Oregon is a state in the Pacific Northwest region on the West Coast of the United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its eastern boundary with Idaho; the parallel 42 ° north delineates the southern boundary with Nevada. Oregon is one of only four states of the continental United States to have a coastline on the Pacific Ocean. Oregon was inhabited by many indigenous tribes before Western traders and settlers arrived. An autonomous government was formed in the Oregon Country in 1843 before the Oregon Territory was created in 1848. Oregon became the 33rd state on February 14, 1859. Today, at 98,000 square miles, Oregon is the ninth largest and, with a population of 4 million, 27th most populous U. S. state. The capital, Salem, is the second most populous city in Oregon, with 169,798 residents. Portland, with 647,805, ranks as the 26th among U. S. cities. The Portland metropolitan area, which includes the city of Vancouver, Washington, to the north, ranks the 25th largest metro area in the nation, with a population of 2,453,168.
Oregon is one of the most geographically diverse states in the U. S. marked by volcanoes, abundant bodies of water, dense evergreen and mixed forests, as well as high deserts and semi-arid shrublands. At 11,249 feet, Mount Hood, a stratovolcano, is the state's highest point. Oregon's only national park, Crater Lake National Park, comprises the caldera surrounding Crater Lake, the deepest lake in the United States; the state is home to the single largest organism in the world, Armillaria ostoyae, a fungus that runs beneath 2,200 acres of the Malheur National Forest. Because of its diverse landscapes and waterways, Oregon's economy is powered by various forms of agriculture and hydroelectric power. Oregon is the top timber producer of the contiguous United States, the timber industry dominated the state's economy in the 20th century. Technology is another one of Oregon's major economic forces, beginning in the 1970s with the establishment of the Silicon Forest and the expansion of Tektronix and Intel.
Sportswear company Nike, Inc. headquartered in Beaverton, is the state's largest public corporation with an annual revenue of $30.6 billion. The earliest evidence of the name Oregon has Spanish origins; the term "orejón" comes from the historical chronicle Relación de la Alta y Baja California written by the new Spaniard Rodrigo Montezuma and made reference to the Columbia River when the Spanish explorers penetrated into the actual North American territory that became part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. This chronicle is the first topographical and linguistic source with respect to the place name Oregon. There are two other sources with Spanish origins, such as the name Oregano, which grows in the southern part of the region, it is most probable that the American territory was named by the Spaniards, as there are some populations in Spain such as "Arroyo del Oregón" considering that the individualization in Spanish language "El Orejón" with the mutation of the letter "g" instead of "j". Another early use of the name, spelled Ouragon, was in a 1765 petition by Major Robert Rogers to the Kingdom of Great Britain.
The term referred to the then-mythical River of the West. By 1778, the spelling had shifted to Oregon. In his 1765 petition, Rogers wrote: The rout...is from the Great Lakes towards the Head of the Mississippi, from thence to the River called by the Indians Ouragon... One theory is that the name comes from the French word ouragan, applied to the River of the West based on Native American tales of powerful Chinook winds on the lower Columbia River, or from firsthand French experience with the Chinook winds of the Great Plains. At the time, the River of the West was thought to rise in western Minnesota and flow west through the Great Plains. Joaquin Miller explained in Sunset magazine, in 1904, how Oregon's name was derived: The name, Oregon, is rounded down phonetically, from Ouve água—Oragua, Or-a-gon, Oregon—given by the same Portuguese navigator that named the Farallones after his first officer, it in a large way, means cascades:'Hear the waters.' You should steam up the Columbia and hear and feel the waters falling out of the clouds of Mount Hood to understand the full meaning of the name Ouve a água, Oregon.
Another account, endorsed as the "most plausible explanation" in the book Oregon Geographic Names, was advanced by George R. Stewart in a 1944 article in American Speech. According to Stewart, the name came from an engraver's error in a French map published in the early 18th century, on which the Ouisiconsink River was spelled "Ouaricon-sint", broken on two lines with the -sint below, so there appeared to be a river flowing to the west named "Ouaricon". According to the Oregon Tourism Commission, present-day Oregonians pronounce the state's name as "or-uh-gun, never or-ee-gone". After being drafted by the Detroit Lions in 2002, former Oregon Ducks quarterback Joey Harrington distributed "Orygun" stickers to members of the media as a reminder of how to pronounce the name of his home state; the stickers are sold by the University of Oregon Bookstore. Oregon is 295 miles north to south at longest distance, 395 miles east to west. With an area of 98,381 square miles, Oregon is larger than the United Kingdom.
It is the ninth largest state in the United States. Oregon's highest point is the summit of Mount Hood, at 11,249 feet, its lowest point is the sea level of the Pacific Ocean along the Oregon Coas
Oregon Department of Transportation
The Oregon Department of Transportation is a department of the state government of the U. S. state of Oregon responsible for systems of transportation. It was first established in 1969, it had been preceded by the Oregon State Highway Department which, along with the Oregon State Highway Commission, was created by an act of the Oregon Legislative Assembly in 1913. It works with the five-member Oregon Transportation Commission in managing the state's transportation systems; the Oregon Transportation Commission the Oregon State Highway Commission, is a five-member governor-appointed government agency that manages the state highways and other transportation in the U. S. state of Oregon, in conjunction with the Oregon Department of Transportation. The first State Highway Commission was created on August 12, 1913, was composed of Governor Oswald West, Secretary of State Ben W. Olcott and Treasurer Thomas B. Kay. On January 12, 1915, James Withycombe replaced Oswald West on the commission; the 1917 Oregon Legislative Assembly redesigned the State Highway Commission, with citizens appointed to replace the elected officials.
The new commissioners held their first meeting on March 6, the commission was known as the Oregon Highway Division. As Oregon's transportation needs started to grow, the division expanded and, in 1919, it employed their first State Bridge Engineer, Conde McCullough. By 1920, Oregon had 620 miles of paved roads and 297.2 miles of plank roads for a population of 783,389 and, by 1932, the work, started on the Oregon Coast Highway in 1914 was completed, except for five bridges, which meant greater responsibility for the division. This work was complete when the construction of the bridges over the Yaquina, Alsea and Umpqua rivers and Coos Bay were completed, closing the last gaps in the highway. By 1940, the highway division was managing more than 7,000 miles of state and country roads in Oregon, with nearly 5,000 miles being hard-surfaced. In 2007, the department entered into an agreement with Aurigo Software, who used its capital project management application to automate the $2.5 billion OTIA III State Bridge Delivery Program.
Several unusual events occurred in the department's history. In 1958, the division changed its slogan to the unintentionally funny "Oregon Freeways... Symbol of 2nd Century Progress" and in 1967 ODOT celebrated its 50th anniversary though it was by fifty-four years old. On November 12, 1970, the department gained notoriety after they attempted to dispose of a rotting beached sperm whale by using half a ton of dynamite to blast it off the beach, as one might remove a boulder, they were given responsibility for this task because Oregon beaches were designated as highways when the division was formed. This became known as the "exploding whale incident". 1913 - "Get Oregon Out of the Mud" 1957 - "Building Oregon Thru Better Highways" 1958 - "Oregon Freeways... Symbol of 2nd Century Progress" 1961 - "Freeways are Easier" 1967 - "Fifty Years of Building Better Highways in Oregon" 1978 - "Keep Oregon Green and in the Black" 1986 - "ODOT on the Move" 2006 - "The way to go!" Glenn Jackson, an influential twenty-year member of the commission Oregon Department of Aviation Media related to Oregon Department of Transportation at Wikimedia Commons Oregon Department of Transportation Museum online Oregon Transportation Commission
Celilo Village, Oregon
Celilo Village, Oregon is an unincorporated Native American community on the Columbia River in northeastern Wasco County in the U. S. state of Oregon. It is near the former site of Celilo Falls. In 2003 about 100 permanent residents lived in 14 dwellings; the site was once a major cultural and trading center, until Celilo Falls was inundated by The Dalles Dam in 1957. The 2000 census reported a total resident population of 44 persons living on a land area of 102.11 acres. The United States Army Corps of Engineers provided funding for construction of a new tribal long house in 2006. Most residents of Celilo are members of either the Yakama Nation or Confederated Tribes of Warm Springs; some may be members of the Confederated Tribes of the Umatilla Indian Reservation, or the Nez Perce tribe. Many residents are fishers engaging in ceremonial and commercial fisheries for salmon and sturgeon in the Columbia River. While the historic fishing site at Celilo Falls is gone, there is an "in lieu" fishing site provided by the Army Corps of Engineers that provides access for tribal members to the river.
Most tribal fishing is done with gillnets or from platforms built along the river. Celilo Village, Oregon United States Census Bureau Columbia River Inter-Tribal Fish Commission
Heppner is an incorporated city and the county seat of Morrow County, United States. As of 2010, the population was 1,291. Heppner is part of the Pendleton-Hermiston Micropolitan Area. Heppner is named after a prominent Jewish-American businessman. Native Americans lived and traveled along the land between the Columbia Gorge and the Blue Mountains for more than 10,000 years prior to European-American settlement. Ancient petroglyphs have been found 45 miles north of Heppner in Irrigon and Boardman. In 1855, the U. S. Government and the predominant tribes in the region—the Cayuse and Walla Walla—signed a treaty whereby the tribes gave up, or ceded, to the United States more than 6.4 million acres in what is now northeastern Oregon and southeastern Washington. Prior to Heppner's founding in 1872, European-American ranchers used the area as sheep and cattle range as early as 1858. Records suggest. Heppner was called Standsbury Flats for George W. Standsbury, one of the first European-American settlers in the area.
In 1872, Colonel Jackson Lee Morrow, a merchant, entered into a partnership with Henry Heppner, a prominent Jewish businessman, they built a store on the crossing of the present May and Main streets. Soon thereafter, a mail and stagecoach line began operations between Pendleton and The Dalles and passed through Heppner. Col. Jackson Lee Morrow was elected to the Oregon legislative assembly and was instrumental in helping to carve out a new county for Heppner from neighboring Umatilla County and a portion of Wasco County; the assembly named the new county in Morrow's honor. Heppner was designated the temporary county seat at the time the county was created and narrowly defeated nearby Lexington in an election held in 1886 to determine the permanent county seat. Heppner was incorporated in the following year on February 9, 1887. In 1888, the Oregon Railroad and Navigation Company completed a railroad spur from the Columbia River up the Willow Creek drainage to Heppner; the Historic Morrow County Courthouse was built in 1902-03 and is one of the oldest continuously used courthouses in Oregon.
In 1985, the courthouse was listed on the National Register of Historic Places. Heppner was destroyed by a flash flood on Sunday, June 14, 1903; the flood was precipitated by a sudden cloudburst and accompanying hail that caused a debris dam collapse and flash flooding, notably on Willow Creek. A wall of water and debris swept through the city, it has been estimated that 238 people drowned, making it the deadliest natural disaster in Oregon's history. Property damage was reported at nearly $1 million; the nearby cities of Ione and Lexington sustained significant damage. In 1983, the Willow Creek Dam at the outskirts of the city was finished; the railroad and a growing network of roads had by the early decades of the 20th century made Heppner a trade center and distribution point for regional farm products including wheat, sheep, cattle and hogs. Despite the flood and two fires in 1918 that destroyed City Hall, the Palace Hotel, the library, many businesses, more than 30 homes, the community rebuilt.
One of its creations, the Heppner Hotel, opened in 1920 and, housing a variety of businesses over the years, it served as a community gathering place through 1972, when its last restaurant closed. As of July 1, 2016, the annual estimate of the resident population of Heppner was 1,297; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,291 people, 559 households, 370 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,049.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 647 housing units at an average density of 526.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 92.5% White, 0.2% African American, 1.2% Native American, 0.3% Asian, 2.6% from other races, 3.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.7% of the population. There were 559 households of which 26.1% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 53.3% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 4.7% had a male householder with no wife present, 33.8% were non-families.
29.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.5% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.30 and the average family size was 2.78. The median age in the city was 45.9 years. 22.5% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 50.6% male and 49.4% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,395 people, 583 households, 398 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,138.5 people per square mile. There were 660 housing units at an average density of 538.7 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 96.70% White, 1.00% Native American, 0.43% Asian, 1.51% from other races, 0.36% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.58% of the population. There were 583 households out of which 28.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.6% were married couples living together, 7.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 31.7% were non-families. 28.1% of all households were made up of individuals and 14.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.36 and the average family size was 2.88. In the city, the population was spread out with 24.5% under the age of 18, 5.9% from 18 to 24, 24.3% from 25 to 44, 24.9% from 45 to 64, 20.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median
Gilliam County, Oregon
Gilliam County is a county located in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 1,871, making it the third-least populous county in Oregon; the county seat is Condon. The county was established in 1885 and is named for Cornelius Gilliam, who commanded the forces of the provisional government of Oregon after the Whitman Massacre; the Oregon Legislative Assembly created Gilliam County on February 25, 1885, from the eastern third of Wasco County after residents complained that they were too far from their county seat in The Dalles. The first Gilliam county seat was at Alkali, now Arlington; the question of a permanent county seat was placed on general election ballots in 1886, 1888, again in 1890, when voters chose to move the county seat to Condon, known to early settlers as "Summit Springs." Once the question of the location of the county seat was settled, voters in Gilliam County proved reluctant to provide a courthouse in Condon. The county government operated out of a two-room house until 1903, when the county court appropriated money to construct a courthouse.
This courthouse was replaced the following year with the current courthouse. The Shepherds Flat Wind Farm, an 845 megawatt wind farm, began construction near Arlington in 2009, shortly after approval by state regulators; the wind farm was being built by Caithness Energy using General Electric 2.5 MW wind turbines, it will supply electricity to Southern California Edison. In April, 2011, Google announced; the wind farm was estimated to have an economic impact of $16 million annually for Oregon. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,223 square miles, of which 1,205 square miles is land and 18 square miles is water. Sherman County - west Wasco County - southwest Wheeler County - south Morrow County - east Klickitat County, Washington - north As of the census of 2000, there were 1,915 people, 819 households, 543 families residing in the county; the population density was 2 people per square mile. There were 1,043 housing units at an average density of 1 per square mile.
The racial makeup of the county was 96.76% White, 0.16% Black or African American, 0.84% Native American, 0.16% Asian, 1.15% from other races, 0.94% from two or more races. 1.83% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 18.2 % were of 12.5 % Irish and 5.3 % Scottish ancestry. There were 819 households out of which 27.60% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 57.90% were married couples living together, 5.90% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.60% were non-families. 29.50% of all households were made up of individuals and 12.10% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.31 and the average family size was 2.85. In the county, the population was spread out with 23.20% under the age of 18, 5.40% from 18 to 24, 25.60% from 25 to 44, 26.70% from 45 to 64, 19.10% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 43 years. For every 100 females there were 102.20 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 96.30 males.
The median income for a household in the county was $33,611, the median income for a family was $41,477. Males had a median income of $30,915 versus $20,852 for females; the per capita income for the county was $17,659. About 6.70% of families and 9.10% of the population were below the poverty line, including 11.00% of those under age 18 and 6.60% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 1,871 people, 864 households, 508 families residing in the county; the population density was 1.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 1,156 housing units at an average density of 1.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 95.2% white, 1.0% American Indian, 0.7% Pacific islander, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% black or African American, 1.4% from other races, 1.4% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 4.7% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 28.4% were German, 18.5% were English, 15.5% were Irish, 8.3% were American. Of the 864 households, 22.5% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 48.4% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 41.2% were non-families, 35.6% of all households were made up of individuals.
The average household size was 2.14 and the average family size was 2.74. The median age was 49.7 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,148 and the median income for a family was $52,885. Males had a median income of $34,340 versus $35,962 for females; the per capita income for the county was $25,559. About 9.8% of families and 10.6% of the population were below the poverty line, including 18.3% of those under age 18 and 10.8% of those age 65 or over. Arlington Condon Lonerock The Northern Oregon Regional Corrections Facility, a short-term jail, serves Gilliam, Hood River and Wasco counties. Though Gilliam County is located in central Oregon, politically it falls in line with the eastern side of the state; the majority of registered voters who are part of a political party in Gilliam County, as well as most counties in eastern Oregon, are members of the Republican Party. In the 2008 presidential election, 58.36% of Gilliam County voters voted for Republican John McCain, while 38.74% voted for Democrat Barack Obama and 2.88% of voters either voted for a Third Party candidate or wrote in a candidate.
These numbers show a small but clear shift towards the Democratic candidate when compared to the 2004 presidential election, in which 66.3% of Gilliam Country voters voted for George W
Oregon State Scenic Byways
This is a list of state scenic byways in Oregon. The byways are divided into two types: touring routes. In addition to the state-designated byways, Oregon has ten National Scenic Byways, of which four are All-American Roads. Blue Mountain Scenic Byway Elkhorn Scenic Byway High Desert Discovery Scenic Byway Journey Through Time Scenic Byway Over The Rivers & Through The Woods Scenic Byway Umpqua Scenic Byway Charleston to Bandon Tour Route Cottage Grove Covered Bridge Tour Route Cow Creek Tour Route Diamond Loop Tour Route East Steens Tour Route Grande Tour Route Myrtle Crrek-Canyonville Tour Route Silver Falls Tour Route Vineyard and Valley Tour Route Oregon portal U. S. Roads portal
Wasco is a city in Sherman County, United States. The population was 410 at the 2010 census. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 1.00 square mile, all land. Wascoite, a type of white clay-based mineral found near Biggs jasper, is locally named for Wasco; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Wasco has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 410 people, 182 households, 111 families residing in the city. The population density was 410.0 inhabitants per square mile. There were 208 housing units at an average density of 208.0 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.6% White, 0.5% African American, 0.7% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 1.5% from other races, 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.0% of the population.
There were 182 households of which 20.3% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 49.5% were married couples living together, 8.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 3.3% had a male householder with no wife present, 39.0% were non-families. 31.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 13.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.25 and the average family size was 2.80. The median age in the city was 50.2 years. 18% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.5% male and 48.5% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 381 people, 168 households, 110 families residing in the city; the population density was 394.5 people per square mile. There were 196 housing units at an average density of 202.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 94.23% White, 2.36% Native American, 0.26% Asian, 0.26% from other races, 2.89% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 3.41% of the population.
There were 168 households out of which 25.0% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 56.5% were married couples living together, 4.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 34.5% were non-families. 29.8% of all households were made up of individuals and 16.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.27 and the average family size was 2.73. In the city, the population was spread out with 23.1% under the age of 18, 4.2% from 18 to 24, 22.0% from 25 to 44, 28.3% from 45 to 64, 22.3% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 45 years. For every 100 females, there were 101.6 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 103.5 males. The median income for a household in the city was $35,917, the median income for a family was $39,375. Males had a median income of $30,500 versus $21,875 for females; the per capita income for the city was $17,917. About 7.0% of families and 11.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 16.9% of those under age 18 and 9.0% of those age 65 or over.
Wasco State Airport Entry for Wasco in the Oregon Blue Book