1.
Electric charge
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Electric charge is the physical property of matter that causes it to experience a force when placed in an electromagnetic field. There are two types of charges, positive and negative. Like charges repel and unlike attract, an absence of net charge is referred to as neutral. An object is charged if it has an excess of electrons. The SI derived unit of charge is the coulomb. In electrical engineering, it is common to use the ampere-hour. The symbol Q often denotes charge, early knowledge of how charged substances interact is now called classical electrodynamics, and is still accurate for problems that dont require consideration of quantum effects. The electric charge is a conserved property of some subatomic particles. Electrically charged matter is influenced by, and produces, electromagnetic fields, the interaction between a moving charge and an electromagnetic field is the source of the electromagnetic force, which is one of the four fundamental forces. 602×10−19 coulombs. The proton has a charge of +e, and the electron has a charge of −e, the study of charged particles, and how their interactions are mediated by photons, is called quantum electrodynamics. Charge is the property of forms of matter that exhibit electrostatic attraction or repulsion in the presence of other matter. Electric charge is a property of many subatomic particles. The charges of free-standing particles are integer multiples of the charge e. Michael Faraday, in his electrolysis experiments, was the first to note the discrete nature of electric charge, robert Millikans oil drop experiment demonstrated this fact directly, and measured the elementary charge. By convention, the charge of an electron is −1, while that of a proton is +1, charged particles whose charges have the same sign repel one another, and particles whose charges have different signs attract. The charge of an antiparticle equals that of the corresponding particle, quarks have fractional charges of either −1/3 or +2/3, but free-standing quarks have never been observed. The electric charge of an object is the sum of the electric charges of the particles that make it up. An ion is an atom that has lost one or more electrons, giving it a net charge, or that has gained one or more electrons
2.
International System of Units
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The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, the system also establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as the result of an initiative began in 1948. It is based on the system of units rather than any variant of the centimetre-gram-second system. The motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the CGS systems, the International System of Units has been adopted by most developed countries, however, the adoption has not been universal in all English-speaking countries. The metric system was first implemented during the French Revolution with just the metre and kilogram as standards of length, in the 1830s Carl Friedrich Gauss laid the foundations for a coherent system based on length, mass, and time. In the 1860s a group working under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science formulated the requirement for a coherent system of units with base units and derived units. Meanwhile, in 1875, the Treaty of the Metre passed responsibility for verification of the kilogram, in 1921, the Treaty was extended to include all physical quantities including electrical units originally defined in 1893. The units associated with these quantities were the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, in 1971, a seventh base quantity, amount of substance represented by the mole, was added to the definition of SI. On 11 July 1792, the proposed the names metre, are, litre and grave for the units of length, area, capacity. The committee also proposed that multiples and submultiples of these units were to be denoted by decimal-based prefixes such as centi for a hundredth, on 10 December 1799, the law by which the metric system was to be definitively adopted in France was passed. Prior to this, the strength of the magnetic field had only been described in relative terms. The technique used by Gauss was to equate the torque induced on a magnet of known mass by the earth’s magnetic field with the torque induced on an equivalent system under gravity. The resultant calculations enabled him to assign dimensions based on mass, length, a French-inspired initiative for international cooperation in metrology led to the signing in 1875 of the Metre Convention. Initially the convention only covered standards for the metre and the kilogram, one of each was selected at random to become the International prototype metre and International prototype kilogram that replaced the mètre des Archives and kilogramme des Archives respectively. Each member state was entitled to one of each of the prototypes to serve as the national prototype for that country. Initially its prime purpose was a periodic recalibration of national prototype metres. The official language of the Metre Convention is French and the version of all official documents published by or on behalf of the CGPM is the French-language version
3.
Metric prefix
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A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit. While all metric prefixes in use today are decadic, historically there have been a number of binary metric prefixes as well. Each prefix has a symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo-, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand, the prefix milli-, likewise, may be added to metre to indicate division by one thousand, one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre. Decimal multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the system with six dating back to the systems introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have even been prepended to non-metric units, the SI prefixes are standardized for use in the International System of Units by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in resolutions dating from 1960 to 1991. Since 2009, they have formed part of the International System of Quantities, the BIPM specifies twenty prefixes for the International System of Units. Each prefix name has a symbol which is used in combination with the symbols for units of measure. For example, the symbol for kilo- is k, and is used to produce km, kg, and kW, which are the SI symbols for kilometre, kilogram, prefixes corresponding to an integer power of one thousand are generally preferred. Hence 100 m is preferred over 1 hm or 10 dam, the prefixes hecto, deca, deci, and centi are commonly used for everyday purposes, and the centimetre is especially common. However, some building codes require that the millimetre be used in preference to the centimetre, because use of centimetres leads to extensive usage of decimal points. Prefixes may not be used in combination and this also applies to mass, for which the SI base unit already contains a prefix. For example, milligram is used instead of microkilogram, in the arithmetic of measurements having units, the units are treated as multiplicative factors to values. If they have prefixes, all but one of the prefixes must be expanded to their numeric multiplier,1 km2 means one square kilometre, or the area of a square of 1000 m by 1000 m and not 1000 square metres. 2 Mm3 means two cubic megametres, or the volume of two cubes of 1000000 m by 1000000 m by 1000000 m or 2×1018 m3, and not 2000000 cubic metres, examples 5 cm = 5×10−2 m =5 ×0.01 m =0. The prefixes, including those introduced after 1960, are used with any metric unit, metric prefixes may also be used with non-metric units. The choice of prefixes with a unit is usually dictated by convenience of use. Unit prefixes for amounts that are larger or smaller than those actually encountered are seldom used
4.
Quark
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A quark is an elementary particle and a fundamental constituent of matter. Quarks combine to form composite particles called hadrons, the most stable of which are protons and neutrons, due to a phenomenon known as color confinement, quarks are never directly observed or found in isolation, they can be found only within hadrons, such as baryons and mesons. For this reason, much of what is known about quarks has been drawn from observations of the hadrons themselves, Quarks have various intrinsic properties, including electric charge, mass, color charge, and spin. There are six types of quarks, known as flavors, up, down, strange, charm, top, up and down quarks have the lowest masses of all quarks. The heavier quarks rapidly change into up and down quarks through a process of particle decay, the transformation from a higher mass state to a lower mass state. Because of this, up and down quarks are generally stable and the most common in the universe, whereas strange, charm, bottom, and top quarks can only be produced in high energy collisions. For every quark flavor there is a type of antiparticle, known as an antiquark. The quark model was proposed by physicists Murray Gell-Mann and George Zweig in 1964. Accelerator experiments have provided evidence for all six flavors, the top quark was the last to be discovered at Fermilab in 1995. The Standard Model is the theoretical framework describing all the known elementary particles. This model contains six flavors of quarks, named up, down, strange, charm, bottom, antiparticles of quarks are called antiquarks, and are denoted by a bar over the symbol for the corresponding quark, such as u for an up antiquark. As with antimatter in general, antiquarks have the mass, mean lifetime, and spin as their respective quarks. Quarks are spin- 1⁄2 particles, implying that they are fermions according to the spin-statistics theorem and they are subject to the Pauli exclusion principle, which states that no two identical fermions can simultaneously occupy the same quantum state. This is in contrast to bosons, any number of which can be in the same state, unlike leptons, quarks possess color charge, which causes them to engage in the strong interaction. The resulting attraction between different quarks causes the formation of composite particles known as hadrons, there are two families of hadrons, baryons, with three valence quarks, and mesons, with a valence quark and an antiquark. The most common baryons are the proton and the neutron, the blocks of the atomic nucleus. A great number of hadrons are known, most of them differentiated by their quark content, the existence of exotic hadrons with more valence quarks, such as tetraquarks and pentaquarks, has been conjectured but not proven. However, on 13 July 2015, the LHCb collaboration at CERN reported results consistent with pentaquark states, elementary fermions are grouped into three generations, each comprising two leptons and two quarks