National Scout Movement of Armenia
The National Scout Movement of Armenia. The coeducational Hayastani Azgayin Scautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun has 2,303 members as of 2011. Scouting in Armenia was founded in 1912 later developed abroad among the refugees who had survived the genocide of 1915-1916 and among those that had fled the new communist occupation of their lands, at which point Scouting ceased to exist in Armenia. Haï Ari was a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement from 1928 to 1997; the organization was recognized in exile, with headquarters and 1,100 members in France. In 1978, Dr. Kourkène Medzadourian was awarded the Bronze Wolf, the only distinction of the World Organization of the Scout Movement, awarded by the World Scout Committee for exceptional services to world Scouting. 1994 saw the formation of the Armenian National Scout Movement Hayastani Azgayin Scautakan Sharjum Kazmakerputiun. As of 2004, HASK had over 2,368 members, both female. In order to permit entry into the World Organization for Scouting in Armenia, the French-based Armenian Scouts withdrew membership in the World Organization, which passed to HASK on April 18, 1997.
On that date, the number of national member organizations of the World Organization rose to 144. The new Armenian National Scout Movement was represented at the 18th World Scout Jamboree in the Netherlands; the Scout Motto is Always Ready in Armenian. The Armenian noun for a single Scout is Սկաուտ, transliterated Scaut; the Scout emblem incorporates the national colors as well as Mount Ararat an element of the coat of arms of Armenia. National Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts of Armenia Albert A. Boyajian official website of HASK
Romania is a country located at the crossroads of Central and Southeastern Europe. It borders the Black Sea to the southeast, Bulgaria to the south, Ukraine to the north, Hungary to the west, Serbia to the southwest, Moldova to the east, it has a predominantly temperate-continental climate. With a total area of 238,397 square kilometres, Romania is the 12th largest country and the 7th most populous member state of the European Union, having 20 million inhabitants, its capital and largest city is Bucharest, other major urban areas include Cluj-Napoca, Timișoara, Iași, Constanța, Brașov. The River Danube, Europe's second-longest river, rises in Germany's Black Forest and flows in a general southeast direction for 2,857 km, coursing through ten countries before emptying into Romania's Danube Delta; the Carpathian Mountains, which cross Romania from the north to the southwest, include Moldoveanu Peak, at an altitude of 2,544 m. Modern Romania was formed in 1859 through a personal union of the Danubian Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia.
The new state named Romania since 1866, gained independence from the Ottoman Empire in 1877. Following World War I, when Romania fought on the side of the Allied powers, Bessarabia, Transylvania as well as parts of Banat, Crișana, Maramureș became part of the sovereign Kingdom of Romania. In June–August 1940, as a consequence of the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact and Second Vienna Award, Romania was compelled to cede Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina to the Soviet Union, Northern Transylvania to Hungary. In November 1940, Romania signed the Tripartite Pact and in June 1941 entered World War II on the Axis side, fighting against the Soviet Union until August 1944, when it joined the Allies and recovered Northern Transylvania. Following the war, under the occupation of the Red Army's forces, Romania became a socialist republic and member of the Warsaw Pact. After the 1989 Revolution, Romania began a transition back towards a market economy; the sovereign state of Romania is a developing country and ranks 52nd in the Human Development Index.
It has the world's 47th largest economy by nominal GDP and an annual economic growth rate of 7%, the highest in the EU at the time. Following rapid economic growth in the early 2000s, Romania has an economy predominantly based on services, is a producer and net exporter of machines and electric energy, featuring companies like Automobile Dacia and OMV Petrom, it has been a member of the United Nations since 1955, part of NATO since 2004, part of the European Union since 2007. An overwhelming majority of the population identifies themselves as Eastern Orthodox Christians and are native speakers of Romanian, a Romance language. Romania derives from the Latin romanus, meaning "citizen of Rome"; the first known use of the appellation was attested to in the 16th century by Italian humanists travelling in Transylvania and Wallachia. The oldest known surviving document written in Romanian, a 1521 letter known as the "Letter of Neacșu from Câmpulung", is notable for including the first documented occurrence of the country's name: Wallachia is mentioned as Țeara Rumânească.
Two spelling forms: român and rumân were used interchangeably until sociolinguistic developments in the late 17th century led to semantic differentiation of the two forms: rumân came to mean "bondsman", while român retained the original ethnolinguistic meaning. After the abolition of serfdom in 1746, the word rumân fell out of use and the spelling stabilised to the form român. Tudor Vladimirescu, a revolutionary leader of the early 19th century, used the term Rumânia to refer to the principality of Wallachia."The use of the name Romania to refer to the common homeland of all Romanians—its modern-day meaning—was first documented in the early 19th century. The name has been in use since 11 December 1861. In English, the name of the country was spelt Rumania or Roumania. Romania became the predominant spelling around 1975. Romania is the official English-language spelling used by the Romanian government. A handful of other languages have switched to "o" like English, but most languages continue to prefer forms with u, e.g. French Roumanie and Swedish Rumänien, Spanish Rumania, Polish Rumunia, Russian Румыния, Japanese ルーマニア.
1859–1862: United Principalities of Moldavia and Wallachia 1862–1866: Romanian United Principalities or Romania 1866–1881: Romania or Principality of Romania 1881–1947: Kingdom of Romania or Romania 1947–1965: Romanian People's Republic or Romania 1965–December, 1989: Socialist Republic of Romania or Romania December, 1989–present: Romania Human remains found in Peștera cu Oase, radiocarbon dated as being from circa 40,000 years ago, represent the oldest known Homo sapiens in Europe. Neolithic techniques and agriculture spread after the arrival of a mixed group of people from Thessaly in the 6th millenium BC. Excavations near a salt spring at Lunca yielded the earliest evidence for salt exploitation in Europe; the first permanent settlements appeared in the Neolithic. Some of them developed into "proto-cities"; the Cucuteni–Trypillia culture—the best known archaeological culture of Old Europe—flourished in Muntenia, southeastern Transylvania and northeastern Moldavia in the 3rd m
The Scout Motto of the Scout movement, in various languages, has been used by millions of Scouts around the world since 1907. Most of the member organizations of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts share this same motto. In English, this motto is most Be Prepared. In the third part of Scouting for Boys Robert Baden-Powell explains the meaning of the phrase: The Scout Motto is: BE PREPARED which means you are always in a state of readiness in mind and body to do your DUTY. Be Prepared in Mind by having disciplined yourself to be obedient to every order, by having thought out beforehand any accident or situation that might occur, so that you know the right thing to do at the right moment, are willing to do it. Be Prepared in Body by making yourself strong and active and able to do the right thing at the right moment, do it. "To do the right thing at the right moment" can be extreme: "Where a man has gone so far as to attempt suicide, a Scout should know what to do with him." "BE PREPARED to die for your country if need be, so that when the moment arrives you may charge home with confidence, not caring whether you are going to be killed or not"The first handbook for Girl Guides, How Girls Can Help to Build Up the Empire by Agnes and Robert Baden-Powell explains: The motto of the Girl Guides is "Be Prepared".
Why is this? It is because, like the other Guides, you have to be prepared at any moment to face difficulties and dangers by knowing what to do and how to do it. Hilary Saint George Saunders' book The Left Handshake: The Boy Scout Movement during the War, 1939–1945 had the first name of each chapter spell out the Scout motto; the chosen names are: Bravery, Purpose, Endurance, Assurance, Reformation and Devotion. Note-many languages have masculine and feminine forms of words – where gender changes the Scout Motto, differences are reflected here; the motto of the Young Pioneers, Always Prepared in various national languages, the Pioneers having been created as an alternative in countries where Scouting was banned The motto of the United States Coast Guard, Semper Paratus or ready
Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan
The coeducational Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan was founded in 1992, received World Organization of the Scout Movement recognition on January 16, 2008. In 2011, it had 1,223 members; as far as is known, Scouting was not introduced to the region during the khanate period of the pre-Soviet era. In 1990 a conference of people interested in Scouting was held in Moscow. Viktor Deimund represented Kazakhstan at the Congress; the Congress established the Association of Russian Scouting Renaissance. The homegrown Scout troops within Kazakhstan joined the membership of the Ural Scout Region. Viktor Deimund and Oleg Mozheyko organized the first Scout Troops in Kazakhstan in 1991. Republic-wide newspapers published the first articles on the work of Pavlodar Scout troops. Shortly thereafter, hundreds of letters came to Pavlodar from people asking for help to create Scout units. Pavlodar Scout leaders published and sent out Scouting literature, Scout troops were created in different cities and parts of Kazakhstan.
On December 28, 1992, the Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan was registered in the Ministry of Justice, in 1993 Scout leader training courses were made available. An All-Republic Camp "Jasybay's Arrow" was held in the summer at Jasybay, a national camp near Bayanaul National Park, Pavlodar Province, named for a Kazakh mythic hero. 1994 saw both the publication of handbook "Scouting for Everybody" and the participation of Kazakhstan Scouts in a World Scout Committee Informative Council on Scouting in Crimea. During the Council, President Deimund discussed the development of Scouting in Kazakhstan with Doctor Jacques Moreillon, the Secretary General of WOSM. Leaders of Kazakh Scouts took part in the international seminar "Scouting: Youth without Borders" in Morocco. In 1995, Kazakhstan's Scouts were represented at the 18th World Scout Jamboree in the Netherlands by a small group. Since 1994 the Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan has received financial and organizational support from the German Scout Association Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder, with which they share an exchange program.
20 Guides and Scouts from the BdP travelled to Kazakhstan for the National Camp in 2002. Every year Guides and Scouts from the OSMK and BdP meet each other in camps or training courses either in Germany or Kazakhstan and learning from each other. In 2006 8 Guides and Scouts from the BdP travelled to Kazakhstan for the National Camp. In 1999, Kazakhstan held the First International Scout Camp "Kakharman-99", in 2003 held WINGS2003, a subcamp for 10 to 14-year-olds. On October 5, 2004, the Internet Access and Training Program brought together 20 Scouts from Kazakhstan and Uzbekistan for a two-hour online discussion of their activities from the IATP access sites in five cities in Kazakhstan and three in Uzbekistan, aimed to bring together representatives of the Scouting movements from these countries to promote friendship and cooperation. Scouts from Kazakhstan named as their main challenge a lack of funds, the difficulty of building a successful fundraising operation. With the 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, it was suggested that the Türkiye İzcilik Federasyonu assist in the creation of Scouting movements in the Turkic Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, but it is uncertain if this plan materialized.
In October 2007, the World Scout Bureau received an application for membership in WOSM from the OSMK. In accordance with the requirements of the WOSM Constitution, the World Scout Committee considered this application at its meeting from September 28 to 30, 2007, recommended that it be accepted; the OSMK was declared a WOSM member on January 16, 2008. In becoming a member of WOSM, OSMK will become a member of the Eurasia Scout Region, if it so desires. If Kazakhstan had chosen not to become a member of the Eurasia Region, they would have been eligible to join the European Region, as Germany was responsible for the support of OSMK; the WOSM constitution contains no obligation for National Scout Organizations to join the regions, but it is expected. Kazakhstan Scouts are expected to hold spiritual values and national loyalty, but the organization does not discriminate by faith or ethnic origin. Scouts are expected to live up to the Scout Oath and Law and to serve their communities, which they accomplish through such activities as working with handicapped children and cleaning natural areas.
The program's goal is to strengthen character and promote healthy minds and spirits in participants. The OSMK presently has no property except a headquarters. OSMK favors youth membership and youth involvement through an active strategy to recruit youth members; the adult policy aims at supporting recruitment of volunteers. OSMK is open to girls and boys and men, in four age sections: Junior Scouts-ages 7 to 10 Scouts-ages 11 to 14 Senior Scouts-ages 15 to 17 Scout leaders are over 18The Scout Motto is Dayyin Bol, translating as Be Prepared in Kazakh, Bud' Gotov, translating in Russian; the noun for a single Scout is Скаут in both languages. Kazakh Scouts wear a dark green uniform; the membership badge of the Organization of the Scout Movement of Kazakhstan incorporates elements of the flag of Kazakhstan set inside the Rub El Hizb. The National Council, composed of eleven members, includes four men. OSMK has three employed professional staff; the Council Chairman is Victor Georgievich Deimund, the International
Scouting and Guiding in Belarus
The Scout movement in Belarus consists of an unknown number of independent organizations. There are at least five nationwide associations as well as some regional associations. In addition, there were at one time Scouts-in-Exile in metropolitan areas of the United States, there are presently international Scout units in Belarus; the initial development of Scouting in Belarus took place within the Russian Scout movement, headed by general Oleg Pantyukhov. Belarus was a part of the Russian Empire at that time; the first Scout organisations were not independent. Instead they were a part of the Russian Scout movement, they first gathered in Gomel. In 1912 several Boy- and Girl-Scout organisations existed in Gomel, they were Russian and Jewish. In 1915 there were 170 little wolves. Russian Scout organisations that were a part of Organization of Russian Young Pathfinders existed in other towns of Belarus. In 1922 after the end of Russian Civil War Scouting had been banned by the Soviet Union, Scout activities ended.
In April 1926 many leaders and members were arrested and imprisoned by Joint State Political Directorate. Most of them were sent to Solovki prison camp; some of the Scouts and Scout-leaders fled abroad. They continued their activity in National Organization of Russian Scouts. Russian exiles in France in a more Catholic manner; some of them where officers from Belarusian families, who immigrated to France after World War I. West Belarus became a part of the Second Polish Republic according to the Peace of Riga after Polish–Soviet War. Along with the new Polish authorities Polish Scouting and Guiding Association spread in Belarus. A Scout organization was founded in Kletsk, Scouts appeared in Nyasvizh and other nearby villages. In 1929, American Methodists helped, it lasted until 1929. In the period following World War II, ethnic Belarusians gathered in Scout troops in exile and in Scout troops in displaced persons camps throughout Europe, as did Russian Scouts and Balts. Belarusian Scouts formed the organization Belarusian Scout Association Abroad, which existed from 1945 to 1951 in Germany.
Unlike the other organizations, the BSAA did not survive to witness the dissolution of the Soviet Union. Whereas Russia and Ukraine in particular had ready-made Scouting available once allowed in 1990-1991, Belarus had to start from scratch. Emergence of democratic principles in the mid-1980s made possible the creation of alternatives to the communist pioneer organizations. Close connections were formed with Guide and Scout organizations of many European countries, when children from areas affected by the Chernobyl accident were invited to summer camps abroad during the Chernobyl Children's Project in 1990. Close links were developed with Cyprus, between Minsk and the Guides of Lincolnshire. In 1992, Cyprus was appointed Link country to support the development of Guiding in Belarus, in June 1993 the first conference of the Association of Belarusian Guides was held in Minsk. Belarusian Republican Scout Association, member of WOSM The Association of Belarusian Guides, member of the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts since 1996 Belarusian Scout Association, founded in 1991, liquidated in 2005 by the Supreme Court of Belarus YMCA Scouting in BelarusNote: There may have been a link between one of the non-NSAB Belarusian Scout organizations and the Union Internationale des Guides et Scouts d'Europe, a Christian-based Scout alternative, but it is uncertain to whom they were linked.
Several countries have multiple organizations, divided on the basis of religion, ethnic identification, or language. Belarus instead has regional Scouting organizations. Regional Scouting divisions of Belarus include the GomelScouts in Gomel; because usage of the Belarusian language and the Russian language are contentious issues in the country, the emblem itself is captioned in English. In addition, there are American Boy Scouts in Minsk, serving in Boy Scout Troop 1101, linked to the Direct Service branch of the Boy Scouts of America, which supports units around the world. Belarusian Republican Youth Union Scouting in displaced persons camps Translate be-x-old:Гісторыя скаўтынгу на Беларусі to English World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts, World Bureau, Trefoil Round the World. Eleventh Edition 1997. ISBN 0-900827-75-0
In political and social sciences, communism is the philosophical, social and economic ideology and movement whose ultimate goal is the establishment of the communist society, a socioeconomic order structured upon the common ownership of the means of production and the absence of social classes and the state. Communism includes a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism and anarchism, as well as the political ideologies grouped around both. All of these share the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism; the two classes are the working class—who must work to survive and who make up the majority within society—and the capitalist class—a minority who derives profit from employing the working class through private ownership of the means of production. The revolution will put the working class in power and in turn establish social ownership of the means of production, which according to this analysis is the primary element in the transformation of society towards communism.
Critics of communism can be divided into those concerning themselves with the practical aspects of 20th century communist states and those concerning themselves with communist principles and theory. Marxism-Leninism and democratic socialism were the two dominant forms of socialism in the 20th century; the term "communism" was first coined and defined in its modern definition by the French philosopher and writer Victor d'Hupay. In his 1777 book Projet de communauté philosophe, d'Hupay pushes the philosophy of the Enlightenment to principles which he lived up to during most of his life in his bastide of Fuveau; this book can be seen as the cornerstone of communist philosophy as d'Hupay defines this lifestyle as a "commune" and advises to "share all economic and material products between inhabitants of the commune, so that all may benefit from everybody's work". According to Richard Pipes, the idea of a classless, egalitarian society first emerged in Ancient Greece; the 5th-century Mazdak movement in Persia has been described as "communistic" for challenging the enormous privileges of the noble classes and the clergy, for criticizing the institution of private property and for striving to create an egalitarian society.
At one time or another, various small communist communities existed under the inspiration of Scripture. For example, in the medieval Christian Church some monastic communities and religious orders shared their land and their other property. Communist thought has been traced back to the works of the 16th-century English writer Thomas More. In his treatise Utopia, More portrayed a society based on common ownership of property, whose rulers administered it through the application of reason. In the 17th century, communist thought surfaced again in England, where a Puritan religious group known as the "Diggers" advocated the abolition of private ownership of land. In his 1895 Cromwell and Communism, Eduard Bernstein argued that several groups during the English Civil War espoused clear communistic, agrarian ideals and that Oliver Cromwell's attitude towards these groups was at best ambivalent and hostile. Criticism of the idea of private property continued into the Age of Enlightenment of the 18th century through such thinkers as Jean Jacques Rousseau in France.
Following the upheaval of the French Revolution communism emerged as a political doctrine. In the early 19th century, various social reformers founded communities based on common ownership. However, unlike many previous communist communities they replaced the religious emphasis with a rational and philanthropic basis. Notable among them were Robert Owen, who founded New Harmony in Indiana, as well as Charles Fourier, whose followers organized other settlements in the United States such as Brook Farm. In its modern form, communism grew out of the socialist movement in 19th-century Europe; as the Industrial Revolution advanced, socialist critics blamed capitalism for the misery of the proletariat—a new class of urban factory workers who labored under often-hazardous conditions. Foremost among these critics were his associate Friedrich Engels. In 1848, Marx and Engels offered a new definition of communism and popularized the term in their famous pamphlet The Communist Manifesto; the 1917 October Revolution in Russia set the conditions for the rise to state power of Vladimir Lenin's Bolsheviks, the first time any avowedly communist party reached that position.
The revolution transferred power to the All-Russian Congress of Soviets, in which the Bolsheviks had a majority. The event generated a great deal of theoretical debate within the Marxist movement. Marx predicted that socialism and communism would be built upon foundations laid by the most advanced capitalist development. However, Russia was one of the poorest countries in Europe with an enormous illiterate peasantry and a minority of industrial workers. Marx had explicitly stated; the moderate Mensheviks opposed Lenin's Bolshevik plan for socialist revolution before capitalism was more developed. The Bolsheviks' successful rise to power was based upon the slogans such as "Peace and land" which tapp
The Transnistria War was an armed conflict that broke out in November 1990 in Dubăsari between pro-Transnistria forces, including the Transnistrian Republican Guard and Cossack units, pro-Moldovan forces, including Moldovan troops and police. Fighting intensified on 1 March 1992 and, alternating with ad hoc ceasefires, lasted throughout the spring and early summer of 1992 until a ceasefire was declared on 21 July 1992, which has held; the conflict remained unresolved, but in 2011 talks were held under the auspices of the Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe with Lithuania holding the rotating chairmanship. Before the Soviet occupation of Bessarabia and Northern Bukovina and the creation of the Moldavian SSR in 1940, the Bessarabian part of Moldova, i.e. the part situated to the west of the river Dniester, was part of Romania. The Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact between the Soviet Union and the Nazi Germany, that led to the events of 1940, was denounced by present-day Moldova, which declared it "null and void" in its Declaration of Independence in 1991.
However, after the breakup of the Soviet Union, the territorial changes resulting from it have remained in place. Before the creation of the Moldavian SSR, today's Transnistria was part of the Ukrainian SSR, as an autonomous republic called the Moldovan Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, with Tiraspol as its capital, it represents more than one tenth of Moldova's territory. During the last years of the 1980s, the political landscape of the Soviet Union was changing due to Mikhail Gorbachev's policies of perestroika and glasnost, which allowed political pluralism at the regional level. In the Moldavian SSR, as in many other parts of the Soviet Union, national movements became the leading political force; as these movements exhibited nationalist sentiments and expressed intent to leave the USSR in favor of uniting with Romania, they encountered growing opposition from among the Russian-speaking ethnic minorities living in the republic. This opposition to the new trends and potential future policies was manifested in a more visible way in Transnistria, unlike the rest of the MSSR, ethnic Moldovans were outnumbered by the combined figure of Russians and Ukrainians as per the 1989 Census in Transnistria due to higher immigration during the Soviet Era.
While some believe that the combination of a distinct history and a fear of discrimination by Moldovans, gave rise to separatist sentiments, others believe that ethnic tensions alone fail to account for the dynamics of the conflict. According to John Mackinlay and Peter Cross, who conducted a study based on casualty reports, significant numbers of both Transnistrians and Moldovans fought together on both sides of the conflict, they suggest. On 31 August 1989, the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR enacted two laws. One of them made Moldovan the official language, in lieu of Russian, the de facto official language of the Soviet Union, it mentioned a linguistic Moldo-Romanian identity. The second law stipulated the return to the Latin Romanian alphabet. Moldovan language is the term used in the former Soviet Union for a identical dialect of the Romanian language during 1940–1989. On 27 April 1990, the Supreme Soviet of the Moldavian SSR adopted the traditional tricolour flag with the Moldavian coat of arms and changed the national anthem to Deșteaptă-te, române!, the national anthem of Romania since 1989.
That year the words Soviet and Socialist were dropped and the name of the country was changed to "Republic of Moldova". These events, as well as the end of the Ceaușescu regime in neighboring Romania in December 1989 and the partial opening of the border between Romania and Moldova on 6 May 1990, led many in Transnistria and Moldova to believe that a union between Moldova and Romania was inevitable; this possibility caused fears among the Russian-speaking population that it would be excluded from most aspects of public life. From September 1989, there were strong scenes of protests in the region against the central government's ethnic policies; the protests developed into the formation of secessionist movements in Gagauzia and Transnistria, which sought autonomy within the Moldavian SSR, in order to retain Russian and Gagauz as official languages. As the nationalist-dominated Moldovan Supreme Soviet outlawed these initiatives, the Gagauz Republic and Transnistria declared independence from Moldova and announced their application to be reattached to the Soviet Union as independent federal republics.
The language laws presented a volatile issue as a great proportion of the non-Moldovan population of the Moldavian SSR did not speak Moldovan. The problem of the official language in the MSSR had become a Gordian knot, being exaggerated and intentionally politicized; some criticized their rapid implementation. Others, on the contrary, complained. On 2 September 1990, the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic was proclaimed. On 22 December 1990 president Gorbachev signed a decree that declared void the decisions of the Second Congress of People Deputies of Transnistria from 2 September. For two months, Moldovan authorities refrained from taking action against this proclamation. Transnistria became one of the "unrecognized republics" that appeared throughout the USSR, alongside Abkhazia, South Ossetia and Nagorno-Karabakh; these self-proclaimed states maintained