León is the capital of the province of León, located in the northwest of Spain. Its city population of 127,817 makes it the largest municipality in the province, accounting for more than one quarter of the province's population. Including the metropolitan area, the population is estimated at 202,793. Founded as the military encampment of the Legio VI Victrix around 29 BC, its standing as an encampment city was consolidated with the definitive settlement of the Legio VII Gemina from 74 AD. Following its partial depopulation due to the Umayyad conquest of the peninsula, León was revived by its incorporation into the Kingdom of Asturias. 910 saw the beginning of one its most prominent historical periods, when it became the capital of the Kingdom of León, which took active part in the Reconquista against the Moors, came to be one of the fundamental kingdoms of medieval Spain. In 1188, the city hosted the first Parliament in European history under the reign of Alfonso IX, due to which it was named in 2010, by the professor John Keane, the King of Spain and the Junta of Castile and León, as the cradle of Parliamentarism, the Decreta of León were included in the Memory of the World register by UNESCO in 2013.
The city's prominence began to decline in the early Middle Ages due to the loss of independence after the union of the Leonese kingdom with the Crown of Castile, consolidated in 1301. After a period of stagnation during the early modern age, it was one of the first cities to hold an uprising in the Spanish War of Independence, some years in 1833 acquired the status of provincial capital; the end of the 19th and the 20th century saw a significant acceleration in the rate of urban expansion, when the city became an important communications hub of the northwest due to the rise of the coal mining industry and the arrival of the railroad. León's historical and architectural heritage, as well as the numerous festivals hosted throughout the year and its location on the French Way of the Camino de Santiago, ranked as a UNESCO World Heritage Site, make it a destination of both domestic and international tourism; some of the city's most prominent historical buildings are the Cathedral, one of the finest examples of French-style classic Gothic architecture in Spain, the Basilica of San Isidoro, one of the most important Romanesque churches in Spain and resting place of León's medieval monarchs, the Monastery of San Marcos, an example of plateresque and Renaissance Spanish architecture, the Casa Botines, a Modernist creation of the architect Antoni Gaudí.
An example of modern architecture is the city's Museum of Contemporary Art or MUSAC. León was founded in the 1st century BC by the Roman legion Legio VI Victrix, which served under Caesar Augustus during the Cantabrian Wars, the final stage of the Roman conquest of Hispania. In the year 74 AD, the Legio VII Gemina —recruited from the Hispanics by Galba in 69 AD— settled in a permanent military camp, the origin of the city, its modern name, León, is derived from the city's Latin name Legio. The Romans established the site of the city to protect the conquered territories of northwestern Hispania from the Astures and Cantabri, to secure the transport of gold extracted in the province —especially in the huge nearby mines of Las Médulas—, taken to Rome through Asturica Augusta. Tacitus calls the legion Galbiana, to distinguish it from the old Legio VII Claudia, but this appellation is not found on any inscriptions, it appears to have received the appellation of Gemina on account of its amalgamation by Vespasian with one of the German legions the Legio I Germanica.
Its full name was Legio VII Gemina Felix. After serving in Pannonia, in the civil wars, it was settled by Vespasian in Hispania Tarraconensis, to supply the place of the Legio VI Victrix and Legio X Gemina, two of the three legions ordinarily stationed in the province, but, withdrawn to Germany; that its regular winter quarters, under emperors, were at León, we learn from the Itinerary and the Notitiae Imperii, as well as from a few inscriptions. The post-Roman history of the city is the history of the Kingdom of León; the station of the legion in the territory of the Astures grew into an important city, which resisted the attacks of the Visigoths until AD 586, when it was taken by Leovigild. During the Umayyad conquest of Hispania, in 715 Tariq advanced from the area of La Rioja towards Astorga and León; the same fortress, which the Romans had built to protect the plain from the incursions of the mountaineers, became the advanced post which covered the mountain, as the last refuge of Cisastur Tribes.
However, there is no notice of resistance whatsoever. An attempt was made by the invaders to settle the strongholds with Berbers came in a military capacity, but the scheme was abandoned when the Berbers of northern Iberia rebelled against the Arabs and gave up their positions to join the revolt around 740. Towards the year 846, a group of Mozarabs tried to repopulate the city, but a Muslim attack prevented that initiative. In the year 856, under the Christian king Ordoño I, another attempt at repopulation was made and was successful. Alfonso III of León and García I of León made León city the capital of the Kingdom of León and the most important of the Christian cities in Iberia; the Kingdom of León started a
The Iberian Peninsula known as Iberia, is located in the southwest corner of Europe. The peninsula is principally divided between Portugal, comprising most of their territory, it includes Andorra, small areas of France, the British overseas territory of Gibraltar. With an area of 596,740 square kilometres ), it is both the second largest European peninsula by area, after the Scandinavian Peninsula, by population, after the Balkan Peninsula; the word Iberia is a noun adapted from the Latin word "Hiberia" originated by the Ancient Greek word Ἰβηρία by Greek geographers under the rule of the Roman Empire to refer to what is known today in English as the Iberian Peninsula. At that time, the name did not describe a single political entity or a distinct population of people. Strabo's'Iberia' was delineated from Keltikē by the Pyrenees and included the entire land mass southwest of there. With the fall of the Roman Empire and the establishment of the new Castillian language in Spain, the word "Iberia" appeared for the first time in use as a direct'descendant' of the Greek word "Ἰβηρία" and the Roman word "Hiberia".
The ancient Greeks reached the Iberian Peninsula, of which they had heard from the Phoenicians, by voyaging westward on the Mediterranean. Hecataeus of Miletus was the first known to use the term Iberia, which he wrote about circa 500 BC. Herodotus of Halicarnassus says of the Phocaeans that "it was they who made the Greeks acquainted with... Iberia." According to Strabo, prior historians used Iberia to mean the country "this side of the Ἶβηρος" as far north as the river Rhône in France, but they set the Pyrenees as the limit. Polybius respects that limit, but identifies Iberia as the Mediterranean side as far south as Gibraltar, with the Atlantic side having no name. Elsewhere he says that Saguntum is "on the seaward foot of the range of hills connecting Iberia and Celtiberia." Strabo refers to the Carretanians as people "of the Iberian stock" living in the Pyrenees, who are distinct from either Celts or Celtiberians. According to Charles Ebel, the ancient sources in both Latin and Greek use Hispania and Hiberia as synonyms.
The confusion of the words was because of an overlapping in geographic perspectives. The Latin word Hiberia, similar to the Greek Iberia translates to "land of the Hiberians"; this word was derived from the river Ebro. Hiber was thus used as a term for peoples living near the river Ebro; the first mention in Roman literature was by the annalist poet Ennius in 200 BC. Virgil refers to the Ipacatos Hiberos in his Georgics; the Roman geographers and other prose writers from the time of the late Roman Republic called the entire peninsula Hispania. As they became politically interested in the former Carthaginian territories, the Romans began to use the names Hispania Citerior and Hispania Ulterior for'near' and'far' Hispania. At the time Hispania was made up of three Roman provinces: Hispania Baetica, Hispania Tarraconensis, Hispania Lusitania. Strabo says that the Romans use Hispania and Iberia synonymously, distinguishing between the near northern and the far southern provinces. Whatever language may have been spoken on the peninsula soon gave way to Latin, except for that of the Vascones, preserved as a language isolate by the barrier of the Pyrenees.
The Iberian Peninsula has always been associated with the Ebro, Ibēros in ancient Greek and Ibērus or Hibērus in Latin. The association was so well known. Pliny goes so far as to assert that the Greeks had called "the whole of Spain" Hiberia because of the Hiberus River; the river appears in the Ebro Treaty of 226 BC between Rome and Carthage, setting the limit of Carthaginian interest at the Ebro. The fullest description of the treaty, stated in Appian, uses Ibērus. With reference to this border, Polybius states that the "native name" is Ibēr the original word, stripped of its Greek or Latin -os or -us termination; the early range of these natives, which geographers and historians place from today's southern Spain to today's southern France along the Mediterranean coast, is marked by instances of a readable script expressing a yet unknown language, dubbed "Iberian." Whether this was the native name or was given to them by the Greeks for their residence on the Ebro remains unknown. Credence in Polybius imposes certain limitations on etymologizing: if the language remains unknown, the meanings of the words, including Iber, must remain unknown.
In modern Basque, the word ibar means "valley" or "watered meadow", while ibai means "river", but there is no proof relating the etymology of the Ebro River with these Basque names. The Iberian Peninsula has been inhabited for at least 1.2 million years as remains found in the sites in the Atapuerca Mountains demonstrate. Among these sites is the cave of Gran Dolina, where six hominin skeletons, dated between 780,000 and one million years ago, were found in 1994. Experts have debated whether these skeletons belong to the species Homo erectus, Homo heidelbergensis, or a new species called Homo antecessor. Around 200,000 BP, during the Lower Paleolithic period, Neanderthals first entered the Iberian Peninsula. Around 70,000 BP, during the Middle Paleolithic period, the last glacial event began and the Neanderthal Mousterian culture was established. Around 37,000 BP, during the Upper Paleolithic, the Neanderthal Châtelperronian cultural period began. Emanating from Southern France, this culture extended into the north of the p
Sancho I of Pamplona
Sancho Garcés I known as Sancho I, was King of Pamplona from 905 until 925. He was the first king of Pamplona of the Jiménez dynasty. Sancho I was the feudal ruler of the Onsella valley, expanded his power to all the neighboring territories, he was chosen to replace Fortún Garcés by the Pamplonese nobility in 905. Sancho Garcés was born around the year 860, son of García Jiménez and his second wife Dadildis de Pallars. Around the time of death of King García Íñiguez he ruled the Onsella valley in the western lands of the kingdom, he managed to take control of the city of Pamplona while Fortún Garcés was still king, aided by Alfonso III of Asturias and the Count of Pallars. Along with the Pamplonese nobility, they plotted to remove the king's children from the line of succession, which passed down to the king's granddaughter Toda, married to Sancho Garcés, he proclaimed himself King of Pamplona in 905. Throughout his reign, he involved himself in the squabbles among the Muslim lords to the south with repeated success.
In 907, he turned on his former ally Lubb ibn Muhammad. Four years another former ally, Galindo Aznárez, joined with his brother-in-law Muhammad al-Tawil and Abd Allah ibn Lubb ibn Qasi to attack Sancho, but they were defeated and neutralized as a threat. Al-Tawil fled and was killed shortly afterward, the power of the Banu Qasi was crippled, while Galindo was forced into vassalage to Sancho, leading to the incorporation of the County of Aragon into the Pamplona kingdom. In 920, he teamed with Bernard I of Ribagorza and Amrus ibn Muhammed, son of Muhammad al-Tawil, to attack Banu Qasi-held Monzón, his successes allowed him to join the Lower Navarre to his own dominions and extend his territory as far as Nájera. As a thanksgiving offering for his victories, in 924 he founded the monastery of San Martín de Albelda, he died near the town of Resa, close to the Ebro river on 10 December, 925 and buried in Villamayor de Monjardín. His son, García, was only seven years old, so Sancho was succeeded by his brother, Jimeno Garcés.
Sancho appears to have been the original king called by the byname Abarca, though confusion among family members of the same name had led to it being instead applied to his grandson, Sancho II of Pamplona, by the 19th century. Sancho I gave rise to a dynasty that would rule several Iberian kingdoms, the last ruling until the 13th century, the dynasty would be called the Banu Sanyo or the Banu Abarca by Al-Andalus scholars, denoting his role as founder. Sancho Garcés was married to Toda Aznárez, daughter of the Count Aznar Sánchez and Onneca Fortúnez, herself being daughter of Fortún Garcés. According to the Códice de Roda, they had one son, García, five daughters all of whom except Orbita married either kings of León or counts: García Sánchez I, King of Pamplona from 925 until 970, married first to Andregoto Galíndez, daughter of the Count of Aragon Galindo Aznárez II and to Teresa Ramírez, daughter of Ramiro II of León. Urraca Sánchez, Queen consort of the Kingdom of León from 931 until 951 after marrying Ramiro II of León.
Oneca Sánchez, Queen consort of the Kingdom of León from 926 until 931 after marrying Alfonso IV of León. Sancha Sánchez, was queen consort of León as the third wife of King Ordoño II. After the king's death in 924, she married Álvaro Herraméliz, count of Álava and after his death in 931, she became the wife of Fernán González, count of Castile, who succeeded her second husband as count of Álava. Velasquita Sánchez, married first to Munio Vélaz, Count of Álava, second to Galindo of Ribargoza and third to Fortún Galindez. Orbita Sánchez, nothing is known about her life. Out of wedlock, he had a daughter, Lupa Sánchez, married to Dato II, Count of Bigorre, with whom she had one son, Raymond I, Count of Bigorre
Viguera is a municipality in La Rioja, Spain. It includes the villages Castañares de las Cuevas, El Puente, Panzares; the earliest documentary evidence is in the Berber historian Ajbar Machmua, who told that Abd ar-Rahman I recovered La Rioja in 759, after it having been conquered by Alfonso I of Asturias in 755. He commented in particular that after taking Viguera Castle, Abd ar-Rahman I crossed all of La Rioja and penetrated Álava, it was one of the fortifications. In the second half of the ninth century, Lubb ibn Musa, one of the sons of Musa ibn Musa ibn Qasi, reconstructed the fortress. Lubb was buried in the location. Upon Christian reconquest, it became the site of the Kingdom of Viguera. At the end of this period, it became part of the Kingdom of Navarre, although the area passed into the hand of the nobles of Cameros, as part of their feudal territory. Parish Church of La Asunción: Constructed in the 16th century of masonry and ashlar restored Hermitage of Nuestra Señora del Rosario: Based on an earlier hermitage from the 16th century, reformed in the 18th century Hermitage of San Marcos: Originally in the 17th century restored by a group of women of the town who, without interest in the devotion of this hermitage or its festival, have restored it Hermitage of San Esteban Hermitage of Santa Lucía, in the village of Panzares, rebuilt in 1968 above a 16th-century edifice Parish Church of La Asunción: In Castañares de las Cuevas, from the 16th century Medieval bridges: Leaving Logroño near the border of Viguera, 11th century After Islallan In honor of Saint Mark, April 25 Patrol festivals in honor of Saint James and Saint Ann.
July 25 and 26
A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Christian clergy, entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic Church, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Anglican, Old Catholic and Independent Catholic churches and in the Assyrian Church of the East, bishops claim apostolic succession, a direct historical lineage dating back to the original Twelve Apostles. Within these churches, bishops are seen as those who possess the full priesthood and can ordain clergy – including another bishop; some Protestant churches including the Lutheran and Methodist churches have bishops serving similar functions as well, though not always understood to be within apostolic succession in the same way. One, ordained deacon and bishop is understood to hold the fullness of the priesthood, given responsibility by Christ to govern and sanctify the Body of Christ, members of the Faithful. Priests and lay ministers cooperate and assist their bishops in shepherding a flock.
The term epískopos, meaning "overseer" in Greek, the early language of the Christian Church, was not from the earliest times distinguished from the term presbýteros, but the term was clearly used in the sense of the order or office of bishop, distinct from that of presbyter in the writings attributed to Ignatius of Antioch.. The earliest organization of the Church in Jerusalem was, according to most scholars, similar to that of Jewish synagogues, but it had a council or college of ordained presbyters. In Acts 11:30 and Acts 15:22, we see a collegiate system of government in Jerusalem chaired by James the Just, according to tradition the first bishop of the city. In Acts 14:23, the Apostle Paul ordains presbyters in churches in Anatolia; the word presbyter was not yet distinguished from overseer, as in Acts 20:17, Titus 1:5–7 and 1 Peter 5:1. The earliest writings of the Apostolic Fathers, the Didache and the First Epistle of Clement, for example, show the church used two terms for local church offices—presbyters and deacon.
In Timothy and Titus in the New Testament a more defined episcopate can be seen. We are told that Paul had left Timothy in Titus in Crete to oversee the local church. Paul commands Titus to exercise general oversight. Early sources are unclear but various groups of Christian communities may have had the bishop surrounded by a group or college functioning as leaders of the local churches; the head or "monarchic" bishop came to rule more and all local churches would follow the example of the other churches and structure themselves after the model of the others with the one bishop in clearer charge, though the role of the body of presbyters remained important. As Christendom grew, bishops no longer directly served individual congregations. Instead, the Metropolitan bishop appointed priests to minister each congregation, acting as the bishop's delegate. Around the end of the 1st century, the church's organization became clearer in historical documents. In the works of the Apostolic Fathers, Ignatius of Antioch in particular, the role of the episkopos, or bishop, became more important or, rather was important and being defined.
While Ignatius of Antioch offers the earliest clear description of monarchial bishops he is an advocate of monepiscopal structure rather than describing an accepted reality. To the bishops and house churches to which he writes, he offers strategies on how to pressure house churches who don't recognize the bishop into compliance. Other contemporary Christian writers do not describe monarchial bishops, either continuing to equate them with the presbyters or speaking of episkopoi in a city. "Blessed be God, who has granted unto you, who are yourselves so excellent, to obtain such an excellent bishop." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 1:1 "and that, being subject to the bishop and the presbytery, ye may in all respects be sanctified." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 2:1 "For your justly renowned presbytery, worthy of God, is fitted as to the bishop as the strings are to the harp." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 4:1 "Do ye, beloved, be careful to be subject to the bishop, the presbyters and the deacons."
— Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 5:1 "Plainly therefore we ought to regard the bishop as the Lord Himself" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Ephesians 6:1. "your godly bishop" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 2:1. "the bishop presiding after the likeness of God and the presbyters after the likeness of the council of the Apostles, with the deacons who are most dear to me, having been entrusted with the diaconate of Jesus Christ" — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 6:1. "Therefore as the Lord did nothing without the Father, either by Himself or by the Apostles, so neither do ye anything without the bishop and the presbyters." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 7:1. "Be obedient to the bishop and to one another, as Jesus Christ was to the Father, as the Apostles were to Christ and to the Father, that there may be union both of flesh and of spirit." — Epistle of Ignatius to the Magnesians 13:2. "In like manner let all men respe
Tui is a municipality in the province of Pontevedra in the autonomous community of Galicia, in Spain. It is situated in the comarca of O Baixo Miño, it is located on the left bank of the Miño River. Two bridges connect Tui and Valença: Tui International Bridge, completed in 1878 under the direction of Pelayo Mancebo, a modern one from the 1990s. Both countries being signatories of the Schengen Treaty, there are no formalities in crossing what is the busiest border-point in Northern Portugal; the municipality of Tui is composed of 11 parishes: Randufe, Pexegueiro, Pazos de Reis, Rebordáns, Guillarei, Baldráns and Caldelas. The Tui area was inhabited since prehistoric times. Evidence of this are the sites found during construction of the highway Vigo-Tui, on the border with Porriño, dating from the Lower Paleolithic period, the oldest in Galicia; the fertile valley of the Minho and its magnificent natural conditions allowed the Tudense territory to accommodate human settlement from the earliest times.
The vestiges are from the Palaeolithic period in the fluvial terraces of the river Minho and Louro and from the Neolithic period are the Carrasqueira ax or megalithic monuments. The introduction of metallurgy left testimonies like the helmet of bronze Caldelas axes or engravings of Randufe, its original local name, was mentioned by Pliny the Elder and by Ptolemy in the first century AD. It became an episcopal see no than the 6th century, during the Suevic rule, when Bishop Anila went to the II Council of Braga. In the Visigothic period, it served as the capital of a Galician subkingdom under king Wittiza. After the campaigns of Alfonso I of Asturias against the Moors, the town lay abandoned in the empty buffer zone between Moors and Christians, being part of the "Repoblación" effort carried out a century during the reign of Ordoño I of Asturias. In the 10th century, it was raided by Vikings, being abandoned and re-established in its current location. Today the town centre is near the Inn of San Telmo.
On the top of the hill, the cathedral preserves Romanesque elements in its main vestibule, the Gothic period in the western vestibule. The town has two museums, one dedicated to archaeology and sacred art, the other is the diocesan museum; the industry in the city of Tui is gaining weight, as the construction of industrial estate areas as many national and international companies have established a production facility there. Yet the industry is not more than 20% of GDP in the city. Construction one of the fastest growing sectors of Tui, estimated at 4.2% in 2005. The trend shows an increase in residential construction, driven by the slight slowdown in the increase of the cost of living
Kingdom of Galicia
The Kingdom of Galicia was a political entity located in southwestern Europe, which at its territorial zenith occupied the entire northwest of the Iberian Peninsula. Founded by Suebic king Hermeric in 409, the Galician capital was established in Braga, being the first kingdom which adopted Catholicism and minted its own currency, it was part of the Kingdom of the Spanish Visigothic monarchs from 585 to 711. In the 8th century Galicia became a part of the newly founded Christian kingdoms of the Northwest of the peninsula, Asturias and León, while achieving independence under the authority of its own kings. Compostela became capital of Galicia in the 11th century, while the independence of Portugal determined its southern boundary; the accession of Castilian King Ferdinand III to the Leonese kingdom in 1230 brought Galicia under the control of the Crown of Castile, the kingdom of Galicia becoming a political division within the larger realm. Galicia resisted central control, supporting a series of alternative claimants, including John of León, Galicia and Seville, Ferdinand I of Portugal and John of Gaunt, was not brought into submission until the Catholic Monarchs imposed the Santa Hermandad in Galicia.
The kingdom of Galicia was administered within the Crown of Castile and the Crown of Spain by an Audiencia Real directed by a Governor which hold the office of Captain General and President. The representative assembly of the Kingdom was the Junta or Cortes of the Kingdom of Galicia, which declared itself sovereign when Galicia alone remained free of Napoleonic occupation; the kingdom and its Junta were dissolved by Maria Cristina of Bourbon-Two Sicilies, Regent of Spain, in 1834. The origin of the kingdom lies in the 5th century, when the Suebi settled permanently in the former Roman province of Gallaecia, their king, Hermeric signed a foedus, or pact, with the Roman Emperor Honorius, which conceded them lands in Galicia. The Suebi set their capital in the former Bracara Augusta, setting the foundations of a kingdom, first acknowledged as Regnum Suevorum, but as Regnum Galliciense. A century the differences between Gallaeci and Suebi people had faded, leading to the systematic use of terms like Galliciense Regnum, Regem Galliciae, Rege Suevorum, Galleciae totius provinciae rex, while bishops, such as Martin of Braga, were recognized as episcopi Gallaecia.
The independent Suebic kingdom of Galicia lasted from 409 to 585, having remained stable for most of that time. In 409 Gallaecia was divided, ad habitandum, among two Germanic people, the Hasdingi Vandals, who settled the eastern lands, the Suebi, who established themselves in the coastal areas; as with most Germanic invasions, the number of the original Suebi is estimated to be low fewer than 100,000, most around 30,000 people. They settled in the regions around modern northern Portugal and Western Galicia, in the towns of Braga and Porto, in Lugo and Astorga; the valley of the Limia River is thought to have received the largest concentration of Germanic settlers, Bracara Augusta—the modern city of Braga—became the capital of the Suebi, as it had been the capital of Gallaecia. In 419 a war broke out between the Suebi's Hermeric. After a blockade alongside the Nervasian Mountains, the Suebi obtained Roman help, forcing the Vandals to flee into the Baetica. In the absence of competitors, the Suebi began a period of expansion, first inside Gallaecia, into other Roman provinces.
In 438 Hermeric ratified a peace treaty with the Gallaeci, the native and Romanized people. Illness led Hermeric to abdicate in favor of his son, who moved his troops to the south and the east, conquering Mérida and Seville, the capitals of the Roman provinces of Lusitania and Betica. In 448 Rechila died, leaving the expanding state to his son Rechiar, who in 449 became one of the first Germanic kings of post-Roman Europe to convert to Catholicism. Rechiar married a Visigothic princess, was the first Germanic king to mint coins in ancient Roman territories. Rechiar led further expansions to the east, marauding through the Provincia Tarraconensis, still held by Rome; the Roman emperor Avitus sent a large army of foederates, under the direction of the Visigoth Theoderic II, who defeated the Suebi army by the river Órbigo, near modern-day Astorga. Rechiar fled, but he was pursued and captured executed in 457. In the aftermath of Rechiar's death, multiple candidates for the throne appeared grouping into two allegiances.
The division between the two groups was marked by the Minius River as a consequence of the localities of the Quadi and Marcomanni tribes, who constituted the Suebi nation on the Iberian Peninsula. The Suebi in the north conquered Lugo, proceeding to use that city as their co-capital, while the Suebi in the south expanded into Lisbon and Conimbriga, which were assaulted, abandoned after their Roman inhabitants were banished. By 465 Remismund, who established a policy of friendship with the Goths and promoted the conversion of his own people into Arianism, was recognized by his people as the only king of the Suebi. After a period of obscurity, with little remaining information on the history of this area, or in fact Western Europe in general, the Sueb