1.
Units of measurement
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A unit of measurement is a definite magnitude of a quantity, defined and adopted by convention or by law, that is used as a standard for measurement of the same quantity. Any other value of quantity can be expressed as a simple multiple of the unit of measurement. For example, length is a physical quantity, the metre is a unit of length that represents a definite predetermined length. When we say 10 metres, we actually mean 10 times the definite predetermined length called metre, the definition, agreement, and practical use of units of measurement have played a crucial role in human endeavour from early ages up to this day. Different systems of units used to be very common, now there is a global standard, the International System of Units, the modern form of the metric system. In trade, weights and measures is often a subject of regulation, to ensure fairness. The International Bureau of Weights and Measures is tasked with ensuring worldwide uniformity of measurements, metrology is the science for developing nationally and internationally accepted units of weights and measures. In physics and metrology, units are standards for measurement of quantities that need clear definitions to be useful. Reproducibility of experimental results is central to the scientific method, a standard system of units facilitates this. Scientific systems of units are a refinement of the concept of weights, science, medicine, and engineering often use larger and smaller units of measurement than those used in everyday life and indicate them more precisely. The judicious selection of the units of measurement can aid researchers in problem solving, in the social sciences, there are no standard units of measurement and the theory and practice of measurement is studied in psychometrics and the theory of conjoint measurement. A unit of measurement is a quantity of a physical property. Units of measurement were among the earliest tools invented by humans, primitive societies needed rudimentary measures for many tasks, constructing dwellings of an appropriate size and shape, fashioning clothing, or bartering food or raw materials. Weights and measures are mentioned in the Bible and it is a commandment to be honest and have fair measures. As of the 21st Century, multiple unit systems are used all over the world such as the United States Customary System, the British Customary System, however, the United States is the only industrialized country that has not yet completely converted to the Metric System. The systematic effort to develop an acceptable system of units dates back to 1790 when the French National Assembly charged the French Academy of Sciences to come up such a unit system. After this treaty was signed, a General Conference of Weights, the CGPM produced the current SI system which was adopted in 1954 at the 10th conference of weights and measures. Currently, the United States is a society which uses both the SI system and the US Customary system
2.
Volume
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Volume is the quantity of three-dimensional space enclosed by a closed surface, for example, the space that a substance or shape occupies or contains. Volume is often quantified numerically using the SI derived unit, the cubic metre, three dimensional mathematical shapes are also assigned volumes. Volumes of some simple shapes, such as regular, straight-edged, Volumes of a complicated shape can be calculated by integral calculus if a formula exists for the shapes boundary. Where a variance in shape and volume occurs, such as those that exist between different human beings, these can be calculated using techniques such as the Body Volume Index. One-dimensional figures and two-dimensional shapes are assigned zero volume in the three-dimensional space, the volume of a solid can be determined by fluid displacement. Displacement of liquid can also be used to determine the volume of a gas, the combined volume of two substances is usually greater than the volume of one of the substances. However, sometimes one substance dissolves in the other and the volume is not additive. In differential geometry, volume is expressed by means of the volume form, in thermodynamics, volume is a fundamental parameter, and is a conjugate variable to pressure. Any unit of length gives a unit of volume, the volume of a cube whose sides have the given length. For example, a cubic centimetre is the volume of a cube whose sides are one centimetre in length, in the International System of Units, the standard unit of volume is the cubic metre. The metric system also includes the litre as a unit of volume, thus 1 litre =3 =1000 cubic centimetres =0.001 cubic metres, so 1 cubic metre =1000 litres. Small amounts of liquid are often measured in millilitres, where 1 millilitre =0.001 litres =1 cubic centimetre. Capacity is defined by the Oxford English Dictionary as the applied to the content of a vessel, and to liquids, grain, or the like. Capacity is not identical in meaning to volume, though closely related, Units of capacity are the SI litre and its derived units, and Imperial units such as gill, pint, gallon, and others. Units of volume are the cubes of units of length, in SI the units of volume and capacity are closely related, one litre is exactly 1 cubic decimetre, the capacity of a cube with a 10 cm side. In other systems the conversion is not trivial, the capacity of a fuel tank is rarely stated in cubic feet, for example. The density of an object is defined as the ratio of the mass to the volume, the inverse of density is specific volume which is defined as volume divided by mass. Specific volume is an important in thermodynamics where the volume of a working fluid is often an important parameter of a system being studied
3.
Allan Hills 84001
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Allan Hills 84001 is a meteorite that was found in Allan Hills, Antarctica on December 27,1984 by a team of U. S. meteorite hunters from the ANSMET project. Like other members of the group of SNCs, ALH84001 is thought to be from Mars, however, it does not fit into any of the previously discovered SNC groups. On discovery, its mass was 1.93 kilograms. S, president Bill Clinton giving a speech about the potential discovery. This rock is considered to be one of the oldest Martian meteorites, based on chemical analyses, it is thought to have originated on Mars from a period when liquid water existed on the now arid planets surface. According to the analysis, Eos Chasma in the Valles Marineris canyon appears to be the source of the meteorite, the analysis was not conclusive, in part because it was limited to areas of Mars not obscured by dust. The theory holds that ALH84001 was blasted off from the surface of Mars by an impact about 17 million years ago. These dates were established by a variety of dating techniques, including samarium-neodymium, rubidium-strontium, potassium-argon. Other meteorites that have potential biological markings have generated less interest because they do not contain rock from a wet Mars, ALH84001 is the only meteorite collected from such a time period. In October 2011 it was reported that isotopic analysis indicated that the carbonates in ALH84001 were precipitated at a temperature of 18 °C with water and carbon dioxide from the Martian atmosphere. On August 6,1996, ALH84001 became newsworthy when it was claimed that the meteorite may contain evidence of traces of life from Mars, under the scanning electron microscope structures were revealed that some scientists interpreted as fossils of bacteria-like lifeforms. The structures found on ALH84001 are 20–100 nanometres in diameter, similar in size to theoretical nanobacteria, the announcement of possible extraterrestrial life caused considerable controversy. David S. McKay at NASA argued that likely microbial terrestrial contamination found in other Martian meteorites does not resemble the shapes in the ALH84001. In particular, the shapes within the ALH84001 look intergrown or embedded in the indigenous material, while likely contamination does not. While it has not yet conclusively been shown how the features in the meteorite were formed, David McKay says these results were obtained using unrealistically pure raw materials as a starting point, and will not explain many of the features described by us in ALH84001. According to McKay, a plausible inorganic model must explain all of the properties that we. The rest of the community disagreed with McKay. However, the consensus is that morphology alone cannot be used unambiguously as a tool for primitive life detection. Interpretation of morphology is notoriously subjective, and its use alone has led to errors of interpretation
4.
Messier 5
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Messier 5 or M5 is a globular cluster in the constellation Serpens. It was discovered by Gottfried Kirch in 1702 and it should not be confused with the much fainter and more distant globular cluster Palomar 5, which is situated nearby in the sky. M5 is, under good conditions, just visible to the naked eye as a faint star near the star 5 Serpentis. Binoculars or small telescopes will identify the object as non-stellar while larger telescopes will show individual stars. M5 was discovered by the German astronomer Gottfried Kirch in 1702 when he was observing a comet, charles Messier also noted it in 1764, but thought it a nebula without any stars associated with it. William Herschel was the first to resolve stars in the cluster in 1791. Spanning 165 light-years in diameter, M5 is one of the largest known globular clusters, the gravitational sphere of influence of M5, has a radius of some 200 light-years. At 13 billion years old, M5 is also one of the eldest globular clusters in the Milky Way Galaxy. Its distance is about 24,500 light-years from Earth, and it more than 100,000 stars. 105 stars in M5 are known to be variable in brightness,97 of them belonging to the RR Lyrae type, the brightest and most easily observed variable in M5 varies from magnitude 10.6 to 12.1 in a period of just under 26.5 days. A dwarf nova has also observed in this cluster
5.
Cubic metre
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The cubic metre or cubic meter is the SI derived unit of volume. It is the volume of a cube with one metre in length. An alternative name, which allowed a different usage with metric prefixes, was the stère, another alternative name, no longer widely used, was the kilolitre. A cubic metre of water at the temperature of maximum density and standard atmospheric pressure has a mass of 1000 kg. At 0 °C, the point of water, a cubic metre of water has slightly less mass,999.972 kilograms. It is sometimes abbreviated to cu m, m3, M3, m^3, m**3, CBM, abbreviated CBM and cbm in the freight business and MTQ in international trade. See Orders of magnitude for a comparison with other volumes
6.
Orders of magnitude (length)
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The following are examples of orders of magnitude for different lengths. To help compare different orders of magnitude, the following list describes various lengths between 1. 6×10−35 meters and 101010122 meters,100 pm –1 Ångström 120 pm – radius of a gold atom 150 pm – Length of a typical covalent bond. 280 pm – Average size of the water molecule 298 pm – radius of a caesium atom, light travels 1 metre in 1⁄299,792,458, or 3. 3356409519815E-9 of a second. 25 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 12 MHz 29 metres – height of the lighthouse at Savudrija, Slovenia. 31 metres – wavelength of the broadcast radio shortwave band at 9.7 MHz 34 metres – height of the Split Point Lighthouse in Aireys Inlet, Victoria, Australia. 1 kilometre is equal to,1,000 metres 0.621371 miles 1,093.61 yards 3,280.84 feet 39,370.1 inches 100,000 centimetres 1,000,000 millimetres Side of a square of area 1 km2. Radius of a circle of area π km2,1.637 km – deepest dive of Lake Baikal in Russia, the worlds largest fresh water lake. 2.228 km – height of Mount Kosciuszko, highest point in Australia Most of Manhattan is from 3 to 4 km wide, farsang, a modern unit of measure commonly used in Iran and Turkey. Usage of farsang before 1926 may be for a precise unit derived from parasang. It is the altitude at which the FAI defines spaceflight to begin, to help compare orders of magnitude, this page lists lengths between 100 and 1,000 kilometres. 7.9 Gm – Diameter of Gamma Orionis 9, the newly improved measurement was 30% lower than the previous 2007 estimate. The size was revised in 2012 through improved measurement techniques and its faintness gives us an idea how our Sun would appear when viewed from even so close a distance as this. 350 Pm –37 light years – Distance to Arcturus 373.1 Pm –39.44 light years - Distance to TRAPPIST-1, a star recently discovered to have 7 planets around it. 400 Pm –42 light years – Distance to Capella 620 Pm –65 light years – Distance to Aldebaran This list includes distances between 1 and 10 exametres. 13 Em –1,300 light years – Distance to the Orion Nebula 14 Em –1,500 light years – Approximate thickness of the plane of the Milky Way galaxy at the Suns location 30.8568 Em –3,261. At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant, Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used. At this scale, expansion of the universe becomes significant, Distance of these objects are derived from their measured redshifts, which depends on the cosmological models used. 590 Ym –62 billion light years – Cosmological event horizon, displays orders of magnitude in successively larger rooms Powers of Ten Travel across the Universe