Indian independence movement
The Indian independence movement was a series of activities whose ultimate aim was to end the British Raj and encompassed activities and ideas aiming to end the East India Company rule and the British Raj in the Indian subcontinent. The movement spanned a total of 90 years considering movement against British Indian Empire; the Indian Independence movement includes both protest and militant mechanisms to root out British Administration from India. The first organised militant movements were in Bengal, but they took root in the newly formed Indian National Congress with prominent moderate leaders seeking only their basic right to appear for Indian Civil Service examinations, as well as more rights, economic in nature, for the people of the soil; the early part of the 20th century saw a more radical approach towards political self-rule proposed by leaders such as the Lal, Bal and Aurobindo Ghosh, V. O. Chidambaram Pillai; the last stages of the self-rule struggle from the 1920s onwards saw Congress adopt Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's policy of non-violence and civil disobedience, several other campaigns.
Nationalists like Subhash Chandra Bose, Bhagat Singh, Bagha Jatin,preached armed revolution to achieve self-rule. Poets and writers such as Subramania Bharati, Rabindranath Tagore, Muhammad Iqbal, Josh Malihabadi, Mohammad Ali Jouhar, Bankim Chandra Chattopadhyay and Kazi Nazrul Islam used literature and speech as a tool for political awareness. Feminists such as Sarojini Naidu and Begum Rokeya promoted the emancipation of Indian women and their participation in national politics. B. R. Ambedkar championed the cause of the disadvantaged sections of Indian society within the larger self-rule movement; the period of the Second World War saw the peak of the campaigns by the Quit India Movement led by Congress, the Indian National Army movement led by Subhas Chandra Bose. The Indian self-rule movement was a mass-based movement that encompassed various sections of society, it underwent a process of constant ideological evolution. Although the basic ideology of the movement was anti-colonial, it was supported by a vision of independent capitalist economic development coupled with a secular, democratic and civil-libertarian political structure.
After the 1930s, the movement took on a strong socialist orientation, owing to the influence of Bhagat Singh's demand of Purna Swaraj. The work of these various movements led to the Indian Independence Act 1947, which ended the suzerainty in India and the creation of Pakistan. India remained a Dominion of the Crown until 26 January 1950, when the Constitution of India came into force, establishing the Republic of India. In 1971, East Pakistan declared independence as the People's Republic of Bangladesh. European traders first reached Indian shores with the arrival of the Portuguese explorer Vasco da Gama in 1498 at the port of Calicut, in search of the lucrative spice trade. Just over a century the Dutch and English established trading outposts on the subcontinent, with the first English trading post set up at Surat in 1613. Over the course of the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, the British defeated the Portuguese and Dutch militarily, but remained in conflict with the French, who had by sought to establish themselves in the subcontinent.
The decline of the Mughal Empire in the first half of the eighteenth century provided the British with the opportunity to establish a firm foothold in Indian politics. After the Battle of Plassey in 1757, during which the East India Company's Indian Army under Robert Clive defeated Siraj ud-Daulah, the Nawab of Bengal, the Company established itself as a major player in Indian affairs, soon afterwards gained administrative rights over the regions of Bengal and Midnapur part of Odisha, following the Battle of Buxar in 1764. After the defeat of Tipu Sultan, most of South India came either under the Company's direct rule, or under its indirect political control as part a princely state in a subsidiary alliance; the Company subsequently gained control of regions ruled by the Maratha Empire, after defeating them in a series of wars. The Punjab was annexed in 1849, after the defeat of the Sikh armies in the First and Second Anglo-Sikh Wars. English was made the medium of instruction in India's schools in 1835, many Indians disliked British rule.
The English tried to impose the Western standards of education and culture on Indian masses, believing in the 18th century superiority of Western culture and enlightenment. Puli Thevar was one of the opponents of the British rule in India, he was in conflict with the Nawab of Arcot, supported by the British. His prominent exploits were his confrontations with Marudhanayagam, who rebelled against the British in the late 1750s and early 1760s. Nelkatumseval the present Tirunelveli Dist of Tamil Nadu state of India was the headquarters of Puli Thevan Syed Mir Nisar Ali Titumir. Along with his followers, he built a bamboo fort in Narkelberia Village, which passed into Bengali folk legend. After the storming of the fort by British soldiers, Titumir died of his wounds on 19 November 1831; the toughest resistance the Company experienced was offered by Mysore. The Anglo–Mysore Wars were a series of wars fought in over the last three decades of the 18th century between the Kingdom of Mysore on the one hand, the British East India Company (represented chiefly by the Madras Presiden
Bharatiya Janata Party
The Bharatiya Janata Party is one of the two major political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. As of 2018, it is the country's largest political party in terms of representation in the national parliament and state assemblies, it is the world's largest party in terms of primary membership. BJP is a right-wing party, its policy has reflected Hindu nationalist positions, it has close organisational links to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh. The BJP's origin lies in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, formed in 1951 by Syama Prasad Mukherjee. After the State of Emergency in 1977, the Jana Sangh merged with several other parties to form the Janata Party. After three years in power, the Janata party dissolved in 1980 with the members of the erstwhile Jana Sangh reconvening to form the BJP. Although unsuccessful, winning only two seats in the 1984 general election, it grew in strength on the back of the Ram Janmabhoomi movement. Following victories in several state elections and better performances in national elections, the BJP became the largest party in the parliament in 1996.
After the 1998 general election, the BJP-led coalition known as the National Democratic Alliance under Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee formed a government that lasted for a year. Following fresh elections, the NDA government, again headed by Vajpayee, lasted for a full term in office. In the 2004 general election, the NDA suffered an unexpected defeat, for the next ten years the BJP was the principal opposition party. Long time Gujarat Chief Minister Narendra Modi led it to a landslide victory in the 2014 general election. Since that election, Modi has led the NDA government as Prime Minister and as of February 2019, the alliance governs 18 states; the official ideology of the BJP is "integral humanism", first formulated by Deendayal Upadhyaya in 1965. The party expresses a commitment to Hindutva, its policy has reflected Hindu nationalist positions; the BJP advocates a foreign policy centred on nationalist principles. Its key issues have included the abrogation of the special status to Jammu and Kashmir, the building of a Ram temple in Ayodhya and the implementation of a uniform civil code.
However, the 1998–2004 NDA government did not pursue any of these controversial issues. It instead focused on a liberal economic policy prioritising globalisation and economic growth over social welfare; the BJP's origins lie in the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, popularly known as the Jana Sangh, founded by Syama Prasad Mukherjee in 1951 in response to the politics of the dominant Congress party. It was founded in collaboration with the Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, was regarded as the political arm of the RSS; the Jana Sangh's aims included the protection of India's "Hindu" cultural identity, in addition to countering what it perceived to be the appeasement of Muslim people and the country of Pakistan by the Congress party and then-Prime Minister Jawaharlal Nehru. The RSS loaned several of its leading pracharaks, or full-time workers, to the Jana Sangh to get the new party off the ground. Prominent among these was Deendayal Upadhyaya, appointed General Secretary.
The Jana Sangh won only three Lok Sabha seats in the first general elections in 1952. It maintained a minor presence in parliament until 1967; the Jana Sangh's first major campaign, begun in early 1953, centred on a demand for the complete integration of Jammu and Kashmir into India. Mookerjee was arrested in May 1953 for violating orders from the state government restraining him from entering Kashmir, he died of a heart attack the following month in jail. Mauli Chandra Sharma was elected to succeed Mookerjee. Upadhyay remained the General Secretary until 1967, worked to build a committed grassroots organisation in the image of the RSS; the party minimised engagement with the public, focusing instead on building its network of propagandists. Upadhyaya articulated the philosophy of integral humanism, which formed the official doctrine of the party. Younger leaders, such as Atal Bihari Vajpayee and Lal Krishna Advani became involved with the leadership in this period, with Vajpayee succeeding Upadhyaya as president in 1968.
The major themes on the party's agenda during this period were legislating a uniform civil code, banning cow slaughter and abolishing the special status given to Jammu and Kashmir. After assembly elections across the country in 1967, the party entered into a coalition with several other parties, including the Swatantra Party and the socialists, it formed governments in various states across the Hindi heartland, including Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. It was the first time. In 1975, Prime Minister Indira Gandhi imposed a state of emergency; the Jana Sangh took part in the widespread protests, with thousands of its members being imprisoned along with other agitators across the country. In 1977, the emergency was withdrawn and general elections were held; the Jana Sangh merged with parties from across the political spectrum, including the Socialist Party, the Congress and the Bharatiya Lok Dal to form the Janata Party, with its main agenda being defeating Indi
Assassination of Mahatma Gandhi
Mahatma Gandhi was assassinated on 30 January 1948 in the compound of Birla House, a large mansion. His assassin was Nathuram Vinayak Godse, advocate of Indian nationalism, a member of the political party the Hindu Mahasabha, a past member of the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, which he left in 1940 to form an armed organization. Godse had planned the assassination. Gandhi had just walked up the low steps to the raised lawn behind Birla House where he conducted his multi-faith prayer meetings every evening. Godse stepped out from the crowd flanking the path leading to the dais and into Gandhi's path, firing three bullets at point-blank range. Gandhi fell to the ground. Gandhi was carried back to his room in Birla House from where a representative emerged some time to announce that he had died; the Gandhi murder trial opened in May 1948 in Delhi's historic Red Fort, with Godse the main defendant, his collaborator Narayan Apte and six others as the co-defendants. According to Markovits, Godse tried to...use the courtroom as a political forum by reading a long declaration in which he attempted to justify his crime.
He accused Gandhi of complacency towards Muslims, blamed him for the sufferings of Partition, criticized his subjectivism and pretension to a monopoly of the truth." According to J. Edward Mallot, Godse blamed Gandhi for continuing to appease Muslims in such a manner "that my blood boiled and I could tolerate him no longer."The trial was rushed through, the haste sometimes attributed to the home minister Vallabhbhai Patel's desire "to avoid scrutiny for the failure to prevent the assassination." The trial was public, but the statement that Nathuram Godse gave during the trial on why he killed Gandhi was banned by the Indian government. Godse and Apte were sentenced to death on 8 November 1949, they were hanged in the Ambala jail on 15 November 1949. In early September 1947, Gandhi had moved to Delhi to help stem the violent rioting there and in the neighboring province of East Punjab; the rioting had come in the wake of the partition of the British Indian empire, which had accompanied the creation of the new independent dominions of India and Pakistan, involved large, chaotic transfers of population between them.
Nathuram Vinayak Godse, his assassination accomplices, were residents of the Deccan region. Godse had led a civil disobedience movement against Osman Ali Khan, the Muslim ruler of the princely Deccan region dominion of Hyderabad State in British India. Godse joined a protest march in 1938 in Hyderabad, where Hindus were being discriminated against, according to Fetherling, he served a prison sentence. Once he was out of prison, Godse continued his civil disobedience and worked as a journalist reporting the sufferings of Hindu refugees escaping from Pakistan, during the various religious riots that erupted in the 1940s. According to Arvind Sharma, the concrete plans to assassinate Gandhi were initiated by Godse and his accomplices in 1948, after India and Pakistan had started a war over Kashmir; the government of India, led by Congress leaders, had withheld a payment to Pakistan in January 1948 because it did not want to finance Pakistan, at war with India at that time. Gandhi opposed the decision to freeze the payment, went on a fast-unto-death on 13 January 1948 to pressure the Indian government to release the payment to Pakistan.
The Indian government, yielding to Gandhi, reversed its decision. Godse and his colleagues interpreted this sequence of events to be a case of Gandhi controlling power and hurting India. On the day Gandhi went on hunger strike and his colleagues began planning how to assassinate Gandhi. Nathuram Vinayak Godse and Narayan Apte purchased a Beretta M1934. Along with purchasing the pistol and his accomplices shadowed Gandhi's movements. Gandhi had been staying at the scheduled caste Balmiki Temple, near Gole Market in the northern part of New Delhi, holding his prayer meetings there; when the temple was requisitioned for sheltering refugees of the partition he moved to Birla House, a large mansion on what was Albuquerque Road in south-central New Delhi, not far from the diplomatic enclave. Gandhi was living in two unpretentious rooms in the left wing of Birla House, conducting prayer meetings on a raised lawn behind the mansion; the first attempt to assassinate Gandhi at Birla House occurred on 20 January 1948.
According to Stanley Wolpert, Nathuram Godse and his colleagues followed Gandhi to a park where he was speaking. One of them threw a grenade away from the crowd; the loud explosion scared the crowd. Gandhi was left alone on the speakers' platform; the original assassination plan was to throw a second grenade, after the crowds had run away, at the isolated Gandhi. But the alleged accomplice Digambar Badge lost his courage, did not throw the second grenade and ran away with the crowd. All of the assassination plotters ran away, except Madanlal Pahwa, a Punjabi refugee of the Partition of India, he was arrested. Manu Gandhi, called "Manuben" in Gujarati fashion, was Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi's great niece. Abha Chatterjee was a girl adopted by the Gandhis who would marry Gandhi's nephew, Kanu Gandhi, they were walking with Gandhi. According to Last Glimpses Of Bapu, a memoir by Manuben Gandhi, Mahatma Gandhi started the day in Birla Bhawan by listening to a recitation of the Bhagavad Gita, he worked on a Congress constitution he wanted to publish in the Harijan, had his bath and massage at 8 a.m. and reprimanded Manuben to take care of herself since her health was not what it shoul
Dalit, meaning "broken/scattered" in Sanskrit and Hindi, is a term used for the ethnic groups in India that have been kept depressed by subjecting them to untouchability. Dalits were excluded from the four-fold varna system of Hinduism and were seen as forming a fifth varna known by the name of Panchama. Dalits now profess various religious beliefs, including Hinduism, Buddhism and Christianity; as per the latest census, they comprise 16% of India's population. The term dalits was in use as a translation for the British Raj census classification of Depressed Classes prior to 1935, it was popularised by the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar, who included all depressed people irrespective of their caste into the definition of dalits. Hence the first group he made was called the "Labour Party" and included as its members all people of the society who were kept depressed, including women, small scale farmers and people from backward castes. New leaders like Kanhaiya Kumar subscribe to this definition of "dalits", thus a Brahmin marginal farmer trying to eke out a living, but unable to do so falls in the "dalit" category.
Ambedkar himself was a Mahar, in the 1970s the use of the word "dalit" was invigorated when it was adopted by the Dalit Panthers activist group. Political parties used it to gain mileage. India's National Commission for Scheduled Castes considers official use of dalit as a label to be "unconstitutional" because modern legislation prefers Scheduled Castes. A similar all-encompassing situation prevails in Nepal. Scheduled Caste communities exist across India, although they are concentrated in four states, they comprise 16.6 per cent of India's population, according to the 2011 Census of India. Similar communities are found throughout the rest of South Asia, in Nepal, Pakistan and Sri Lanka, are part of the global Indian diaspora. In 1932, the British Raj recommended separate electorates to select leaders for Dalits in the Communal Award; this was favoured by Ambedkar but when Mahatma Gandhi opposed the proposal it resulted in the Poona Pact. That in turn influenced the Government of India Act, 1935, which introduced the reservation of seats for the Depressed Classes, now renamed as Scheduled Castes.
From soon after its independence in 1947, India introduced a reservation system to enhance the ability of Dalits to have political representation and to obtain government jobs and education. In 1997, India elected K. R. Narayanan. Many social organisations have promoted better conditions for Dalits through education and employment. Nonetheless, while caste-based discrimination was prohibited and untouchability abolished by the Constitution of India, such practices are still widespread. To prevent harassment, assault and similar acts against these groups, the Government of India enacted the Prevention of Atrocities Act called the SC/ST Act, on 31 March 1995. In accordance with the order of the Bombay High Court, the Information and Broadcasting Ministry of the Government of India issued an advisory to all media channels in September 2018, asking them to use "Scheduled Castes" instead of the word "Dalit"; the word dalit is a vernacular form of the Sanskrit दलित. In Classical Sanskrit, this means "divided, broken, scattered".
This word was repurposed in 19th-century Sanskrit to mean " not belonging to one of the four Brahminic castes". It was first used in this sense by Pune-based social reformer Jyotirao Phule, in the context of the oppression faced by the erstwhile "untouchable" castes from other Hindus. Dalit is used to describe communities that have been subjected to untouchability; such people were excluded from the four-fold varna system of Hinduism and thought of themselves as forming a fifth varna, describing themselves as Panchama. The term was in use as a translation for the British Raj census classification of Depressed Classes prior to 1935, it was popularised by the economist and reformer B. R. Ambedkar, himself a Dalit, in the 1970s its use was invigorated when it was adopted by the Dalit Panthers activist group. Dalit has become a political identity, similar to how the LGBTQ community reclaimed queer from its pejorative use as a neutral or positive self-identifier and as a political identity. Socio-legal scholar Oliver Mendelsohn and political economist Marika Vicziany wrote in 1998 that the term had become "intensely political...
While use of the term might seem to express an appropriate solidarity with the contemporary face of Untouchable politics, there remain major problems in adopting it as a generic term. Although the word is now quite widespread, it still has deep roots in a tradition of political radicalism inspired by the figure of B. R. Ambedkar." They suggested its use risked erroneously labelling the entire population of untouchables in India as being united by a radical politics. Anand Teltumbde detects a trend towards denial of the politicised identity, for example among educated middle-class people who have converted to Buddhism and argue that, as Buddhists, they cannot be Dalits; this may be due to their improved circumstances giving rise to a desire not to be associated with the what they perceive to be the demeaning Dalit masses. Scheduled Castes is the official term for Dalits in the opinion of India's National Commissions for Scheduled Castes, who took legal advice that indicated modern legislation does not refer to Dalit and that therefore, it says, it
Bharatiya Jana Sangh
The Bharatiya Jana Sangh was an Indian right wing political party that existed from 1951 to 1977 and was the political arm of Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, a Hindu nationalist volunteer organisation. In 1977, it merged with several other left and right parties opposed to the Indian National Congress and formed the Janata Party. After the Janata Party split in 1980, the former Jan Sangh was recreated as the Bharatiya Janata Party, India's largest political party by primary membership and representation in the Lok Sabha. After 1949, the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh members began to contemplate the formation of a political party to continue their work and take their ideology further; the BJS was started by Syama Prasad Mookerjee on 21 October 1951 in Delhi in collaboration with the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh as a "nationalistic alternative" to the India Congress. After the death of Mookerjee, the RSS activists in the party edged out the career politicians and made it a political arm of the RSS and an integral part of the RSS family of organisations.
The symbol of the party in Indian elections was an oil lamp and like the RSS, its ideology was centred on Hindutva. In the 1952 general elections to the Parliament of India, Bharatiya Jana Sangh won three seats, Mookerjee being one of the winning candidates; the BJS would link up on issues and debates with the centre-right Swatantra Party of Chakravarti Rajagopalachari. Its strongest parliamentary performance came in the 1967 elections, when the Congress majority was its thinnest ever; the BJS was ideologically close to the Rashtriya Swayamsevak Sangh, derived most of its political activist base and candidates from the RSS ranks. The BJS attracted many economically conservative members of the Indian National Congress who were disenchanted with the more socialist policies and politics of Jawaharlal Nehru and the Congress Party; the BJS's strongest constituencies were in Rajasthan, Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh and Uttar Pradesh. The BJS leadership supported a stringent policy against Pakistan and China, were averse to the USSR and communism.
Many BJS leaders inaugurated the drive to ban cow slaughter nationwide in the early 1960s. In 1975, Indira Gandhi declared a state of Emergency, threw many major opposition politicians in jail including the leaders of the BJS. In 1977, the Emergency was withdrawn, elections were held; the BJS, joined forces with the Bharatiya Lok Dal, the Congress, the Socialist Party, to form the Janata Party. The Janata Party became the first Indian government not led by the Indian National Congress. Former BJS leaders Atal Bihari Vajpayee and L. K. Advani became the External Affairs, Information and Broadcasting Ministers respectively. Syama Prasad Mookerjee Mauli Chandra Sharma Prem Nath Dogra Debaprasad Ghosh Pitambar Das Avasarala Rama Rao Debaprasad Ghosh Raghu Vira Debaprasad Ghosh Bachhraj Vyas Balraj Madhok Deen Dayal Upadhyaya Atal Bihari Vajpayee Lal Krishna Advani The Bharatiya Jana Sangh was created in 1951, the first general election it contested was in 1951-52, in which it won only three Lok Sabha seats, in line with the four seats won by Hindu Mahasabha and three seats won by Ram Rajya Parishad.
Shyama Prasad Mookerjee and Durga Charan Banerjee were elected from Bengal and Uma Shankar Trivedi from Rajasthan. All the like-minded parties formed a block in the Parliament, led by Shyama Prasad Mookerjee; the party improved its electoral performance until, as a constituent of the Janata Party in 1977, it won 94 seats. After the Janata Party's poor showing in the 1980 elections, most of the members left to form the Bharatiya Janata Party in 1980, though it did not disbanded. In 2014 elections, the BJP emerged as the largest single party in the lower house of the Indian Parliament, forming a government under the leadership of Narendra Modi. On 17 January 2000, there were reports of the RSS and some BJP hard-liners threatening to restart the party. Former president of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh, Balraj Madhok had written a letter to the RSS chief Rajendra Singh for support; this was because of their discontent over Atal Bihari Vajpayee rule as the Prime minister of India, since they felt he and the rest of the party had softened their ideology and its demands of a Uniform Civil Code, abolition of Article 370 and the Ram temple at Ayodhya.
Sources Baxter, Craig. The Jana Sangh - A Biography of an Indian Political Party. Oxford University Press, Bombay. ISBN 0812275837. Graham, B. D.. Hindu Nationalism and Indian Politics: The Origins and Development of the Bharatiya Jana Sangh. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-38348X. Jaffrelot, Christophe; the Hindu Nationalist Indian Politics. C. Hurst & Co. Publishers. ISBN 978-1850653011
Nashik is an ancient holy city in the northwest region of Maharashtra in India. Situated on the banks of Godavari River, Nashik is best known for being one of Hindu pilgrimage sites, that of Kumbh Mela, held every 12 years, it is the fourth largest city of maharashtra after Mumbai and Nagpur. The city located about 190 km north of state capital Mumbai, is called the "Wine Capital of India" as half of India’s vineyards and wineries are located in Nashik; as per Ramayana, Nashik is the location on the banks of Godavari river where Laxman, by the wish of Lord Rama, cut the nose of Shurpanakha and thus this city was named as "Nashik". Nashik lies in the northern part of Maharashtra state at 584 m from the mean sea level which gives it ideal temperature variation in winters; the river Godavari originates from the Brahmagiri Mountain, Trimbakeshwar about 24 km from Nashik and flows through the old residential settlement, now in the central part of the city. Due to high pollution created by factories in proximity of the city the river was dying at an alarming rate.
It has since been cleaned. Other than Godavari, important rivers like Vaitarana, Girana flow across Nashik. Nashik lies on the western edge of the Deccan Plateau, a volcanic formation. Trimbakeshwar is about 30 km from the city, it is; the land area of the city is about 259.13 km2. Anjaneri near Nashik is the birthplace of lord Hanuman; the city's tropical location and high altitude combine to give it a mild version of a tropical wet and dry climate. Temperatures rise in October, but this is followed by the cool season from November to February; the cool season sees warm temperatures of around 28 °C during the day, but cool nights, with lows averaging 10 °C, dry air. Nashik city is governed by the Nashik Municipal Corporation; the Nashik Court Building is built in black stone in British Regime and the new building was inaugurated on 18 September 2005. There are 73 courts including taluka court. In the Nashik Municipal Corporation area about 225 MT of solid waste is generated per day. Unlike other Indian cities, this garbage is collected by vehicles titled'Ghantagadi': a system which has resulted in a Smaller versions of the ghantagadi ply in the congested old city areas.
A plant has been set by the Nashik Municipal Corporation near Pandav Leni to process the garbage and convert into compost. Nashik is the fifth largest city in Maharashtra in terms of population after Mumbai, Pune and Thane. According to the Census of India, 2011, Nashik had a population of 1,486,053. Males constitute 782,517 of the population and females 703,536. Metropolitan Nashik population was 1,561,809 in which 821,921 were males and 739,888 were females. Nashik city had an average literacy rate of 89.85%: male literacy was 93.40%, female literacy was 85.92%. The sex ratio is 894 per 1000 males for Nashik city. Child sex ratio is 865 girls per 1000 boys. In Nashik, 11.42% of the population is under 6 years of age. In census year 2001 the Nashik Urban Agglomeration had a population of 11,52,326, thus it was the fourth largest urban area of Maharashtra State after Mumbai and Nagpur. The projected population of Nashik urban agglomeration as on 11 November 2012 is 15,62,769. In February 2016, The Statue of Ahimsa, a 108 ft idol of first Jain tirthankara Rishabhdev carved in monolithic stone was consecrated at Mangi Tungi.
It is recorded in the Guinness Book of World Records as the tallest Jain idol in the world. The Pandavleni Caves, or Nasik caves, are a group of 24 caves carved between the 1st century BCE and the 2nd century CE, representing the Hinayana Buddhist caves and. Most of the caves are Viharas except for the 18th cave, a Chaitya; the location of the caves is located about 8 km south of Nashik. Gangapur Dam is on the river Godavari near Gangawadi village and it is earthen dam, Nashik. Chankapur dam, on the Girna river is one of the big dams built by the British in the 19th century, it is 3 km from 60 km from Nashik. Kashypi Dam is on the Kashypi river near Nashik. Girna Dam is an earthfill type of dam on river Girna near Nashik District. Darna Dam is a gravity dam on Darna river near Nashik district; the culture of the city of Nashik, in northwestern Maharashtra, is centred around Hindu customs and festivals, the Jain Statue of Ahimsa. The Kumbh Mela is celebrated every six years at Haridwar and Allahabad and Maha Kumbh takes place every twelve years at four places in Allahabad, Haridwar and Nashik.
According to the Puranas, it is believed that Kumbh derives its name from an immortal pot of nectar, which the devtas and demons fought over. The four places where the nectar fell are at the banks of river Godavari in Nashik, river Kshipra in Ujjain, river Ganges in Haridwar and at Triveni Sangam of Ganga and invisible Saraswati River in Allahabad. In early 1925, the table grape revolution was started in Ojhar, a small town near Nashik, by Raosaheb Jairam Krishna Gaikwad. Today, table grapes are exported to Europe, the Middle East, Asia; the average Kharip crop area is 663,200 hectares while the average Rabbi crop area is 136500 hectares. The sown area is 658,763 hectares and the forest land is 340,000 hectares; the uncultivable area is 23,000 hectares. The Nashik Municipal Corporation has made it mandatory for new constructions in the city to install a rainwater harvesting system without which a completion certificate is not granted; this measure is expected to help recharge the