For Arabian road, see Via Traiana NovaThe Via Traiana was an ancient Roman road. It was built by the emperor Trajan as an extension of the Via Appia from Beneventum, reaching Brundisium by a shorter route; this was commemorated by an arch at Beneventum. Via Traiana was constructed in 109 AD by Emperor Trajan at his own expense, it was built following the conclusion of conquest of Italy during a period of relative freedom from military campaigns. Thus the Via Appia, from which Via Traiana was constructed as an extension, lost its original importance as a military highroad that connected Venosa and Taranto. Furthermore, the maintenance of direct military communications between Venusia, the military colony of 291 BC, Rome, was no longer needed except in times of civil war, the Via Appia became a means of reaching Brindisi. Strabo indicates that traveling to Beneventum from Brundisium via the route of the Via Traiana was a good day shorter than the old Republican road, Via Appia. Although the actual measurement shows Via Appia to be 203 miles and Via Traiana 205 miles from Brundisium to Beneventum, the difference lies in their topography.
There are a number of severe hills and difficult terrain along Via Appia until it reaches Venusia, about 66 miles away from Beneventum. In contrast, although Via Traiana does encounter demanding passages as well in the first 40 miles from Beneventum, there is not another serious hill all the way to Brundisium. For an overview of the location of Roman bridges, see List of Roman bridges. There are the remains of several Roman bridges along the road, including the Ponte dei Ladroni, Ponte delle Chianche, Ponte Pietra, Ponte Rotto, Ponte Rotto, Ponte sul Ofanto and Ponte Valentino. Roman bridge Roman engineering Via Traiana. "The Oxford Classical Dictionary." 3rd ed. 2003. Strabo. "Geography: Books 6-7." Trans. Horace Leonard Jones. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1995; the Via Traiana. "Papers of the British School at Rome," Vol. VIII, No.5. London: Macmillan & Co. Limited, 1916
Tavoliere delle Puglie
The Tavoliere delle Puglie is a plain in northern Apulia, southern Italy, occupying nearly a half of the Capitanata traditional region. It covers a surface of c. 3,000 km², once constituting a sea bottom: it is bounded by the Daunian Pre-Apennines on the West, the Gargano Promontory and the Adriatic Sea on the East, by the Fortore river on the north, the Ofanto river on the south. It is the largest Italian plain after the Pianura Padana; the name Tavoliere derives from the Latin term Tabulae censuariae, tables on which the Romans classified the areas devoted to sheep farming or agriculture. In winter the plain is sometimes subject to floods by the Ofanto and the Fortore, while in summer drought is frequent; the main centres, from north to south, are San Severo, Lucera and Cerignola. Neolithic farmers living in Tavoliere over 7000 years ago practiced ritual defleshing of the dead. Light cut marks on the bones suggest, they deposited the bones in Scaloria Cave. The human bones were mixed with broken pottery and stone tools.
During the Middle Ages the old practices of agriculture and fluvial regulation were lost, the plain being devoted to sheep farming which, using apposite cattle-tracks, reached the Apennines' pasture lands through the Tavoliere. The lands was unhealthy. After extensive works of drainage, the plain is now cultivated. Crops include wheat, tomato in the area of Foggia, while spread are cultivations of olives and grapes, which produce quality oils and wines; the comuni in the Tavoliere delle Puglie are: Alberona, Ascoli Satriano, Biccari.
Casalvecchio di Puglia
Casalvecchio is an Arbëreshë comune and village in the Province of Foggia, southern Italy. Originating from a 15th-century migration of Albanians, the residents have subsisted by family farming. Of those native to the area for generations, many have continued to use the Arbëreshë language those of the post-World War 2 generation. In 1461 near Monte Gargano, in the southeastern Apennine mountains, a group of 5000 immigrants from Albania fled the enculturation of the Ottoman Turks and Islam, they were sent by the Albanian leader Skanderbeg. This part of Apulia was granted to the incomers by the king of Naples
Accadia is a town and comune in the province of Foggia in the Apulia region of southeast Italy. Until the mid-20th century it was just within the eastern frontier of the region of Campania in the province of Avellino; the town occupies a hilltop at 650 metres of elevation, in the Daunian Mountains along the Apennines. It is not far from Foggia on the rich agricultural plains of the Tavoliere delle Puglie in the east, nor from Naples to the west. Population increases in summer when many of its migrant labour force return home to take up temporary residence and visit family. Accadia borders the municipalities of Bovino, Monteleone di Puglia and Sant'Agata di Puglia; the town originated as a settlement of the Dardani, between the 2nd and 1st millennium BC. It was part of the Roman Empire. According to the tradition, the name derives from a temple to the Roman mythological figure Acca Larentia which existed here. In the past it had a much larger population. A Neapolitan army sacked it during the Bourbon period.
They took the gates of the town as booty, these are still to be seen in the civic museum in Naples to this day. These events are recorded on a frieze on the clock tower on the main square in the centre of the town. There is one remaining Roman arch at a former entrance to the town. In addition there is extensive redevelopment of the inhabited old quarter of town, abandoned after an earthquake in the 1930s; this was when a large portion of the towns population emigrated and established a colony in Buffalo, New York, in the United States. San Marco in Lamis, since 2008Accadia has a friendship agreement with Spello in Italy. Media related to Accadia at Wikimedia Commons
Deliceto is a small town and comune in the province of Foggia, from which it is 40.3 kilometres, in the Apulia region of southeast Italy. Adjacent towns are Ascoli Satriano. Deliceto streams; the territory of the municipality lies between 207 and 951 metres above sea level
The Daunians were an Iapygian tribe which inhabited northern Apulia in classical antiquity. Two other Iapygian tribes, the Peucetians and the Messapians, inhabited central and southern Apulia respectively. All three tribes spoke the Messapian language, but had developed separate archaeological cultures by the seventh century BC; the Daunians lived in the eponymous region Daunia, which extended from the Ofanto river in the southeast to the Gargano peninsula in the northwest. This region is coincident with the Province of Foggia today. Towards the late Bronze Age, Illyrian populations from the eastern Adriatic arrived in Apulia; the Illyrians in Italy, united with the pre-existing people and groups from the Aegean from Crete, created the Iapygian civilization which consisted of three tribes: Peucetia and the Dauni. The region was inhabited by Italic peoples of Southern Italy; the Dauni were similar to but different from the Peucetii and Messapii, who settled in central and southern Puglia. Having been less influenced by the Campanian civilization, it had thus a more peculiar culture, featuring in particular the Daunian steles, a series of funerary monuments sculpted in the 7th-6th centuries BC in the plain south of Siponto, now housed in the National Archeological Museum of Manfredonia.
Striking is the Daunian pottery which begins with geometric patterns but which includes crude human and plant figures. The main Daunian centers were Teanum Apulum, Uria Garganica, the location of which though is not known with certainty, Lucera, Monte Saraceno, Coppa Navigata, Salapia, Aecae, Castelluccio dei Sauri, Ausculum, Canosa di Puglia, Melfi and Venosa; the ethnonym is connected to the name of the wolf, plausibly the totemic animal of this nation. The cult of the wolf was related to the Arcadian mystery cult. In fact, daunos means wolf, according to ancient glosses, is the correspondent of Greek thaunos, from an Indo-European root *dhau- to strangle, meaning strangler. Among the Daunian towns one may mention Lucera and among other nations the ethnonym of the Lucani and that of the Hirpini, from another word meaning wolf; the outcome of the Proto-Indo-European voiced aspirate dh is proper of the Illyrian languages and so is different from the corresponding Latin faunus and Oscan, not attested.
There are numerous testimonies among ancient authors of a presence of the Daunians beyond the Apennines in Campania and Latium where some towns claimed Diomedian origins. The most notable instance is Ardea, the centre of the Rutulians who were considered Daunians: Vergil writes that Turnus' father was Daunus. Festus writes that a King Lucerus of Ardea fought along with Romulus against Titus Tatius and this is the origin of the name of the Roman Luceres. Tavoliere delle Puglie Daunian pottery
Apulia is a region in Southern Italy bordering the Adriatic Sea to the east, the Ionian Sea to the southeast, the Strait of Otranto and Gulf of Taranto to the south. The region comprises 19,345 square kilometers, its population is about four million, it is bordered by the other Italian regions of Molise to the north, Campania to the west, Basilicata to the southwest. Across the Adriatic and Ionian Seas, it faces Albania, Bosnia-Herzegovina, Croatia and Montenegro, its capital city is Bari. Apulia's coastline is longer than that of any other mainland Italian region. In the north, the Gargano promontory extends out into the Adriatic like a'sperone', while in the south, the Salento peninsula forms the'tacco' of Italy's boot; the highest peak in the region is Mount Cornacchia within the Daunian Mountains, in the north along the Apennines. It is home to the Alta Murgia National Park and Gargano National Park. Outside of national parks in the North and West, most of Apulia and Salento is geographically flat with only moderate hills.
The climate is mediterranean with hot and sunny summers and mild, rainy winters. Snowfall on the coast is rare but has occurred as as January 2019. Apulia is among the hottest and driest regions of Italy in summer with temperatures sometimes reaching up to and above 40 °C in Lecce and Foggia; the coastal areas on the Adriatic and in the southern Salento region are exposed to winds of varying strengths and directions affecting local temperatures and conditions, sometimes within the same day. The Northerly Bora wind from the Adriatic can lower temperatures and moderate summer heat while the Southerly Sirocco wind from North Africa can raise temperatures and drop red dust from the Sahara. On some days in spring and autumn, it can be warm enough to swim in Gallipoli and Porto Cesareo on the Ionian coast while at the same time, cool winds warrant jackets and sweaters in Monopoli and Otranto on the Adriatic coast. Apulia is one of the richest archaeological regions in Italy, it was first colonized by Mycenaean Greeks.
A number of castles were built in the area by Holy Roman Emperor Frederick II, including Castel del Monte, sometimes called the "Crown of Apulia". After 1282, when the island of Sicily was lost, Apulia was part of the Kingdom of Naples, remained so until the unification of Italy in the 1860s; this kingdom was independent under the House of Anjou from 1282 to 1442 was part of Aragon until 1458, after which it was again independent under a cadet branch of the House of Trastámara until 1501. As a result of the French–Spanish war of 1501–1504, Naples again came under the rule of Aragon and the Spanish Empire from 1504 to 1714; when Barbary pirates of North Africa sacked Vieste in 1554, they took an estimated 7,000 slaves. The coast of Apulia was occupied at times at other times by the Venetians. In 1861 the region became part of the Kingdom of Italy, with the new capital city at Turin. In the words of one historian, Turin was "so far away that Otranto is today closer to seventeen foreign capitals than it is to Turin".
The region's contribution to Italy's gross value added was around 4.6% in 2000, while its population was 7% of the total. The per capita GDP is low compared to the national average and represents about 68.1% of the EU average. The share of gross value added by the agricultural and services sectors was above the national average in 2000; the region has industries specialising in particular areas, including food processing and vehicles in Foggia. Between 2007 and 2013 the economy of Apulia expanded more than that of the rest of southern Italy; such growth, over several decades, is a severe challenge to the hydrogeological system. Apulia's thriving economy is articulated into numerous sectors boasting several leading companies: Aerospace; the unemployment rate was higher than the national average. There is an estimated 50 to 60 million olive trees in Puglia and the region accounts for 40% of Italy's olive oil production. There are four specific Protected Designation of Origin covering the whole region.
Olive varieties include: Baresane, Brandofino, Carolea, Cellina di Nardò, Cerignola, Cima di Bitonto, Cima di Mola, Coratina grown in Corning, CA. A 2018 Gold Medal New York International Olive Oil Competition winner, Garganica, La Minuta, Moresca, Nocellara Etnea, Nocellara Messinese, Ogliarola Barese, Ogliara Messinese, Peranzana, produced as "Certified Ultra-Premium Extra Virgin Olive Oil", Santagatese, Tonda Iblea, Verdello. There has been an issue of marketed "extra pure" olive oil being imported from Spain, the Balkans and Tunisia; this includes the use of rectified lampante, being allowed due to a controversial 1995 law. The olive oil industry in Puglia is under threat from the pathogen Xy