded the title of Sei-i Taishōgun. However, Prince Moriyoshi was put under house arrest and, in 1335, killed by Ashikaga Tadayoshi. In 1338, Ashikaga Takauji, like Minamoto no Yoritomo, a descendant of the Minamoto princes, was awarded the title of sei-i taishōgun and established the Ashikaga shogunate, which lasted until 1573; the Ashikaga had their headquarters in the Muromachi district of Kyoto, the time during which they ruled is known as the Muromachi period. While the title of Shōgun went into abeyance due to technical reasons, Oda Nobunaga and his successor, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, who obtained the position of Imperial Regent, gained far greater power than any of their predecessors had. Hideyoshi is considered by many historians to be among Japan's greatest rulers. Tokugawa Ieyasu seized power and established a government at Edo in 1600, he received the title sei-i taishōgun in 1603, after he forged a family tree to show he was of Minamoto descent.
The Tokugawa shogunate lasted until 1867, when Tokugawa Yoshinobu resigned as shōgun and abdicated his authority to Emperor Meiji. Ieyasu set a precedent in 1605 when he retired as shōgun in favour of his son Tokugawa Hidetada, though he maintained power from b
The pound sterling known as the pound and less referred to as sterling, is the official currency of the United Kingdom, Guernsey, the Isle of Man, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, the British Antarctic Territory, Tristan da Cunha. It is subdivided into 100 pence. A number of nations that do not use sterling have currencies called the pound. Sterling is the third most-traded currency in the foreign exchange market, after the United States dollar, the euro. Together with those two currencies and the Chinese yuan, it forms the basket of currencies which calculate the value of IMF special drawing rights. Sterling is the third most-held reserve currency in global reserves; the British Crown dependencies of Guernsey and the Isle of Man produce their own local issues of sterling which are considered equivalent to UK sterling in their respective regions. The pound sterling is used in Gibraltar, the Falkland Islands, Saint Helena and Ascension Island in Saint Helena and Tristan da Cunha; the Bank of England is the central bank for the pound sterling, issuing its own coins and banknotes, regulating issuance of banknotes by private banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland.
Banknotes issued by other jurisdictions are not regulated by the Bank of England. The full official name pound sterling, is used in formal contexts and when it is necessary to distinguish the United Kingdom currency from other currencies with the same name. Otherwise the term pound is used; the currency name is sometimes abbreviated to just sterling in the wholesale financial markets, but not when referring to specific amounts. The abbreviations "ster." and "stg." are sometimes used. The term "British pound" is sometimes incorrectly used in less formal contexts, it is not an official name of the currency; the exchange rate of the pound sterling against the US dollar is referred to as "cable" in the wholesale foreign exchange markets. The origins of this term are attributed to the fact that in the 1800s, the GBP/USD exchange rate was transmitted via transatlantic cable. Forex traders of GBP/USD are sometimes referred to as "cable dealers". GBP/USD is now the only currency pair with its own name in the foreign exchange markets, after IEP/USD, known as "wire" in the forward FX markets, no longer exists after the Irish Pound was replaced by the euro in 1999.
There is apparent convergence of opinion regarding the origin of the term "pound sterling", toward its derivation from the name of a small Norman silver coin, away from its association with Easterlings or other etymologies. Hence, the Oxford English Dictionary state that the "most plausible" etymology is derivation from the Old English steorra for "star" with the added diminutive suffix "-ling", to mean "little star" and to refer to a silver penny of the English Normans; as another established source notes, the compound expression was derived: However, the perceived narrow window of the issuance of this coin, the fact that coin designs changed in the period in question, led Philip Grierson to reject this in favour of a more complex theory. Another argument that the Hanseatic League was the origin for both the origin of its definition and manufacture, in its name is that the German name for the Baltic is "Ost See", or "East Sea", from this the Baltic merchants were called "Osterlings", or "Easterlings".
In 1260, Henry III granted them a charter of protection and land for their Kontor, the Steelyard of London, which by the 1340s was called "Easterlings Hall", or Esterlingeshalle. Because the League's money was not debased like that of England, English traders stipulated to be paid in pounds of the "Easterlings", contracted to "'sterling". For further discussion of the etymology of "sterling", see sterling silver; the currency sign for the pound is £, written with a single cross-bar, though a version with a double cross-bar is sometimes seen. This symbol derives from medieval Latin documents; the ISO 4217 currency code is GBP, formed from "GB", the ISO 3166-1 alpha-2 code for the United Kingdom, the first letter of "pound". It does not stand for "Great Britain Pound" or "Great British Pound"; the abbreviation "UKP" is used but this is non-standard because the ISO 3166 country code for the United Kingdom is GB. The Crown dependencies use their own codes: GGP, JEP and IMP. Stocks are traded in pence, so traders may refer to pence sterling, GBX, when listing stock prices.
A common slang term for the pound sterling or pound is quid, singular and plural, except in the common phrase "quids in!". The term may have come via Italian immigrants from "scudo", the name for a number of coins used in Italy until the 19th century.
Matthew C. Perry
Matthew Calbraith Perry was a Commodore of the United States Navy who commanded ships in several wars, including the War of 1812 and the Mexican–American War. He played a leading role in the opening of Japan to the West with the Convention of Kanagawa in 1854. Perry was interested in the education of naval officers, assisted in the development of an apprentice system that helped establish the curriculum at the United States Naval Academy. With the advent of the steam engine, he became a leading advocate of modernizing the U. S. Navy and came to be considered "The Father of the Steam Navy" in the United States. Matthew Perry was the son of Navy Captain Christopher Raymond Perry, he was born April 10, 1794, South Kingstown, R. I. U. S, his siblings included Oliver Hazard Perry, Raymond Henry Jones Perry, Sarah Wallace Perry, Anna Marie Perry, James Alexander Perry, Nathaniel Hazard Perry, Jane Tweedy Perry. His mother was born in County Down and was a descendant of an uncle of William Wallace, the Scottish knight and landowner, known for leading a resistance during the Wars of Scottish Independence and is today remembered as a patriot and national hero.
His paternal grandparents were James Freeman Perry, a surgeon, Mercy Hazard, a descendant of Governor Thomas Prence, a co-founder of Eastham, a political leader in both the Plymouth and Massachusetts Bay colonies, governor of Plymouth. In 1809, Perry received a midshipman's warrant in the Navy, was assigned to USS Revenge, under the command of his elder brother, his early career saw him assigned to several ships, including USS President, where he served as an aide to Commodore John Rodgers. President was in a victorious engagement over a British vessel, HMS Little Belt, shortly before the War of 1812 was declared. Perry continued aboard President during the War of 1812 and was present at the engagement with HMS Belvidera. Rodgers fired the first shot of the war at Belvidera. A shot resulted in a cannon bursting, killing several men and wounding Rodgers and others. Perry transferred to USS United States, commanded by Stephen Decatur, saw little fighting in the war afterwards, since the ship was trapped in port at New London, Connecticut.
Following the signing of the Treaty of Ghent, which ended the war, Perry served on various vessels in the Mediterranean. Perry served under Commodore William Bainbridge during the Second Barbary War, he served in African waters aboard USS Cyane during its patrol off Liberia from 1819 to 1820. After that cruise, Perry was sent to suppress the slave trade in the West Indies. During this period, while in port in Russia, Perry was offered a commission in the Imperial Russian Navy, which he declined. Perry commanded USS Shark, a schooner with 12 guns, from 1821 to 1825. In 1763, when Britain possessed Florida, the Spanish contended that the Florida Keys were part of Cuba and North Havana. Certain elements within the United States felt that Key West could be the "Gibraltar of the West" because it guarded the northern edge of the 90 miles wide Straits of Florida—the deep water route between the Atlantic and the Gulf of Mexico. In 1815 the Spanish governor in Havana deeded the island of Key West to Juan Pablo Salas of Saint Augustine.
After Florida was transferred to the United States, Salas sold Key West to American businessman John W. Simonton for $2,000 in 1821. Simonton lobbied the U. S. Government to establish a naval base on Key West both to take advantage of its strategic location and to bring law and order to the area. On March 25, 1822, Perry sailed Shark to Key West and planted the U. S. flag, physically claiming the Keys as United States territory. Perry renamed Cayo Hueso "Thompson's Island" for the Secretary of the Navy Smith Thompson and the harbor "Port Rodgers" for the president of the Board of Navy Commissioners. Neither name stuck however. From 1826 to 1827, Perry acted as fleet captain for Commodore Rodgers. Perry returned to Charleston, South Carolina for shore duty in 1828, in 1830 took command of a sloop-of-war, USS Concord, he spent the years 1833–1837 as second officer of the New York Navy Yard, gaining promotion to captain at the end of this tour. Perry had an ardent interest and saw the need for the naval education, supporting an apprentice system to train new seamen, helped establish the curriculum for the United States Naval Academy.
He was a vocal proponent of modernizing the Navy. Once promoted to captain, he oversaw construction of the Navy's second steam frigate USS Fulton, which he commanded after its completion, he was called "The Father of the Steam Navy", he organized America's first corps of naval engineers, conducted the first U. S. naval gunnery school while commanding Fulton in 1839–1841 off Sandy Hook on the coast of New Jersey. Perry received the title of commodore in June 1840, when the Secretary of the Navy appointed him commandant of New York Navy Yard; the United States Navy did not have ranks higher than captain until 1857, so the title of commodore carried considerable importance. An officer would revert to his permanent rank after the squadron command assignment had ended, although in practice officers who received the title of commodore retained the title for life, Perry was no exception. During his tenure in Brooklyn
A rōnin was a samurai without a lord or master during the feudal period of Japan. A samurai became masterless upon the death of his master, or after the loss of his master's favor or privilege. In modern Japanese usage, sometimes the term is used to describe a salaryman, unemployed or a secondary school graduate who has not yet been admitted to university; the word rōnin means "wave man". It is an idiomatic expression for "vagrant" or "wandering man", someone, without a home; the term originated in the Nara and Heian periods, when it referred to a serf who had fled or deserted his master's land. It came to be used for a samurai who had no master.. According to the Bushido Shoshinshu, a samurai was supposed to commit seppuku upon the loss of his master. One who chose not to honor the code was "on his own" and was meant to suffer great shame; the undesirability of rōnin status was a discrimination imposed by other samurai and by daimyō, the feudal lords. Like other samurai, rōnin wore two swords. Rōnin used a variety of other weapons as well.
Some rōnin -- those who lacked money -- would carry a yumi. Most weapons would reflect the ryū from. During the Edo period, with the shogunate's rigid class system and laws, the number of rōnin increased. Confiscation of fiefs during the rule of the third Tokugawa shōgun Iemitsu resulted in an large increase of rōnin. During previous ages, samurai were able to move between masters and between occupations, they could marry between classes. However, during the Edo period, samurai were restricted, were—above all—forbidden to become employed by another master without their previous master's permission; because the former samurai could not take up a new trade, or because of pride were loath to do so, many rōnin looked for other ways to make a living with their swords. Those rōnin who desired steady, legal employment became mercenaries that guarded trade caravans, or bodyguards for wealthy merchants. Many other rōnin became criminals, operating as bandits and highwaymen, or joining organized crime in towns and cities.
Rōnin were known to operate or serve as hired muscle for gangs that ran gambling rings, protection rackets, similar activities. Many were petty muggers; the criminal segment gave the rōnin of the Edo period a persistent reputation of disgrace, with an image of being thugs, bullies and wandering vagrants. In the Kamakura and Muromachi periods, when warriors held lands that they occupied, a rōnin was a warrior who had lost his lands. During these periods, as small-scale wars occurred throughout Japan, the daimyō needed to augment their armies, so rōnin had opportunities to serve new masters; some rōnin joined in bands, engaging in robbery and uprisings. In the Sengoku period, daimyō needed additional fighting men, if a master had perished, his rōnin were able to serve new lords. In contrast to the Edo period, the bond between the lord and the samurai was loose, some samurai who were dissatisfied with their treatment left their masters and sought new lords. Many warriors served a succession of masters, some became daimyō.
As an example, Tōdō Takatora served ten lords. Additionally, the division of the population into classes had not yet taken place, so it was possible to change one's occupation from warrior to merchant or farmer, or the reverse. Saitō Dōsan was one merchant who rose through the warrior ranks to become a daimyō; as Toyotomi Hideyoshi unified progressively larger parts of the country, daimyō found it unnecessary to recruit new soldiers. Next, the Battle of Sekigahara resulted in the confiscation or reduction of the fiefs of large numbers of daimyō on the losing side; as many as a hundred thousand rōnin joined forces with Toyotomi Hideyori and fought at the Siege of Osaka. In the ensuing years of peace, there was less need to maintain expensive standing armies, many surviving rōnin turned to farming or became townspeople. A few, such as Yamada Nagamasa, sought adventure overseas as mercenaries. Still, the majority lived in poverty as rōnin. Under the third Tokugawa shōgun Iemitsu, their number approached half a million.
The shogunate viewed them as dangerous, banished them from the cities or restricted the quarters where they could live. They prohibited serving new masters; as rōnin found themselves with fewer and fewer options, they joined in the Keian Uprising. This forced the shogunate to rethink its policy, it relaxed restrictions on daimyō inheritance, resulting in fewer confiscations of fiefs, it permitted rōnin to join new masters. Not having the status or power of employed samurai, rōnin were disreputable and festive, the group was a target of humiliation or satire, it was undesirable to be a rōnin, as it meant being without a land. As an indication of the humiliation felt by samurai who became rōnin, Lord Redesdale recorded that a rōnin killed himself at the graves of the forty-seven rōnin, he left a note saying that he had tried to enter the service of the daimyō of Chōshū Domain, but was refused. Wanting to serve no other master, hating being a rōnin, he killed himself. On the other hand, the famous 18th-century writer Kyokutei Bakin renounced his allegiance to Matsudaira Nobunari, in whose service Bakin's samurai father had spent his life.
Bakin voluntarily became a rōnin
Bombardment of Kagoshima
The Bombardment of Kagoshima known as the Anglo-Satsuma War, took place on 15–17 August 1863 during the Late Tokugawa shogunate. The Royal Navy was fired on from coastal batteries near the town of Kagoshima and in retaliation bombarded the town; the British were trying to extract a payment from the daimyō of Satsuma following the Namamugi Incident of 1862, in which British people were attacked by Satsuma samurai for not showing the proper respect for the daimyō's regent, Shimazu Hisamitsu. Following the Namamugi Incident on September 14, 1862, Lieutenant-Colonel Neale, the British Chargé d'Affaires, demanded from the bakufu an apology and a huge indemnity for the Namamugi outrage of £100,000, representing 1/3 of the total revenues of the Bakufu for one year. Neale kept threatening a naval bombardment of Edo. Britain demanded of Satsuma Domain the arrest and trial of the perpetrators of the outrage, £25,000 compensation for the surviving victims and the relatives of Charles Lennox Richardson.
The bakufu, led by Ogasawara Nagamichi in the absence of the Shōgun, in Kyoto, eager to avoid trouble with European powers, negotiated with France and Great Britain on July 2, 1863, on board the French warship Sémiramis and paid the indemnity to the British authorities. Participating in the settlement were the main French and British political and navy representatives of the time: Gustave Duchesne de Bellecourt the French Minister in Japan, Lieutenant-Colonel Neale the Chargé d'affaires of Great Britain, Admiral Jaurès and Admiral Kuper. Satsuma Province, their claim was invalid, as foreigners in Japan benefited from extraterritoriality due to Japan's reluctant acceptance of what the Japanese called the Unequal treaties with Europe. Japanese customary law did not apply to foreigners. However, Satsuma felt it could not be seen as submitting to European demands in the anti-foreign context at that time in Japan. Great Britain. Other anti-foreign troubles were occurring throughout the country at the same time, reinforced by Emperor Kōmei's 1863 "Order to expel barbarians".
The European powers chose to react militarily to such exactions: the straits of Shimonoseki had seen attacks on American and French ships passing through, each of which had brought retaliation from those countries, with the U. S. frigate USS Wyoming under Captain McDougal, the Dutch warship Medusa under Captain François de Casembroot, the two French warships Tancrède and the Dupleix under Captain Benjamin Jaurès attacking the mainland. On 14 August 1863, a multinational fleet under Admiral Kuper and the Royal Navy commenced the Bombardment of Shimonoseki to prevent further attacks on western shipping there, they succeeded. Following protracted and fruitless negotiations with Satsuma that had taken over a year, the British Chargé d'affaires had had enough. Under British Government instructions, he required the Royal Naval Commander-in-Chief of the Far East and China Station to coerce Satsuma into complying with the British Government's demands. Informed of the plans, the Bakufu asked for a delay in its implementation: "On receipt of your despatch of the 3rd of August, we understood that you intend to go within three days to the territory of the Prince of Satsuma with the men-of-war now lying in the Bay of Yokohama, to demand satisfaction for the murder of a British merchant on the Tokaido last year.
But owing to the present unsettled state of affairs in our empire, which you witness and hear of, we are in great trouble, intend to carry out several plans. Supposing, something untoward were to happen all the trouble both you and we have taken would have been in vain and fruitless. On the 5th, a vice-minister from Edo visited Colonel Neale, but far from further opposing the expedition of the European empire transmitted that the Shogunate intended to send one of its steamers with the squadron; the steamer in question. The British squadron left Yokohama on August 6, it was composed of the flagship HMS Euryalus, HMS Pearl, HMS Perseus, HMS Argus, HMS Coquette, HMS Racehorse and the gunboat HMS Havock. They sailed for Kagoshima and anchored in the deep waters of Kinko Bay on August 11, 1863. Satsuma envoys came aboard Euryalus and letters were exchanged, with the British commander pressing for a resolution satisfactory to his demands within 24 hours; the Satsuma clan prevaricated. The deadline expired, diplomacy gave way to coercion.
Deciding to put pressure on Satsuma, the Royal Navy commander seized three foreign-built steam merchant ships belonging to Satsuma which were at anchor in Kagoshima harbour, to use them as a bargaining tool. Picking their moment, just as a typhoon started, the Satsuma forces on shore vented their anger by firing their round shot cannons at the British ships. Surprised by the hostility, the British fleet responded by first pillaging and setting on fire the three captured steamships (to the chagrin of the British sailors, who were thereby depriv
The Boshin War known as the Japanese Revolution, was a civil war fought in Japan between the ruling Tokugawa Shogunate and supporters of the Imperial Court from 27 January 1868 to 27 June 1869. The Tokugawa Shogunate's handling of foreigners following the Opening of Japan during the 1850s and decline from increasing Western influence in the economy disillusioned many kazoku nobles and young samurai warriors, who sought to return power to the Emperor's Imperial Court in Kyoto after 683 years of Shogunate rule. An alliance of court officials and western samurai from the domains of Chōshū, Satsuma and Tosa, supported by the United Kingdom secured control of the Imperial Court. Tokugawa Yoshinobu, the sitting shōgun, abdicated political power to the young Emperor Meiji hoping that the House of Tokugawa could be preserved and participate in the future government. Military movements by Imperial forces, French support, partisan violence in Edo, an imperial decree abolishing the Tokugawa promoted by Satsuma and Chōshū led Yoshinobu to launch a military campaign to seize the Emperor's court in Kyoto.
The conflict turned against the Shogunate, Yoshinobu surrendered after a series of battles culminating in the surrender of Edo. Tokugawa loyalists retreated to northern Honshū where they joined the Northern Alliance against the Imperial faction, but were defeated several months and fled to Hokkaidō. In January 1869, the Shogunate established the Republic of Ezo on Hokkaidō to continue their rule as a separate state and sued for peace; the Imperial faction invaded Hokkaidō and defeated the Shogunate at the Battle of Hakodate in June, ending the war. The Boshin War made imperial rule supreme throughout the whole of Japan, completing the military phase of the Meiji Restoration and establishing the Empire of Japan; the victorious Imperial faction abandoned its objective to expel foreigners from Japan, instead adopted a policy of continued modernization and industrialization to eventual renegotiation of the unequal treaties with the Western powers. Tokugawa loyalists were shown clemency due to the persistence of Saigō Takamori, a prominent leader of the Imperial faction, many former Shogunate leaders and samurai were given positions of responsibility under the new government.
Around 120,000 men were mobilized during the conflict and of these about 3,500 were killed, over time the war has been romanticized as a "bloodless revolution" because of the small number of casualties. For the two centuries prior to 1854, Japan had limited exchange with foreign nations, with the notable exceptions of Korea via Tsushima, Qing China via the Ryūkyūs, the Dutch through the trading post of Dejima. In 1854, Commodore Perry opened Japan to global commerce with the implied threat of force, thus initiating a period of rapid development in foreign trade and Westernization. In large part due to the humiliating terms of the unequal treaties, as agreements like those conveyed by Perry are called, the shogunate soon faced internal hostility, which materialized into a radical movement, the sonnō jōi. Emperor Kōmei agreed with such sentiments, and—breaking with centuries of imperial tradition—began to take an active role in matters of state: as opportunities arose, he fulminated against the treaties and attempted to interfere in the shogunal succession.
His efforts culminated in March 1863 with his "Order to expel barbarians". Although the shogunate had no intention of enforcing it, the order inspired attacks against the shogunate itself and against foreigners in Japan: the most famous incident was that of the English trader Charles Lennox Richardson, for whose death the Tokugawa government had to pay an indemnity of one hundred thousand British pounds. Other attacks included the shelling of foreign shipping in Shimonoseki. During 1864, these actions were countered by armed retaliations by foreign powers, such as the British bombardment of Kagoshima and the multinational Shimonoseki Campaign. At the same time, the forces of Chōshū, together with rōnin, raised the Hamaguri rebellion trying to seize the city of Kyoto, where the Emperor's court was held, but were repelled by shogunate forces under the future shōgun Tokugawa Yoshinobu; the shogunate further ordered a punitive expedition against Chōshū, the First Chōshū expedition, obtained Chōshū's submission without actual fighting.
At this point initial resistance among the leadership in Chōshū and the Imperial Court subsided, but over the next year the Tokugawa proved unable to reassert full control over the country as most daimyōs began to ignore orders and questions from Edo. Despite the bombardment of Kagoshima, the Satsuma Domain had become closer to the British and was pursuing the modernization of its army and navy with their support; the Scottish dealer Thomas Blake Glover sold quantities of warships and guns to the southern domains. American and British military experts former officers, may have been directly involved in this military effort; the British ambassador Harry Smith Parkes supported the anti-shogunate forces in a drive to establish a legitimate, unified Imperial rule in Japan, to counter French influence with the shogunate. During that period, southern Japanese leaders such as Saigō Takamori of Satsuma, or Itō Hirobumi and Inoue Kaoru of Chōshū cultivated personal connections with British diplomats, notably Ernest Mason Satow.
The shogunate was preparing for further conflict by modernizing its forces. In line with Parkes' designs, the British the shogunate's primary partner, proved reluctant to provide assistance; the Tokugawa thus came to rely on French expertise, comforted by the military prestige of Napoleo