1.
Inductance
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According to Lenzs law, a changing electric current through a circuit that contains inductance induces a proportional voltage, which opposes the change in current. The varying field in this circuit may also induce an EMF in neighbouring circuits, the term inductance was coined by Oliver Heaviside in 1886. It is customary to use the symbol L for inductance, in honour of the physicist Heinrich Lenz. In the SI system, the measurement unit for inductance is the henry, with the unit symbol H, named in honor of Joseph Henry, who discovered inductance independently of, an electronic component that is intended to add inductance to a circuit is called an inductor. Inductors are typically manufactured from coils of wire and this design delivers two desired properties, a concentration of the magnetic field into a small physical space and a linking of the magnetic field into the circuit multiple times. The relationship between the self-inductance, L, of a circuit, the voltage, v. A voltage is induced across an inductor, that is equal to the product of the inductors inductance, all circuits have, in practice, some inductance, which may have beneficial or detrimental effects. For a tuned circuit, inductance is used to provide a frequency-selective circuit, practical inductors may be used to provide filtering, or energy storage, in a given network. The inductance of long AC power transmission lines affects the power capacity of the line, sensitive circuits, such as microphone and computer network cables, may utilize special cabling construction, limiting the inductive coupling between circuits. The generalization to the case of K electrical circuits with currents, here, inductance L is a symmetric matrix. The diagonal coefficients Lm, m are called coefficients of self-inductance, the coefficients of inductance are constant, as long as no magnetizable material with nonlinear characteristics is involved. This is a consequence of the linearity of Maxwells equations in the fields. The coefficients of inductance become functions of the currents in the nonlinear case, the inductance equations above are a consequence of Maxwells equations. There is a derivation in the important case of electrical circuits consisting of thin wires. Here Nm denotes the number of turns in loop m, Φm, the flux through loop m. This equation follows from Amperes law - magnetic fields and fluxes are linear functions of the currents and this agrees with the definition of inductance above if the coefficients Lm, n are identified with the coefficients of inductance. Because the total currents Nnin contribute to Φm it also follows that Lm, ∑ n =1 K ∂ W ∂ i n d i n. This must agree with the change of the field energy, W

2.
Henry (unit)
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The henry is the SI derived unit of electrical inductance. The unit is named after Joseph Henry, the American scientist who discovered electromagnetic induction independently of, the magnetic permeability of vacuum is 4π × 10−7 H⋅m−1. The henry is a unit based on four of the seven base units of the International System of Units, kilogram, meter, second. The United States National Institute of Standards and Technology recommends English-speaking users of SI to write the plural as henries

3.
International System of Units
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The International System of Units is the modern form of the metric system, and is the most widely used system of measurement. It comprises a coherent system of units of measurement built on seven base units, the system also establishes a set of twenty prefixes to the unit names and unit symbols that may be used when specifying multiples and fractions of the units. The system was published in 1960 as the result of an initiative began in 1948. It is based on the system of units rather than any variant of the centimetre-gram-second system. The motivation for the development of the SI was the diversity of units that had sprung up within the CGS systems, the International System of Units has been adopted by most developed countries, however, the adoption has not been universal in all English-speaking countries. The metric system was first implemented during the French Revolution with just the metre and kilogram as standards of length, in the 1830s Carl Friedrich Gauss laid the foundations for a coherent system based on length, mass, and time. In the 1860s a group working under the auspices of the British Association for the Advancement of Science formulated the requirement for a coherent system of units with base units and derived units. Meanwhile, in 1875, the Treaty of the Metre passed responsibility for verification of the kilogram, in 1921, the Treaty was extended to include all physical quantities including electrical units originally defined in 1893. The units associated with these quantities were the metre, kilogram, second, ampere, kelvin, in 1971, a seventh base quantity, amount of substance represented by the mole, was added to the definition of SI. On 11 July 1792, the proposed the names metre, are, litre and grave for the units of length, area, capacity. The committee also proposed that multiples and submultiples of these units were to be denoted by decimal-based prefixes such as centi for a hundredth, on 10 December 1799, the law by which the metric system was to be definitively adopted in France was passed. Prior to this, the strength of the magnetic field had only been described in relative terms. The technique used by Gauss was to equate the torque induced on a magnet of known mass by the earth’s magnetic field with the torque induced on an equivalent system under gravity. The resultant calculations enabled him to assign dimensions based on mass, length, a French-inspired initiative for international cooperation in metrology led to the signing in 1875 of the Metre Convention. Initially the convention only covered standards for the metre and the kilogram, one of each was selected at random to become the International prototype metre and International prototype kilogram that replaced the mètre des Archives and kilogramme des Archives respectively. Each member state was entitled to one of each of the prototypes to serve as the national prototype for that country. Initially its prime purpose was a periodic recalibration of national prototype metres. The official language of the Metre Convention is French and the version of all official documents published by or on behalf of the CGPM is the French-language version

4.
Metric prefix
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A metric prefix is a unit prefix that precedes a basic unit of measure to indicate a multiple or fraction of the unit. While all metric prefixes in use today are decadic, historically there have been a number of binary metric prefixes as well. Each prefix has a symbol that is prepended to the unit symbol. The prefix kilo-, for example, may be added to gram to indicate multiplication by one thousand, the prefix milli-, likewise, may be added to metre to indicate division by one thousand, one millimetre is equal to one thousandth of a metre. Decimal multiplicative prefixes have been a feature of all forms of the system with six dating back to the systems introduction in the 1790s. Metric prefixes have even been prepended to non-metric units, the SI prefixes are standardized for use in the International System of Units by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures in resolutions dating from 1960 to 1991. Since 2009, they have formed part of the International System of Quantities, the BIPM specifies twenty prefixes for the International System of Units. Each prefix name has a symbol which is used in combination with the symbols for units of measure. For example, the symbol for kilo- is k, and is used to produce km, kg, and kW, which are the SI symbols for kilometre, kilogram, prefixes corresponding to an integer power of one thousand are generally preferred. Hence 100 m is preferred over 1 hm or 10 dam, the prefixes hecto, deca, deci, and centi are commonly used for everyday purposes, and the centimetre is especially common. However, some building codes require that the millimetre be used in preference to the centimetre, because use of centimetres leads to extensive usage of decimal points. Prefixes may not be used in combination and this also applies to mass, for which the SI base unit already contains a prefix. For example, milligram is used instead of microkilogram, in the arithmetic of measurements having units, the units are treated as multiplicative factors to values. If they have prefixes, all but one of the prefixes must be expanded to their numeric multiplier,1 km2 means one square kilometre, or the area of a square of 1000 m by 1000 m and not 1000 square metres. 2 Mm3 means two cubic megametres, or the volume of two cubes of 1000000 m by 1000000 m by 1000000 m or 2×1018 m3, and not 2000000 cubic metres, examples 5 cm = 5×10−2 m =5 ×0.01 m =0. The prefixes, including those introduced after 1960, are used with any metric unit, metric prefixes may also be used with non-metric units. The choice of prefixes with a unit is usually dictated by convenience of use. Unit prefixes for amounts that are larger or smaller than those actually encountered are seldom used

5.
Kinetic inductance detector
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These devices operate at cryogenic temperatures, typically below 1 kelvin. They are being developed for high-sensitivity astronomical detection for frequencies ranging from the far-infrared to X-rays, photons incident on a strip of superconducting material break Cooper pairs and create excess quasiparticles. The kinetic inductance of the strip is inversely proportional to the density of Cooper pairs. This inductance is combined with a capacitor to form a microwave resonator whose resonant frequency changes with the absorption of photons and they are also being developed for optical and near-infrared detection at the Palomar Observatory. Kinetic inductance Cryogenic particle detectors SRON website on kinetic inductance detectors Research group of Prof. B, mazin at UC Santa Barbara YouTube video on kinetic inductance from MIT

6.
Surface-mount technology
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Surface-mount technology is a method for producing electronic circuits in which the components are mounted or placed directly onto the surface of printed circuit boards. An electronic device so made is called a surface-mount device, in the industry it has largely replaced the through-hole technology construction method of fitting components with wire leads into holes in the circuit board. By employing SMT, the production process speeds up, but the risk of defects also increase due to the components miniaturization, in those conditions, the failures detection have become critical for any SMT manufacturing process. An SMT component is usually smaller than its through-hole counterpart because it has either smaller leads or no leads at all and it may have short pins or leads of various styles, flat contacts, a matrix of solder balls, or terminations on the body of the component. Surface mounting was originally called planar mounting, surface-mount technology was developed in the 1960s and became widely used in the late 1980s. Much of the work in this technology was by IBM. Components were mechanically redesigned to have metal tabs or end caps that could be directly soldered to the surface of the PCB. Components became much smaller and component placement on both sides of a board became far more common with surface mounting than through-hole mounting, allowing much higher circuit densities. Adhesive is sometimes used to hold SMT components on the side of a board if a wave soldering process is used to solder both SMT and through-hole components simultaneously. Surface mounting lends itself well to a degree of automation, reducing labor cost. SMDs can be one-quarter to one-tenth the size and weight, solder paste, a sticky mixture of flux and tiny solder particles, is first applied to all the solder pads with a stainless steel or nickel stencil using a screen printing process. It can also be applied by a mechanism, similar to an inkjet printer. After pasting, the boards then proceed to the pick-and-place machines, the components to be placed on the boards are usually delivered to the production line in either paper/plastic tapes wound on reels or plastic tubes. Some large integrated circuits are delivered in static-free trays, numerical control pick-and-place machines remove the parts from the tapes, tubes or trays and place them on the PCB. The boards are then conveyed into the reflow soldering oven and they first enter a pre-heat zone, where the temperature of the board and all the components is gradually, uniformly raised. The boards then enter a zone where the temperature is high enough to melt the solder particles in the solder paste, there are a number of techniques for reflowing solder. One is to use infrared lamps, this is called infrared reflow, another is to use a hot gas convection. Another technology which is becoming popular again is special fluorocarbon liquids with high boiling points which use a method called vapor phase reflow, due to environmental concerns, this method was falling out of favor until lead-free legislation was introduced which requires tighter controls on soldering

7.
Category 5 cable
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Category 5 cable, commonly referred to as Cat 5, is a twisted pair cable for carrying signals. This type of cable is used in structured cabling for computer networks such as Ethernet, the cable standard provides performance of up to 100 MHz and is suitable for 10BASE-T, 100BASE-TX, 1000BASE-T, and 2. 5GBASE-T. Cat 5 is also used to other signals such as telephony. This cable is connected using punch-down blocks and modular connectors. Most Category 5 cables are unshielded, relying on the balanced twisted pair design. Category 5 was superseded by the Category 5e specification, and later category 6 cable, the specification for category 5 cable was defined in ANSI/TIA/EIA-568-A, with clarification in TSB-95. These documents specify performance characteristics and test requirements for frequencies up to 100 MHz, cable types, connector types and cabling topologies are defined by TIA/EIA-568-B. Nearly always, 8P8C modular connectors are used for connecting category 5 cable, the cable is terminated in either the T568A scheme or the T568B scheme. The two schemes work equally well and may be mixed in an installation so long as the scheme is used on both ends of each cable. Each of the four pairs in a Cat 5 cable has differing precise number of twists per meter to minimize crosstalk between the pairs, although cable assemblies containing 4 pairs are common, category 5 is not limited to 4 pairs. Backbone applications involve using up to 100 pairs and this use of balanced lines helps preserve a high signal-to-noise ratio despite interference from both external sources and crosstalk from other pairs. The cable is available in both stranded and solid conductor forms, the stranded form is more flexible and withstands more bending without breaking. Permanent wiring is solid-core, while patch cables are stranded, the specific category of cable in use can be identified by the printing on the side of the cable. Most Category 5 cables can be bent at any radius exceeding approximately four times the diameter of the cable. The maximum length for a segment is 100 m per TIA/EIA 568-5-A. If longer runs are required, the use of hardware such as a repeater or switch is necessary. The specifications for 10BASE-T networking specify a 100-meter length between active devices and this allows for 90 meters of solid-core permanent wiring, two connectors and two stranded patch cables of 5 meters, one at each end. The category 5e specification improves upon the category 5 specification by revising and introducing new specifications to further mitigate the amount of crosstalk

8.
Ferrite core
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In electronics, a ferrite core is a type of magnetic core made of ferrite on which the windings of electric transformers and other wound components such as inductors are formed. It is used for its properties of magnetic permeability coupled with low electrical conductivity. Ferrites are ceramic compounds of the metals with oxygen, which are ferrimagnetic. Ferrites that are used in transformer or electromagnetic cores contain iron oxides combined with nickel, zinc and they have a low coercivity and are called soft ferrites to distinguish them from hard ferrites, which have a high coercivity and are used to make ferrite magnets. The most common soft ferrites are, Manganese-zinc ferrite, MnZn have higher permeability and saturation levels than NiZn. NiZn ferrites exhibit higher resistivity than MnZn, and are more suitable for frequencies above 1 MHz. For applications below 5 MHz, MnZn ferrites are used, above that, the exception is with common mode inductors, where the threshold of choice is at 70 MHz. Cores can also be classified by shape, such as toroidal cores and they are also useful in very low frequency receivers, and can sometimes give good results over most of the shortwave frequencies assuming a suitable ferrite is used). They consist of a coil mounted on a ferrite core, other names include loopstick antenna, ferrod, and ferrite-rod antenna. Ferroceptor is an alternative name for a ferrite rod aerial. Balun Ferrite bead Ferrite Ferrite Magnetic core Toroidal inductors and transformers Zinc ferrite

9.
Mains electricity
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Mains electricity is the general-purpose alternating-current electric power supply. The two principal properties of the power supply, voltage and frequency, differ between regions. A voltage of 230 V and a frequency of 50 Hz is used in Europe, most of Africa, most of Asia, most of South America, in North America, the most common combination is 120 V and a frequency of 60 Hz. Other voltages exist, and some countries may have, for example,230 V but 60 Hz and this is a concern to travelers, since portable appliances designed for one voltage and frequency combination may not operate with or may be destroyed by another. In the UK, mains power is generally referred to as the mains. All these parameters vary among regions, the voltages are generally in the range 100–240 V. The two commonly used frequencies are 50 Hz and 60 Hz, single-phase or three-phase power is most commonly used today, although two-phase systems were used early in the 20th century. Foreign enclaves, such as industrial plants or overseas military bases. Some city areas may use different from that of the surrounding countryside. Regions in a state of anarchy may have no central electrical authority. Many other combinations of voltage and utility frequency were formerly used, direct current has been almost completely displaced by alternating current in public power systems, but DC was used especially in some city areas to the end of the 20th century. The modern combinations of 230 V/50 Hz and 120 V/60 Hz, listed in IEC60038, electricity is used for lighting, heating, cooling, electric motors and electronic equipment. The U. S. Energy Information Administration has published, Estimated U. S.3 Does not include water heating,4 Includes small electric devices, heating elements, and motors which are not listed above. Does not include electric vehicle charging, electronic appliances, typically use an AC to DC converter to power the device, this is often capable of operation over the approximate range of 100 V to 250 V and at 50 Hz to 60 Hz. The other categories are typically AC applications and usually have more restricted input ranges. A study by the Building Research Establishment in the UK states that The existing 230 V system is suited to the future of electricity whether through design or Darwinian processes. Any current perceived weakness is generally a result of cost reduction, questions as to whether there are alternatives to the existing 230 V AC system are often overshadowed by legacy issues, the future smart agenda and cost in all but specific situations. Where opportunities do exist they are often for specific parts of the overall load, in many countries, household power is single-phase electric power, with two or three wired contacts at each outlet

10.
Energy density
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Energy density is the amount of energy stored in a given system or region of space per unit volume. Colloquially it may also be used for energy per unit mass, often only the useful or extractable energy is measured, which is to say that chemically inaccessible energy such as rest mass energy is ignored. In short, pressure is a measure of the enthalpy per unit volume of a system, a pressure gradient has a potential to perform work on the surroundings by converting enthalpy until equilibrium is reached. There are many different types of stored in materials. In order of the magnitude of the energy released, these types of reactions are, nuclear, chemical, electrochemical. Chemical reactions are used by animals to derive energy from food, electrochemical reactions are used by most mobile devices such as laptop computers and mobile phones to release the energy from batteries. The following is a list of the energy densities of commonly used or well-known energy storage materials. Note that this list does not consider the mass of reactants commonly available such as the oxygen required for combustion or the efficiency in use. The following unit conversions may be helpful when considering the data in the table,1 MJ ≈0.28 kWh ≈0.37 HPh. In energy storage applications the energy density relates the mass of a store to the volume of the storage facility. The higher the density of the fuel, the more energy may be stored or transported for the same amount of volume. The energy density of a fuel per unit mass is called the energy of that fuel. The greatest energy source by far is mass itself and this energy, E = mc2, where m = ρV, ρ is the mass per unit volume, V is the volume of the mass itself and c is the speed of light. This energy, however, can be released only by the processes of nuclear fission, nuclear fusion, nuclear reactions cannot be realized by chemical reactions such as combustion. Although greater matter densities can be achieved, the density of a star would approximate the most dense system capable of matter-antimatter annihilation possible. A black hole, although denser than a star, does not have an equivalent anti-particle form. In the case of small black holes the power output would be tremendous. The highest density sources of energy aside from antimatter are fusion and fission, fusion includes energy from the sun which will be available for billions of years but so far, sustained fusion power production continues to be elusive

11.
Orders of magnitude (length)
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The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths. To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various lengths between 1. 6×10−35 meters and 101010122 meters,100 pm –1 Ångström 120 pm – radius of a gold atom 150 pm – Length of a typical covalent bond. 280 pm – Average size of the water molecule 298 pm – radius of a caesium atom, light travels 1 metre in 1⁄299,792,458, or 3. 3356409519815E-9 of a second. 25 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 12 MHz 29 metres – height of the lighthouse at Savudrija, Slovenia. 31 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 9.7 MHz 34 metres – height of the Split Point Lighthouse in Aireys Inlet, Victoria, Australia. 1 kilometre is equal to,1,000 metres 0.621371 miles 1,093.61 yards 3,280.84 feet 39,370.1 inches 100,000 centimetres 1,000,000 millimetres Side of a square of area 1 km2. Radius of a circle of area π km2,1.637 km – deepest dive of Lake Baikal in Russia, the worlds largest fresh water lake. 2.228 km – height of Mount Kosciuszko, highest point in Australia Most of Manhattan is from 3 to 4 km wide, farsang, a modern unit of measure commonly used in Iran and Turkey. Usage of farsang before 1926 may be for a precise unit derived from parasang. It is the altitude at which the FAI defines spaceflight to begin, to help compare orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 100 and 1,000 kilometres. 7.9 Gm – Diameter of Gamma Orionis 9, the newly improved measurement was 30% lower than the previous 2007 estimate. The size was revised in 2012 through improved measurement techniques and its faintness gives us an idea how our Sun would appear when viewed from even so close a distance as this. 350 Pm –37 light years – Distance to Arcturus 373.1 Pm –39.44 light years - Distance to TRAPPIST-1, a star recently discovered to have 7 planets around it. 400 Pm –42 light years – Distance to Capella 620 Pm –65 light years – Distance to Aldebaran This list includes distances between 1 and 10 exametres. 13 Em –1,300 light years – Distance to the Orion Nebula 14 Em –1,500 light years – Approximate thickness of the plane of the Milky Way galaxy at the Suns location 30.8568 Em –3,261. At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant, Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used. At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant, Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used. 590 Ym –62 billion light years – Cosmological event horizon, displays orders of magnitude in successively larger rooms Powers of Ten Travel across the Universe

12.
Orders of magnitude (mass)
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To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following lists describe various mass levels between 10−40 kg and 1053 kg. The table below is based on the kilogram, the unit of mass in the International System of Units. The kilogram is the standard unit to include an SI prefix as part of its name. The gram is an SI derived unit of mass, however, the names of all SI mass units are based on gram, rather than on kilogram, thus 103 kg is a megagram, not a kilokilogram. The tonne is a SI-compatible unit of equal to a megagram. The unit is in use for masses above about 103 kg and is often used with SI prefixes. Other units of mass are also in use, historical units include the stone, the pound, the carat, and the grain. For subatomic particles, physicists use the equivalent to the energy represented by an electronvolt. At the atomic level, chemists use the mass of one-twelfth of a carbon-12 atom, astronomers use the mass of the sun. Unlike other physical quantities, mass-energy does not have an a priori expected minimal quantity, as is the case with time or length, plancks law allows for the existence of photons with arbitrarily low energies. This series on orders of magnitude does not have a range of larger masses Mass units conversion calculator Mass units conversion calculator JavaScript

13.
Orders of magnitude (numbers)
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This list contains selected positive numbers in increasing order, including counts of things, dimensionless quantity and probabilities. Mathematics – Writing, Approximately 10−183,800 is a rough first estimate of the probability that a monkey, however, taking punctuation, capitalization, and spacing into account, the actual probability is far lower, around 10−360,783. Computing, The number 1×10−6176 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 6. 5×10−4966 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a quadruple-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 3. 6×10−4951 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a 80-bit x86 double-extended IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−398 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Computing, The number 4. 9×10−324 is approximately equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a double-precision IEEE floating-point value. Computing, The number 1×10−101 is equal to the smallest positive non-zero value that can be represented by a single-precision IEEE decimal floating-point value, Mathematics, The probability in a game of bridge of all four players getting a complete suit is approximately 4. 47×10−28. ISO, yocto- ISO, zepto- Mathematics, The probability of matching 20 numbers for 20 in a game of keno is approximately 2.83 × 10−19. ISO, atto- Mathematics, The probability of rolling snake eyes 10 times in a row on a pair of dice is about 2. 74×10−16. ISO, micro- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 649,739 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 72,192 to 1 against. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a four of a kind in poker are 4,164 to 1 against, for a probability of 2.4 × 10−4. ISO, milli- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a full house in poker are 693 to 1 against, for a probability of 1.4 × 10−3. Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a flush in poker are 507.8 to 1 against, Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt a straight in poker are 253.8 to 1 against, for a probability of 4 × 10−3. Physics, α =0.007297352570, the fine-structure constant, ISO, deci- Mathematics – Poker, The odds of being dealt only one pair in poker are about 5 to 2 against, for a probability of 0.42. Demography, The population of Monowi, a village in Nebraska. Mathematics, √2 ≈1.414213562373095489, the ratio of the diagonal of a square to its side length. Mathematics, φ ≈1.618033988749895848, the golden ratio Mathematics, the number system understood by most computers, human scale, There are 10 digits on a pair of human hands, and 10 toes on a pair of human feet. Mathematics, The number system used in life, the decimal system, has 10 digits,0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,9

14.
Orders of magnitude (power)
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This page lists examples of the power in watts produced by various sources of energy. They are grouped by orders of magnitude, and each section covers three orders of magnitude, or a factor of one thousand,1.64 × 10−27 watt – phys, approximate power of gravitational radiation emitted by a 1000 kg satellite in geosynchronous orbit around the Earth. ~10 zW – tech, approximate power of Galileo space probes radio signal as received on earth by a 70-meter DSN antenna,1 aW – phys, approximate power scale at which operation of nanoelectromechanical systems are overwhelmed by thermal fluctuations. 100 aW – tech, the GPS signal strength measured at the surface of the Earth, for reference, about 10,000 100-watt lightbulbs or 5,000 computer systems would be needed to draw 1 MW. Also,1 MW is approximately 1360 horsepower, modern high-power diesel-electric locomotives typically have a peak power of 3–5 MW, while a typical modern nuclear power plant produces on the order of 500–2000 MW peak output. 8.21 GW – tech, capacity of the Kashiwazaki-Kariwa Nuclear Power Plant,73.1 GW - tech, total installed power capacity of Turkey on December 31,2015. 101.6 GW – tech, peak power consumption of France 166 GW – tech. 433 GW – tech, total installed wind turbine capacity at end of 2015,700 GW – biomed, humankind basal metabolic rate as of 2013. 2 TW – astro, approximate power generated between the surfaces of Jupiter and its moon Io due to Jupiters tremendous magnetic field,3.34 TW – geo, average total power consumption of the US in 200518. 1.1 PW – tech, worlds most powerful laser pulses by laser still in operation, ~2 X1.00 PW – tech, Omega EP laser power at the Laboratory for Laser Energetics. There are two beams that are combined. 1.25 PW – tech, worlds most powerful laser pulses,1.4 PW – geo, estimated heat flux transported by the Gulf Stream. 4 PW – geo, estimated heat flux transported by Earths atmosphere. 5.13 PW – tech, worlds most powerful laser pulses, 10–100 PW geo, estimated total power output of a Type-I civilization on the Kardashev scale. Barty also gave a talk on Laser-Based Nuclear Photonics at the SPIE meeting. 135 ZW – astro, approximate luminosity of Wolf 359 10-100 YW – geo, estimated total power output of a Type-II civilization on the Kardashev scale

15.
Orders of magnitude (radiation)
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Recognized effects of higher acute radiation doses are described in more detail in the article on radiation poisoning.01 mSv. Light radiation sickness begins at about 50–100 rad, the following table includes some dosages for comparison purposes, using millisieverts. Thus 100 mSv is considered twice in the table below – once as received over a 5-year period, the table describes doses and their official limits, rather than effects. Dose can be decreased down to 3 Gy through the use of a 10 gram/cm² alumunium shield