The Wallowa River is a tributary of the Grande Ronde River 55 miles long, in northeastern Oregon in the United States. It drains a valley on the Columbia Plateau in the northeast corner of the state north of Wallowa Mountains; the river begins at the confluence of its east and west forks, which rise in southern Wallowa County, in the Eagle Cap Wilderness of the Wallowa–Whitman National Forest. It flows northwest through the Wallowa Valley, past the communities of Joseph and Wallowa, it receives the Minam River from the left at the hamlet of Minam. Continuing north another 10 miles, it joins the Grande Ronde along the Wallowa–Union county line about 10 miles north-northeast of Elgin and about 81 miles from the larger river's confluence with the Snake River; the Wallowa Valley was home to Chief Joseph's band of the Nez Perce Tribe. Chief Joseph asked the first white settlers to leave when they arrived in 1871; the U. S. government expelled the tribe and seized their property and livestock in 1877, when non-Indian farmers and ranchers wanted to settle the fertile Wallowa valley.
The tribe was barred from returning to their homeland by the government after repeated petitions. The tribal members were shipped in unheated box cars to Indian Territory to be placed in a prisoner of war camp never to see their home again; the Wallowa River supports populations of steelhead, spring Chinook salmon, mountain whitefish among other species. Sockeye salmon were extirpated from the Wallowa River when a small dam was constructed at the outlet of Wallowa Lake in the headwaters of the river; the dam was constructed to raise the level of the lake to store water for irrigation. List of longest streams of Oregon List of rivers of Oregon Grande Ronde Model Watershed National Wild and Scenic Rivers System Media related to Wallowa River at Wikimedia Commons
State highways in Oregon
The state highway system of the U. S. state of Oregon is a network of highways that are owned and maintained by the Highway Division of the Oregon Department of Transportation. The state highway system consists of about 8,000 miles of state highways, with about 7,400 miles when minor connections and frontage roads are removed; this is about 9% of the total road mileage in the state, including Oregon's portion of the Interstate Highway System and many other highways ranging from statewide to local importance. Transfers of highways between the state and county or local maintenance require the approval of the Oregon Transportation Commission, a five-member governor-appointed authority that meets monthly; these transfers result in discontinuous highways, where a local government maintains part or all of a main road within its boundaries. Two separate numbering systems are used; these comprise the Interstate highways, U. S. Routes, Oregon Routes. Highways, on the other hand, are used internally by ODOT.
The two systems, while overlapping, are not congruent. Many routes are signed on streets which are maintained by counties and cities, thus are not part of the state highway system at all, e.g. OR 8, whose eastern- and westernmost portions, Canyon Road and Gales Creek Road, are not state highways. On the other hand, some state highways are not signed as routes at all. Signed routes may comprise several highways. 110, Nehalem Hwy No. 102, Tualatin Valley Highway No. 29. Highways may consist of several routes; every highway is state-maintained, every route is at least state-maintained. The OTC designates the paths of these routes as they follow local roads. S. Route or Interstate numbers must be approved by the American Association of State Highway and Transportation Officials. Route signs are maintained by the same agency as the roads they are posted along. If a local government maintains a numbered route, it signs an agreement with the state to keep the signs posted, thus keeping a continuous route for the benefit of travelers.
The initial primary state highway system was designated in 1917 consisting of 36 named and numbered highways, including some designated earlier that year by the Oregon State Legislature and others added to the network by the Oregon State Highway Commission, the predecessor to the OTC. The first signed routes were the U. S. Routes, in 1926, it was not until 1932 that Oregon Routes were numbered by the OTC and marked by the Oregon State Highway Department. S. Route received a route number at that time. Starting in late 1931, the state took over maintenance of many county "market roads", which became secondary state highways with three-digit numbers; the primary, two-digit route numbers were laid out in a grid system, similar to the Interstate Highway System. Odd-numbered routes were north-south and increased in number bearing west, ranging from OR 3 in Wallowa County to OR 53 in Clatsop and Tillamook counties. Even-numbered routes were east-west and increased in number bearing south, ranging from OR 6 in Tillamook and Washington counties to OR 70 in Klamath County.
East-west highways in eastern Oregon were given route numbers between OR 74 and OR 86, again increasing in number to the south. Despite this pattern, the internally used highway numbers for primary highways remained ad-hoc. A few route numbers were added after the 1930s, broke these patterns for continuity reasons: OR 99, OR 126, OR 138, OR 140. Secondary route numbers, three digits starting with 2, were laid out to increase bearing west, they ranged from OR 201 in Malheur County to OR 240 in Yamhill County. The internally used highway numbers for secondary highways were three digit numbers, but were designated by county, from No. 10X in Clatsop County, No. 11X in Columbia County, No. 12X in Multnomah County, etc. until No. 45X in Malheur County. In 2002 and 2003, ODOT decided to assign route numbers to most of the unsigned secondary highways; these new route numbers were identical to the old highway numbers, range from OR 103 to OR 454. In cases where the highway number was in use by a different route, the first digit of the new route number was changed to 5.
Most of these new route numbers are unsigned as of 2015. Two state highways lack route numbers: Century Drive Hwy No. 372 and Midland Hwy No. 420. The following highways were constructed and/or planned, subsequently demolished or cancelled. In some cases, the cancellation resulted from freeway revolts. Mount Hood Freeway Rose City Freeway Harbor Drive Roosevelt Freeway West Eugene Parkway Interstate 305 Interstate 505 These projects represent proposed new major routes within the state of Oregon. Improvements to existing facilities are n
Union County, Oregon
Union County is a county in the U. S. state of Oregon. As of the 2010 census, the population was 25,748, its county seat is La Grande. Union County comprises OR Micropolitan Statistical Area, it is one of the eight counties of eastern Oregon. According to Oregon Geographic Names, the county is named for the town of Union. Union County was part of Wasco County; the northern end of the Grande Ronde Valley was the first part to be settled. During the 1860s, population growth in eastern Oregon prompted the State Legislature to split Umatilla and Baker Counties from Wasco County in 1862. Further settlement in the Grande Ronde Valley led to the division of Baker County to create Union County on October 14, 1864; the county doubled in population between 1880 and 1890. The choice of a county seat resulted in competition, based on geography and on economic and population growth, between La Grande and the city of Union; the county seat alternated between Union and La Grande until it permanently came to rest at La Grande in 1905.
Between 1875 and 1913, adjustments were made between Union County's borders and the borders of Baker and Wallowa counties. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 2,039 square miles, of which 2,037 square miles is land and 1.9 square miles is water. The Forest Service owns 47% of the land in the county. Wallowa County Baker County Grant County Umatilla County As of the census of 2000, there were 24,530 people, 9,740 households, 6,516 families residing in the county; the population density was 12 people per square mile. There were 10,603 housing units at an average density of 5 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 94.29% White, 0.85% Native American, 0.85% Asian, 0.62% Pacific Islander, 0.51% Black/African American, 1.22% from other races, 1.67% from two or more races. Hispanics and Latinos of any race constitute 2.45% of the population. 20.2% were of German, 15.5% American, 12.2% English and 10.5% Irish ancestry. There were 9,740 households out of which 30.00% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.10% were married couples living together, 8.50% had a female householder with no husband present, 33.10% were non-families.
26.10% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.80% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.94. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.60% under the age of 18, 12.10% from 18 to 24, 23.50% from 25 to 44, 25.00% from 45 to 64, 14.70% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 38 years. For every 100 females there were 95.10 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.40 males. The median income for a household in the county was $33,738, the median income for a family was $40,520. Males had a median income of $33,028 versus $21,740 for females; the per capita income for the county was $16,907. About 8.50% of families and 13.80% of the population were below the poverty line, including 13.60% of those under age 18 and 9.50% of those age 65 or over. As of the 2010 United States Census, there were 25,748 people, 10,501 households, 6,804 families residing in the county.
The population density was 12.6 inhabitants per square mile. There were 11,489 housing units at an average density of 5.6 per square mile. The racial makeup of the county was 93.1% white, 1.1% American Indian, 0.9% Pacific islander, 0.8% Asian, 0.5% black or African American, 1.3% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Those of Hispanic or Latino origin made up 3.9% of the population. In terms of ancestry, 25.2% were German, 17.8% were Irish, 17.3% were English, 6.9% were American. Of the 10,501 households, 28.2% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.3% were married couples living together, 9.5% had a female householder with no husband present, 35.2% were non-families, 27.6% of all households were made up of individuals. The average household size was 2.38 and the average family size was 2.89. The median age was 40.0 years. The median income for a household in the county was $42,162 and the median income for a family was $52,558. Males had a median income of $40,720 versus $30,373 for females.
The per capita income for the county was $22,947. About 10.5% of families and 16.1% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.6% of those under age 18 and 10.2% of those age 65 or over. Like the rest of eastern Oregon, the majority of registered voters who are part of a political party in Union County belong to the Republican Party. In the 2016 presidential election, 65 percent of Union County voters voted for Republican Donald Trump, while 25 percent voted for Democrat Hillary Clinton and 10 percent of voters either voted for a Third Party candidate or wrote in a candidate; these numbers show a large shift away from the Democratic party towards third party candidates when compared to the 2012 presidential election, when 63.2% of Union Country voters voted for Mitt Romney, 32.9% voted for Barack Obama, 3.8% of voters either voted for a third party candidate or wrote in a candidate. Union County is located in Oregon State House District 58, represented by Greg Baretto, it is located in Oregon State Senate District 29, represented by Bill Hansell.
Both Barreto and Hansell are registered Republicans. Union County is governed by three commissioners; the Union County Board of Commissioners is made up of Paul Anderes, Matt Scarfo, Donna Beverage. The initial economic interest in Union County was mining, but most of the mines were in the area annexed by Baker County in 1901; the local economy continues to be based on natu
Elgin is a city in Union County, United States. The population was 1,711 at the 2010 census; the community is named after the Lady Elgin, a ship lost on Lake Michigan. The city is known for the Elgin Opera House dedicated in 1912. Elgin was settled by hunters and people of all ethnic groups. Did they make the treacherous travels from nearby LaGrande, because it was 120 miles away by river through the valley, which back was covered in thick forest.. Elgin was the gathering place for hunters to replenish their supplies; this is how Elgin became the "Elgin Huskies". Many settlers emigrated from Walla Walla across the mountains on dog sleds. Mr. Mckinnis and his family were the first settlers, he brought cattle from Illinois and moved to what was the outskirts of Elgin, built one of the first homes. Though his home is not set in the history in Elgin there is a letter from his wife's sister attesting to this fact. Mr. McKinnis built the mills from Elgin to Lagrande and owned all the century farms in the valley passing them down to his kin in death.
He worked in the first bank in Elgin before they moved to LaGrande. Mr. McKinnis stated that this home was built in 1864; the area of Elgin was called "Fish Trap" and "Indian Valley." The city was platted in 1886 following the washout of Ruckles Road over the Blue Mountains, which caused investors to leave nearby Summerville for Elgin. By 1887 Elgin had general stores, a livery, a hotel, a church, as well as a nearby sawmill, which continues as a more modern Boise Cascade mill. Between 1887 and 1908, the area around Elgin had 35 sawmills, most transportable water-driven whipsaws. Local landowners would sell the trees for 50 cents per thousand board feet, about how much the sawmills could handle in a day. At the time, log transportation cost about two dollars per thousand board feet, a mill could sell the processed lumber for $6–10 per thousand board feet. Growth increased with the arrival of the railroad in 1890, Elgin was incorporated by the Oregon Legislative Assembly on February 18, 1891. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.99 square miles, all of it land.
Elgin is at the junction of Oregon Route 82 and Oregon Route 204. Jubilee Lake and its campground are 19 miles north in the Umatilla National Forest; this region experiences warm and dry summers, with no average monthly temperatures above 71.6 °F. According to the Köppen Climate Classification system, Elgin has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate, abbreviated "Csb" on climate maps; as of the census of 2010, there were 1,711 people, 714 households, 482 families residing in the city. The population density was 1,728.3 inhabitants per square mile. There were 778 housing units at an average density of 785.9 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 95.3% White, 0.2% African American, 1.3% Native American, 0.2% Asian, 0.6% Pacific Islander, 1.2% from other races, 1.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.3% of the population. There were 714 households of which 31.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 51.5% were married couples living together, 10.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.6% had a male householder with no wife present, 32.5% were non-families.
27.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 8.9% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.40 and the average family size was 2.85. The median age in the city was 43.9 years. 24.1% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender makeup of the city was 51.4% male and 48.6% female. As of the census of 2000, there were 1,654 people, 638 households, 444 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,675.9 people per square mile. There were 699 housing units at an average density of 708.3 per square mile. The racial makeup of the city was 97.16% White, 0.06% African American, 0.73% Native American, 0.06% Asian, 0.36% Pacific Islander, 1.03% from other races, 0.60% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.33% of the population. There were 638 households out of which 31.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.5% were married couples living together, 11.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 30.4% were non-families.
23.5% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.7% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.58 and the average family size was 3.06. In the city, the population was spread out with 28.4% under the age of 18, 7.6% from 18 to 24, 25.2% from 25 to 44, 23.8% from 45 to 64, 15.1% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.3 males. The median income for a household in the city was $31,449, the median income for a family was $35,529. Males had a median income of $31,250 versus $17,500 for females; the per capita income for the city was $14,861. About 8.8% of families and 14.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 22.5% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over. Earl Avery Thompson, inventor of the manual transmission synchronizer in 1923 and leader of the team at General Motors Corporation that developed the first Hydramatic automatic transmission in 1940.
Entry for Elgin in the Oregon Blue Book Elgin history
Oregon State Scenic Byways
This is a list of state scenic byways in Oregon. The byways are divided into two types: touring routes. In addition to the state-designated byways, Oregon has ten National Scenic Byways, of which four are All-American Roads. Blue Mountain Scenic Byway Elkhorn Scenic Byway High Desert Discovery Scenic Byway Journey Through Time Scenic Byway Over The Rivers & Through The Woods Scenic Byway Umpqua Scenic Byway Charleston to Bandon Tour Route Cottage Grove Covered Bridge Tour Route Cow Creek Tour Route Diamond Loop Tour Route East Steens Tour Route Grande Tour Route Myrtle Crrek-Canyonville Tour Route Silver Falls Tour Route Vineyard and Valley Tour Route Oregon portal U. S. Roads portal
Oregon Department of Transportation
The Oregon Department of Transportation is a department of the state government of the U. S. state of Oregon responsible for systems of transportation. It was first established in 1969, it had been preceded by the Oregon State Highway Department which, along with the Oregon State Highway Commission, was created by an act of the Oregon Legislative Assembly in 1913. It works with the five-member Oregon Transportation Commission in managing the state's transportation systems; the Oregon Transportation Commission the Oregon State Highway Commission, is a five-member governor-appointed government agency that manages the state highways and other transportation in the U. S. state of Oregon, in conjunction with the Oregon Department of Transportation. The first State Highway Commission was created on August 12, 1913, was composed of Governor Oswald West, Secretary of State Ben W. Olcott and Treasurer Thomas B. Kay. On January 12, 1915, James Withycombe replaced Oswald West on the commission; the 1917 Oregon Legislative Assembly redesigned the State Highway Commission, with citizens appointed to replace the elected officials.
The new commissioners held their first meeting on March 6, the commission was known as the Oregon Highway Division. As Oregon's transportation needs started to grow, the division expanded and, in 1919, it employed their first State Bridge Engineer, Conde McCullough. By 1920, Oregon had 620 miles of paved roads and 297.2 miles of plank roads for a population of 783,389 and, by 1932, the work, started on the Oregon Coast Highway in 1914 was completed, except for five bridges, which meant greater responsibility for the division. This work was complete when the construction of the bridges over the Yaquina, Alsea and Umpqua rivers and Coos Bay were completed, closing the last gaps in the highway. By 1940, the highway division was managing more than 7,000 miles of state and country roads in Oregon, with nearly 5,000 miles being hard-surfaced. In 2007, the department entered into an agreement with Aurigo Software, who used its capital project management application to automate the $2.5 billion OTIA III State Bridge Delivery Program.
Several unusual events occurred in the department's history. In 1958, the division changed its slogan to the unintentionally funny "Oregon Freeways... Symbol of 2nd Century Progress" and in 1967 ODOT celebrated its 50th anniversary though it was by fifty-four years old. On November 12, 1970, the department gained notoriety after they attempted to dispose of a rotting beached sperm whale by using half a ton of dynamite to blast it off the beach, as one might remove a boulder, they were given responsibility for this task because Oregon beaches were designated as highways when the division was formed. This became known as the "exploding whale incident". 1913 - "Get Oregon Out of the Mud" 1957 - "Building Oregon Thru Better Highways" 1958 - "Oregon Freeways... Symbol of 2nd Century Progress" 1961 - "Freeways are Easier" 1967 - "Fifty Years of Building Better Highways in Oregon" 1978 - "Keep Oregon Green and in the Black" 1986 - "ODOT on the Move" 2006 - "The way to go!" Glenn Jackson, an influential twenty-year member of the commission Oregon Department of Aviation Media related to Oregon Department of Transportation at Wikimedia Commons Oregon Department of Transportation Museum online Oregon Transportation Commission
Island City, Oregon
Island City is a city in Union County, United States. Its name originated from the city's location on an island between the Grande Ronde River and a nearby slough. However, the slough was diverted, removing the city's island status; the population was 989 at the 2010 census. Island City lies at the intersection of Oregon Route 82 and Oregon Route 237 on the northeastern outskirts of La Grande. According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 0.98 square miles, all land. At the 2010 census, there were 989 people, 399 households and 298 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,009.2 inhabitants per square mile. There were 416 housing units at an average density of 424.5 per square mile. The racial make-up was 94.7% White, 0.1% African American, 0.6% Native American, 0.5% Asian, 0.8% Pacific Islander, 0.9% from other races, 2.3% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 3.4% of the population. There were 399 households. 62.2% were married couples living together, 10.0% had a female householder with no husband present, 2.5% had a male householder with no wife present and 25.3% were non-families.
21.3% of all households were made up of individuals and 10.8% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.45 and the average family size was 2.81. The median age was 43.5 years. 23.8% of residents were under the age of 18. The gender make-up was 50.6 % female. At the 2000 census, there were 916 people, 357 households and 280 families residing in the city; the population density was 1,055.3 per square mile. There were 375 housing units at an average density of 432.0 per square mile. The racial make-up was 95.41% White, 0.22% African American, 1.20% Native American, 0.76% Asian, 0.33% Pacific Islander, 1.09% from other races, 0.98% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 2.07% of the population. There were 357 households of which 31.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 70.6% were married couples living together, 6.4% had a female householder with no husband present, 21.3% were non-families. 17.9% of all households were made up of individuals and 9.2% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older.
The average household size was 2.57 and the average family size was 184.108.40.206% of the population were under the age of 18, 7.1% from 18 to 24, 24.7% from 25 to 44, 28.2% from 45 to 64, 16.4% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 42 years. For every 100 females, there were 98.3 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 94.2 males. The median household income was $43,977 and the median family income was $49,327. Males had a median income of $39,250 and females $20,486; the per capita income was $19,138. About 3.3% of families and 5.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 3.9% of those under age 18 and 9.3% of those age 65 or over. Entry for Island City in the Oregon Blue Book