Confederate Heartland Offensive
The Confederate Heartland Offensive known as the Kentucky Campaign, was an American Civil War campaign conducted by the Confederate States Army in Tennessee and Kentucky where Generals Braxton Bragg and Edmund Kirby Smith tried to draw neutral Kentucky into the Confederacy by outflanking Union troops under Major General Don Carlos Buell. Though they scored some successes, notably a tactical win at Perryville, they soon retreated, leaving Kentucky under Union control for the rest of the war. Western campaigns by Union forces earlier in 1862 had reaped much progress; the Tennessee and Cumberland Rivers had been opened to the U. S. Navy after successes at the battles of Fort Henry and Fort Donelson; the railroad hub at Corinth had been evacuated by the Confederates, causing most of West Tennessee to fall into Union control. New Orleans, the Confederacy's largest city at that time, had been captured by Admiral David Farragut; the city of Vicksburg, was now an important strategic aim for the Union commanders, as the western Confederates were "narrowed down all to the single line of road running east from Vicksburg."
Consequentially, protecting the Confederate stronghold on the Mississippi River became a top priority for the Confederacy. Confederate General Braxton Bragg decided to divert Union attention away from Vicksburg and from Chattanooga, being threatened by a large Union force under Don Carlos Buell, by invading the border state of Kentucky. Kentucky, the most southern of the border states, produced cotton and tobacco, was the primary supplier of hemp for rope used in the cotton industry; the state was a major slave trade center. Kentucky, being a border state, was among the chief places where the "Brother against brother" scenario was prevalent. Southern sympathizers in Kentucky had seceded and joined the Confederacy, but had been unable to enforce their rule over the state's territory. Kentucky declared its neutrality at the beginning of the war, but after a failed attempt by Confederate General Leonidas Polk to take the state of Kentucky for the Confederacy in 1861, the legislature petitioned the Union Army for assistance.
After early 1862 Kentucky came under Union control. But Kentucky had a star on the Confederate flag, seats in the Confederate Congress. In addition, many Confederate leaders, including John C. Breckinridge, were from Kentucky. Most of Mary Todd Lincoln's relatives from the Lexington, Kentucky area were Confederate officers, about 35,000 Kentuckians served as Confederate soldiers, but an estimated 125,000 Kentuckians served as Union soldiers. Nearly 60 infantry regiments served versus just 9 in the Confederate. However, a rather large number of cavalry outfits joined the latter. In August 1862, Confederate General Braxton Bragg invaded Kentucky, hoping that he could arouse supporters of the Confederate cause in the border state and draw Union forces under Maj. Gen. Don Carlos Buell back beyond the Ohio River. Bragg transported all of his infantry by railroads from Tupelo, Mississippi, to Chattanooga, while his cavalry and artillery moved by road. By moving his army to Chattanooga, he was able to challenge Buell's advance on the city.
Once his forces had assembled in Chattanooga, Bragg planned to move north into Kentucky in cooperation with Lt. Gen. Edmund Kirby Smith, commanding a separate force operating out of Knoxville, Tennessee, he captured over 4,000 Union soldiers at Munfordville, moved his army to Bardstown. On October 4, 1862, he participated in the inauguration of Richard Hawes as the provisional Confederate governor of Kentucky; the wing of Bragg's army under Maj. Gen. Leonidas Polk met Buell's army at Perryville on October 8 and won a tactical victory against him. Kirby Smith pleaded with Bragg to follow up on his success: "For God's sake, let us fight Buell here." Bragg replied, "I will do it, sir," but displaying what one observer called "a perplexity and vacillation which had now become appalling to Smith, to Hardee, to Polk," he ordered his army to retreat through the Cumberland Gap to Knoxville. Bragg referred to his retreat as the successful culmination of a giant raid, he had multiple reasons for withdrawing.
Disheartening news had arrived from North Mississippi that Earl Van Dorn and Sterling Price had failed at Corinth, just as Robert E. Lee had failed in his Maryland Campaign, he saw that his army had not much to gain from a further, isolated victory, whereas a defeat might cost not only the bountiful food and supplies yet collected, but his army. He wrote to his wife, "With the whole southwest thus in the enemy's possession, my crime would have been unpardonable had I kept my noble little army to be ice-bound in the northern clime, without tents or shoes, obliged to forage daily for bread, etc." The invasion of Kentucky was a strategic failure, although it had forced the Union forces out of Northern Alabama and most of Middle Tennessee. Bragg was criticized by some newspapers and two of his own generals and William J. Hardee, but there was plenty of blame to spread among the Confederate high command for the failure of the invasion of Kentucky; the armies of Bragg and Kirby Smith suffered from a lack of unified command.
Bragg can be faulted for moving his army away from Munfordville, out of Buell's path, a prime location for a battle to Confederate advantage. Polk can be blamed for not following Bragg's instructions on the day before and the day of the battle. Confederate President Jefferson Davis kept Bragg in command of the Army of Tennessee. Presid
Missouri in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Missouri was a hotly contested border state populated by both Union and Confederate sympathizers. It sent armies and supplies to both sides, was represented with a star on both flags, maintained dual governments, endured a bloody neighbor-against-neighbor intrastate war within the larger national war. A slave state since statehood in 1821, Missouri's geographic position in the center of the country and at the rural edge of the American frontier ensured that it remained a divisive battleground for competing Northern and Southern ideologies in the years preceding the war; when the war began in 1861, it became clear that control of the Mississippi River and the burgeoning economic hub of St. Louis would make Missouri a strategic territory in the Trans-Mississippi Theater. By the end of the war in 1865, nearly 110,000 Missourians had served in the Union Army and at least 30,000 in the Confederate Army; the war in Missouri was continuous between 1861 and 1865, with battles and skirmishes in all areas of the state, from the Iowa and Illinois borders in the northeast to the Arkansas border in the southeast and southwest.
Counting minor actions and skirmishes, Missouri saw more than 1,200 distinct engagements within its boundaries. The first major Civil War battle west of the Mississippi River took place on August 10, 1861 at Wilson's Creek, while the largest battle west of the Mississippi River was the Battle of Westport in Kansas City in 1864. Missouri was settled by Southerners traveling up the Mississippi and Missouri rivers. Many brought slaves with them. Missouri entered the Union in 1821 as a slave state following the Missouri Compromise of 1820, in which Congress agreed that slavery would be illegal in all territory north of 36°30' latitude, except Missouri; the compromise was. Of the greatest concern for Missouri slave-holders in the years before the war was a federal law that decreed that if a slave physically entered a free state, the slave became free; the Underground Railroad, a network of safe houses through which runaway slaves could find protection and refuge while heading north, was established in the state, slave owners were worried about the possibility of Missouri's entire western border becoming a conduit for the Underground Railroad if adjacent territories were made free states.
In 1854, the Kansas–Nebraska Act nullified the policy set by the Missouri Compromise by permitting the Kansas and Nebraska Territories to vote on whether they would join the Union as free or slave states. The result was a de facto war between pro-slavery residents of Missouri, called "Border Ruffians", anti-slavery "Free-Staters" of Kansas, each of which sought to influence how Kansas entered the Union; the conflict involved attacks and murders of supporters on both sides, with the Sacking of Lawrence by pro-slavery forces and the Pottawatomie massacre led by abolitionist John Brown the most notable. Kansas approved a pro-slavery constitution called the Lecompton Constitution, but after the U. S. Congress rejected it, the state approved the anti-slavery Wyandotte Constitution and was admitted to the Union in January 1861; the violence along the Kansas–Missouri border foreshadowed the national violence to come, indeed continued throughout the Civil War. Against the background of Bleeding Kansas, the case of Dred Scott, a slave who in 1846 had sued for his family's freedom in St. Louis, reached the U.
S. Supreme Court. In 1857, the Supreme Court handed down its decision, ruling not only that slaves were not automatically made free by entering a free state, but more controversially that no one of African ancestry was considered a U. S. citizen and therefore that African-Americans could not initiate legal action in any court when they had what would otherwise be a valid claim. The decision calmed the skirmishes between Missouri and Kansas partisans, but its publicity enraged abolitionists nationwide and contributed to the vitriolic rhetoric that led to the Civil War. By 1860, Missouri's initial southern settlers had been supplanted with a more diversified non-slave-holding population, including former northerners German and Irish immigrants. With war seeming inevitable, Missouri hoped to stay out of the conflict by remaining a part of the Union but militarily neutral – not sending men or supplies to either side and pledging to fight troops from either side who entered the state; the policy was first put forth in 1860 by outgoing Governor Robert Marcellus Stewart, who had Northern leanings.
It was reaffirmed by incoming Governor Claiborne Fox Jackson. Jackson, stated in his inaugural address that in case of federal "coercion" of southern states, Missouri should support and defend her "sister southern states". A Constitutional Convention to discuss secession was convened with Sterling Price presiding; the delegates supported the neutrality position. In the United States presidential election of 1860, Abraham Lincoln received only 10 percent of Missouri's votes, while 71 percent favored either John Bell or Stephen A. Douglas, both of whom wanted to maintain the status quo. Douglas won the Missouri vote over Bell—one of only two states Douglas carried, the other being New Jersey—with the remaining 19 percent siding with Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge. At the time of the 1860 U. S. Census, Missouri's total population was 1,182,012. Most of the slaves lived in rural areas rather than cities. Of the 299,701 responses to "Occupation", 124,989 people listed "Farmers" and 39,39
Maryland in the American Civil War
During the American Civil War, Maryland, a slave state, was one of the border states, straddling the South and North. Because of its strategic location, bordering the national capital city of Washington D. C. with its District of Columbia since 1790, the strong desire of the opposing factions within the state to sway public opinion towards their respective causes, Maryland played an important role in the American Civil War. Newly elected 16th President Abraham Lincoln, suspended the constitutional right of habeas corpus in Maryland. S. Supreme Court's "Ex parte Merryman" decision concerning freeing John Merryman, a prominent Southern sympathizer from Baltimore County arrested by the military and held in Fort McHenry; the Chief Justice, but not in a decision with the other justices, had held that the suspension was unconstitutional and would leave lasting civil and legal scars. The decision was filed in the U. S. Circuit Court for Maryland by Chief Justice Roger Brooke Taney, a Marylander from Frederick and sometimes in Baltimore and former protege of seventh President Andrew Jackson who had appointed him two decades earlier.
The first fatalities of the war happened during the Baltimore Civil War Riots of Thursday/Friday, April 18 - 19th, 1861, a year and a half with the single bloodiest day of combat in American military history occurred during the first major Confederate invasion of the North in the Maryland Campaign, just north above the Potomac River, near Sharpsburg, Maryland, at the Battle of Antietam, on 17 September 1862. Preceded by the pivotal skirmishes at three mountain passes of Crampton and Turner's Gaps to the east in the Battle of South Mountain, though tactically a draw, was strategically enough of a Union victory in the second year of the war to give 16th President Abraham Lincoln the opportunity to issue in September 1862, the Emancipation Proclamation, taking effect January 1st, 1863, which declared slaves in the rebelling states of the Confederacy to be "henceforth and forever free". In July 1864, the Battle of Monocacy near Frederick, Maryland in the third and last major Southern invasion, was fought on Maryland soil.
Monocacy was a tactical victory for the Confederate States Army but a strategic defeat, as the one-day delay inflicted on the attacking Confederates under Gen. Jubal Early by Federal General Lew Wallace's units hastily sent west on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad with reinforcements from Baltimore with their stout resistance cost rebel General Early his chance to capture the Union capital of Washington, D. C. during the subsequent attack on the outlying northwestern fortifications near Fort Stevens, witnessed by President Lincoln himself in the only time that a Chief Executive came under hostile fire. Across the state, nearly 85,000 citizens signed up for the military, with most joining the Union Army. One third as many enlisted to "go South" and fight for the Confederacy; the most prominent Maryland leaders and officers during the Civil War included Governor Thomas H. Hicks who, despite his early sympathies for the South, helped prevent the state from seceding, Confederate Brigadier General George H. Steuart, a noted brigade commander under Robert E. Lee in the Army of Northern Virginia.
Before the end of the war would bring the abolition of slavery in the State of Maryland, with a new third constitution voted approval in 1864 by a small majority of Radical Republican Unionists controlling the nominally Democratic state. Animosity against Lincoln would remain, Marylander John Wilkes Booth would assassinate President Lincoln on April 14, 1865, crying "sic semper tyrannis" the Virginia state motto as he did so in Washington's Ford's Theater fleeing and hiding in southern Maryland for a week hunted by Federal troops before slipping across the Potomac and shot in a Virginia barn. Maryland, as a slave-holding border state, was divided over the antebellum arguments over states' rights and the future of slavery in the Union. Culturally and economically, Maryland found herself neither one thing nor another, a unique blend of Southern agrarianism and Northern mercantilism. In the leadup to the American Civil War, it became clear that the state was bitterly divided in its sympathies.
There was much less appetite for secession than elsewhere in the Southern States or in the border states, but Maryland was unsympathetic towards the abolitionist position of Republican candidate Abraham Lincoln. In the presidential election of 1860 Lincoln won just 2,294 votes out of a total of 92,421, only 2.5% of the votes cast, coming in at a distant fourth place with Southern Democrat John C. Breckinridge winning the state. In seven counties, Lincoln received not a single vote; the areas of Southern and Eastern Shore Maryland those on the Chesapeake Bay, which had prospered on the tobacco trade and slave labor, were sympathetic to the South, while the central and western areas of the state Marylanders of German origin, had stronger economic ties to the North and thus were pro-Union. Not all blacks in Maryland were slaves; the 1860 Federal Census showed. However, across the state, sympathies were mixed. Many
West Virginia is a state located in the Appalachian region in the Southern United States, considered to be a part of the Middle Atlantic States. It is bordered by Pennsylvania to the north, Maryland to the east and northeast, Virginia to the southeast, Kentucky to the southwest, Ohio to the northwest. West Virginia is the 41st largest state by area, is ranked 38th in population; the capital and largest city is Charleston. West Virginia became a state following the Wheeling Conventions of 1861, after the American Civil War had begun. Delegates from some Unionist counties of northwestern Virginia decided to break away from Virginia, although they included many secessionist counties in the new state. West Virginia was admitted to the Union on June 20, 1863, was a key border state during the war. West Virginia was the only state to form by separating from a Confederate state, the first to separate from any state since Maine separated from Massachusetts, was one of two states admitted to the Union during the American Civil War.
While a portion of its residents held slaves, most of the residents were yeomen farmers, the delegates provided for gradual abolition of slavery in the new state Constitution. The Census Bureau and the Association of American Geographers classify West Virginia as part of the Southern United States; however the Bureau of Labor Statistics classifies West Virginia as a part of the Mid-Atlantic. The northern panhandle extends adjacent to Pennsylvania and Ohio, with the West Virginia cities of Wheeling and Weirton just across the border from the Pittsburgh metropolitan area, while Bluefield is less than 70 miles from North Carolina. Huntington in the southwest is close to the states of Ohio and Kentucky, while Martinsburg and Harpers Ferry in the Eastern Panhandle region are considered part of the Washington metropolitan area, in between the states of Maryland and Virginia; the unique position of West Virginia means that it is included in several geographical regions, including the Mid-Atlantic, the Upland South, the Southeastern United States.
It is the only state, within the area served by the Appalachian Regional Commission. The state is noted for its mountains and rolling hills, its significant logging and coal mining industries, its political and labor history, it is known for a wide range of outdoor recreational opportunities, including skiing, whitewater rafting, hiking, mountain biking, rock climbing, hunting. Many ancient man-made earthen mounds from various prehistoric mound builder cultures survive in the areas of present-day Moundsville, South Charleston, Romney; the artifacts uncovered in these give evidence of village societies. They had a tribal trade system culture. In the 1670s during the Beaver Wars, the powerful Iroquois, five allied nations based in present-day New York and Pennsylvania, drove out other American Indian tribes from the region in order to reserve the upper Ohio Valley as a hunting ground. Siouan language tribes, such as the Moneton, had been recorded in the area. A century the area now identified as West Virginia was contested territory among Anglo-Americans as well, with the colonies of Pennsylvania and Virginia claiming territorial rights under their colonial charters to this area before the American Revolutionary War.
Some speculative land companies, such as the Vandalia Company, the Ohio Company and Indiana Company, tried to legitimize their claims to land in parts of West Virginia and present day Kentucky, but failed. This rivalry resulted in some settlers petitioning the Continental Congress to create a new territory called Westsylvania. With the federal settlement of the Pennsylvania and Virginia border dispute, creating Kentucky County, Kentuckians "were satisfied, the inhabitants of a large part of West Virginia were grateful."The Crown considered the area of West Virginia to be part of the British Virginia Colony from 1607 to 1776. The United States considered this area to be the western part of the state of Virginia from 1776 to 1863, before the formation of West Virginia, its residents were discontented for years with their position in Virginia, as the government was dominated by the planter elite of the Tidewater and Piedmont areas. The legislature had electoral malapportionment, based on the counting of slaves toward regional populations, the western white residents were underrepresented in the state legislature.
More subsistence and yeoman farmers lived in the west and they were less supportive of slavery, although many counties were divided on their support. The residents of this area became more divided after the planter elite of eastern Virginia voted to secede from the Union during the Civil War. Residents of the western and northern counties set up a separate government under Francis Pierpont in 1861, which they called the Restored Government. Most voted to separate from Virginia, the new state was admitted to the Union in 1863. In 1864 a state constitutional convention drafted a constitution, ratified by the legislature without putting it to popular vote. West Virginia abolished slavery by a gradual process and temporarily disenfranchised men who had held Confederate office or fought for the Confederacy. West Virginia's history has been profoundly affected by its mountainous terrain and vast river valleys, rich natural resources; these were all factors driving its economy and the lifestyles of its residents, who tended to live in many small isolated communities in the mountain valleys.
A 2010 analysis of
Origins of the American Civil War
Historians debating the origins of the American Civil War focus on the reasons why seven Southern states declared their secession from the United States, why they united to form the Confederate States of America, why the North refused to let them go. While most historians agree that conflicts over slavery caused the war, they disagree regarding which kinds of conflict—ideological, political, or social—were most important; the primary catalyst for secession was slavery, most the political battle over the right of Southerners to bring slavery into western territory that had hitherto been free under the terms of the Missouri Compromise or while part of Mexico. Another factor for secession and the formation of the Confederacy, was white Southern nationalism; the primary reason for the North to reject secession was to preserve the Union, a cause based on American nationalism. Most of the debate is about the first question, as to. Abraham Lincoln won the 1860 presidential election without being on the ballot in ten Southern states.
His victory triggered declarations of secession by seven slave states of the Deep South, whose riverfront or coastal economies were all based on cotton cultivated using slave labor. They formed the Confederate States of America before he took office. Nationalists refused to recognize the declarations of secession. No foreign government recognized the Confederacy; the U. S. government under President James Buchanan refused to relinquish its forts that were in territory claimed by the Confederacy. The war itself began on April 12, 1861, when Confederate forces bombarded Fort Sumter, a major U. S. fortress in the harbor of South Carolina. As a panel of historians emphasized in 2011, "while slavery and its various and multifaceted discontents were the primary cause of disunion, it was disunion itself that sparked the war." Pulitzer Prize-winning author David Potter wrote: "The problem for Americans who, in the age of Lincoln, wanted slaves to be free was not that southerners wanted the opposite, but that they themselves cherished a conflicting value: they wanted the Constitution, which protected slavery, to be honored, the Union, which had fellowship with slaveholders, to be preserved.
Thus they were committed to values that could not logically be reconciled." Other important factors were partisan politics, nullification vs secession and Northern nationalism, expansionism and modernization in the Antebellum period. The United States had become a nation of two distinct regions; the free states in New England, the Northeast, the Midwest had a growing economy based on family farms, mining and transportation, with a large and growing urban population. Their growth was fed by a high birth rate and large numbers of European immigrants British and Germans; the South was dominated by a settled plantation system based on slavery. The rural South had few cities of any size, little manufacturing except in border areas such as St. Louis and Baltimore. Slave owners controlled politics and the economy, although about 75% of white Southern families owned no slaves. Overall, the Northern population was growing much more than the Southern population, which made it difficult for the South to continue to influence the national government.
By the time the 1860 election occurred, the agricultural southern states as a group had fewer Electoral College votes than the industrializing northern states. Abraham Lincoln was able to win the 1860 Presidential election without being on the ballot in ten Southern states. Southerners felt a loss of federal concern for Southern pro-slavery political demands, their continued domination of the Federal government was threatened; this political calculus provided a real basis for Southerners' worry about the relative political decline of their region due to the North growing much faster in terms of population and industrial output. In the interest of maintaining unity, politicians had moderated opposition to slavery, resulting in numerous compromises such as the Missouri Compromise of 1820 under the presidency of James Monroe. After the Mexican–American War of 1846 to 1848, the issue of slavery in the new territories led to the Compromise of 1850. While the compromise averted an immediate political crisis, it did not permanently resolve the issue of the Slave Power.
Part of the Compromise of 1850 was the Fugitive Slave Law of 1850, which many Northerners found to be offensive, required that Northerners assist Southerners in reclaiming fugitive slaves. Amid the emergence of virulent and hostile sectional ideologies in national politics, the collapse of the old Second Party System in the 1850s hampered politicians' efforts to reach yet another compromise; the compromise, reached outraged many Northerners, led to the formation of the Republican Party, the first major party, entirely Northern-based. The industrializing North and agrarian Midwest became committed to the economic ethos of free-labor industrial capitalism. Arguments that slavery was undesirable for the nation had long existed, early in U. S. history were made by some prominent Southerners. After 1840, abolitionists denounced slavery as not
University of Georgia
The University of Georgia referred to as UGA or Georgia, is a public flagship research university with its main campus in Athens, Georgia. Founded in 1785, it is one of the oldest public universities in the United States; the Center for Measuring University Performance ranks the University of Georgia among the top research universities in the nation and the university is classified by the Carnegie Classification of Institutions of Higher Education as a Research I university. It classifies the student body as "more selective," its most selective admissions category, while the ACT Assessment Student Report places UGA student admissions in the "highly selective" category, the highest category. Incoming students include those from 47 countries around the world; the university is ranked as one of the "Best National Universities for Undergraduate Teaching", tied for 13th overall among all public national universities in the 2019 U. S. News & World Report rankings, is a Kiplinger's and Princeton Review top ten in value.
The university is organized into 17 constituent schools and colleges offering more than 140 degree programs. The university's historic North Campus is listed on the U. S. National Register of Historic Places as a designated historic district; the contiguous campus areas include rolling hills and extensive green space including nature walks, fields and large and varied arboreta. Close to the contiguous campus is the university's 58-acre Health Sciences Campus that has an extensive landscaped green space, more than 400 trees, several additional historic buildings. Athens has ranked among America's best college towns due to its vibrant restaurant and music scenes. In addition to the main campus in Athens with its 460 buildings, the university has two smaller campuses located in Tifton and Griffin; the university has two satellite campuses located in Lawrenceville. The university operates several outreach stations spread across the state; the total acreage of the university in 30 Georgia counties is 41,539 acres.
The university owns a residential and research center in Washington, D. C. and three international residential and research centers located at Oxford University in Oxford, England, at Cortona, at Monteverde, Costa Rica. Over 750 student organizations including academic associations, honor societies, cultural groups and intramural athletics, religious groups, social groups and fraternities and community service programs, philanthropic groups are integral parts of student life; the University of Georgia's intercollegiate sports teams known by their Georgia Bulldogs nickname, compete in National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I and the Southeastern Conference. UGA served as a founding member of the SEC in 1932. In their more than 120-year history, the university's varsity sports teams have won 45 national championships, 264 individual national championships, 170 conference championships, 45 Olympic medals; the Georgia Redcoat Marching Band, the official marching band of the university, performs at athletic and other events.
In 1784, Lyman Hall, a Yale University graduate and one of three doctors to sign the Declaration of Independence, as Governor of Georgia persuaded the Georgia legislature to grant 40,000 acres for the purposes of founding a "college or seminary of learning." Besides Hall, credit for founding the university goes to Abraham Baldwin who wrote the original charter for University of Georgia. From Connecticut, Baldwin graduated from and taught at Yale University before moving to Georgia; the Georgia General Assembly approved Baldwin's charter on January 27, 1785 and UGA became the first university in the United States to gain a state charter. Considered one of the Founding Fathers of the United States, Baldwin would represent Georgia in the 1786 Constitutional Convention that created the Constitution of the United States and go on to be President pro tempore of the United States Senate; the task of creating the university was given to the Senatus Academicus, which consisted of the Board of Visitors – made up of "the governor, all state senators, all superior court judges and a few other public officials" – and the Board of Trustees, "a body of fourteen appointed members that soon became self-perpetuating."
The first meeting of the university's Board of Trustees was held in Augusta, Georgia on February 13, 1786. The meeting installed Baldwin as the university's first president. For the first sixteen years of the school's history, the University of Georgia only existed on paper. By the new century, a committee was appointed to find suitable land to establish a campus. Committee member John Milledge purchased 633 acres of land on the west bank of the Oconee River and gifted it to the university; this tract of land, now a part of the consolidated city–county of Athens-Clarke County, was part of Jackson County. As of 2013, 37 acres of that land remained as part of the North Campus; because Baldwin was elected to the U. S. Senate, the school needed a new president. Baldwin chose his former fellow professor at Yale, Josiah Meigs, as his replacement. Meigs became the school's president, as well as the only professor. After traveling the state to recruit a few students, Meigs opened the school with no building in the fall of 1801.
The first school building patterned after Yale's Connecticut Hall was built the year later. Yale's early influence on the new university extended into the classical curriculum with emphasis on Latin and Greek. By 1803, the students
Issues of the American Civil War
Issues of the American Civil War include questions about the name of the war, the tariff, states' rights and the nature of Abraham Lincoln's war goals. For more on naming, see Naming the American Civil War; the question of how important the tariff was in causing the war stems from the Nullification Crisis, South Carolina's attempt to nullify a tariff and lasted from 1828 to 1832. The tariff was low after 1846, the tariff issue faded into the background by 1860 when secession began. States' rights was the justification for nullification and secession; the most controversial right claimed by Southern states was the alleged right of Southerners to spread slavery into territories owned by the United States. Under Lincoln's leadership, the war was fought to preserve the Union. With slavery so divisive, Union leaders by 1862 reached the decision that slavery had to end in order for the Union to be restored. Union war evolved as the war progressed in response to political and military issues, historians do not use them to explain the causes of the war.
The key new issues were the elimination of slavery and the legal and economic status of the freed slaves. Slavery was the major cause of the American Civil War, with the South seceding to form a new country to protect slavery, the North refusing to allow that. Historians agree that other economic conflicts were not a major cause of the war. Economic historian Lee A. Craig reports, "In fact, numerous studies by economic historians the past several decades reveal that economic conflict was not an inherent condition of North-South relations during the antebellum era and did not cause the Civil War." When numerous groups tried at the last minute in 1860–61 to find a compromise to avert war, they did not turn to economic policies. The South and Northeast had quite different worldviews, they traded with each other and each became more prosperous by staying in the Union, a point many businessmen made in 1860–61. However, Charles A. Beard in the 1920s made a influential argument to the effect that these differences caused the war.
He saw the industrial Northeast forming a coalition with the agrarian Midwest against the Plantation South. Critics pointed out that his image of a unified Northeast was incorrect because the region was diverse with many different competing economic interests. In 1860–61, most business interests in the Northeast opposed war. After 1950, only a few mainstream historians accepted the Beard interpretation, though it was accepted by libertarian economists; as Historian Kenneth Stampp— who abandoned Beardism after 1950 — sums up the scholarly consensus: "Most historians...now see no compelling reason why the divergent economies of the North and South should have led to disunion and civil war. The Southerners in Congress set the federal tariffs on imported goods the low tariff rates in 1857. Controversy over whether slavery was at the root of the tariff issue dates back at least as far as the Lincoln-Douglas debates of 1858. During the debate at Alton, Lincoln said that slavery was the root cause of the Nullification crisis over a tariff, while his challenger Stephen Douglas disagreed.
John C. Calhoun, who led South Carolina's attempt to nullify a tariff, supported tariffs and internal improvements at first, but came to oppose them in the 1820s as sectional tensions between North and South grew along with the sectional nature of slavery. Calhoun was a plantation owner. Calhoun said that slavery was the cause of the Nullification Crisis. While most leaders of Southern secession in 1860 mentioned slavery as the cause, Robert Rhett was a free trade extremist who opposed the tariff. However, Rhett was a slavery extremist who wanted the Constitution of the Confederacy to legalize the African Slave Trade. Republicans saw support for a Homestead Act, a higher tariff and a transcontinental railroad as a flank attack on the slave power. There were enough Southern Senators in the U. S. Senate to keep the tariff low after 1846; when the tariff was higher three decades before the war, only South Carolina revolted, the issue was nullification, not secession. The tariff was much lower by 1861.
When the Confederacy was formed it set a high 15% tariff on all imports, including imports from the United States. Historian Eric Foner has argued that a free-labor ideology dominated thinking in the North, which emphasized economic opportunity. By contrast, Southerners described free labor as "greasy mechanics, filthy operators, small-fisted farmers, moonstruck theorists", they opposed the proposed Homestead Acts that would give out free farms in the West, fearing the small farmers would oppose plantation slavery. Indeed, opposition to homestead laws was far more common in secessionist rhetoric than opposition to tariffs; the Union government set up the Freedmen's Bureau to supervise and protect the legal and economic status of the freed slaves. It operated across the former slave states 1865-1872. Proposals were made to seize Confederate property and give land to freedmen, but Congress never approved. Questions such as whether the Union was older than the states or the other way around fueled the debate over states' rights.
Whether the federal government was supposed to have substantial powers or whether it was a voluntary federation of sovereign states added to the controversy. According to historian Kenneth M. Stampp, each section used states' rights arguments whe