Mitsubishi A6M Zero
The Mitsubishi A6M "Zero" is a long-range fighter aircraft manufactured by Mitsubishi Aircraft Company, a part of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries, operated by the Imperial Japanese Navy from 1940 to 1945. The A6M was designated as the Mitsubishi A6M Rei-sen; the A6M was referred to by its pilots as the Reisen, "0" being the last digit of the imperial year 2600 when it entered service with the Imperial Navy. The official Allied reporting name was "Zeke", although the use of the name "Zero" was used colloquially by the Allies as well; the Zero is considered to have been the most capable carrier-based fighter in the world when it was introduced early in World War II, combining excellent maneuverability and long range. The Imperial Japanese Navy Air Service frequently used it as a land-based fighter. In early combat operations, the Zero gained a legendary reputation as a dogfighter, achieving an outstanding kill ratio of 12 to 1, but by mid-1942 a combination of new tactics and the introduction of better equipment enabled Allied pilots to engage the Zero on equal terms.
By 1943, due to inherent design weaknesses, such as a lack of hydraulic flaps and rudder rendering it unmaneuverable at high speeds, an inability to equip it with a more powerful aircraft engine, the Zero became less effective against newer Allied fighters. By 1944, with opposing Allied fighters approaching its levels of maneuverability and exceeding its firepower and speed, the A6M had become outdated as a fighter aircraft. However, as design delays and production difficulties hampered the introduction of newer Japanese aircraft models, the Zero continued to serve in a front line role until the end of the war in the Pacific. During the final phases, it was adapted for use in kamikaze operations. Japan produced more Zeros than any other model of combat aircraft during the war; the Mitsubishi A5M fighter was just entering service in early 1937, when the Imperial Japanese Navy started looking for its eventual replacement. On October 5, 1937, they issued "Planning Requirements for the Prototype 12-shi Carrier-based Fighter", sending it to Nakajima and Mitsubishi.
Both firms started preliminary design work while they awaited more definitive requirements to be handed over in a few months. Based on the experiences of the A5M in China, the IJN sent out updated requirements in October calling for a speed of 270 kn at 4,000 m and a climb to 3,000 m in 9.5 minutes. With drop tanks, they wanted an endurance of two hours at normal power, or six to eight hours at economical cruising speed. Armament was to consist of two 7.7 mm machine guns and two 60 kg bombs. A complete radio set was to be mounted in all aircraft, along with a radio direction finder for long-range navigation; the maneuverability was to be at least equal to that of the A5M, while the wingspan had to be less than 12 m to allow for use on aircraft carriers. All this was to be achieved with a significant design limitation. Nakajima's team considered the new requirements unachievable and pulled out of the competition in January. Mitsubishi's chief designer, Jiro Horikoshi, thought that the requirements could be met, but only if the aircraft were made as light as possible.
Every possible weight-saving measure was incorporated into the design. Most of the aircraft was built of a new top-secret aluminium alloy developed by Sumitomo Metal Industries in 1936. Called "extra super duralumin", it was lighter and more ductile than other alloys used at the time, but was prone to corrosive attack, which made it brittle; this detrimental effect was countered with an anti-corrosion coating applied after fabrication. No armour protection was provided for the pilot, engine or other critical points of the aircraft, self-sealing fuel tanks, which were becoming common at the time, were not used; this made the Zero lighter, more maneuverable, the longest-ranged single-engine fighter of World War II, which made it capable of searching out an enemy hundreds of kilometres away, bringing them to battle returning to its base or aircraft carrier. However, that tradeoff in weight and construction made it prone to catching fire and exploding when struck by enemy rounds. With its low-wing cantilever monoplane layout, wide-set conventional landing gear and enclosed cockpit, the Zero was one of the most modern carrier based aircraft in the world at the time of its introduction.
It had a high-lift, low-speed wing with low wing loading. This, combined with its light weight, resulted in a low stalling speed of well below 60 kn; this was the main reason for its phenomenal maneuverability, allowing it to out-turn any Allied fighter of the time. Early models were fitted with servo tabs on the ailerons after pilots complained that control forces became too heavy at speeds above 300 kilometres per hour, they were discontinued on models after it was found that the lightened control forces were causing pilots to overstress the wings during vigorous maneuvers. It has been claimed that the Zero's design showed a clear influence from British and American fighter aircraft and components exported to Japan in the 1930s, in particular on the American side, the Vought V-143 fighter. Chance Vought had sold the prototype for this aircraft and its plans to Japan in 1937. Eugene Wilson, president of Vought, claimed that when shown a captured Zero in 1943, he found that "There on the floor was the Vought V 142 or just the spitting image of it, Japanese-made", while the "po
The Nakajima A6M2-N was a single-crew floatplane based on the Mitsubishi A6M Zero Model 11. The Allied reporting name for the aircraft was Rufe; the A6M2-N floatplane was developed from the Mitsubishi A6M Type 0 to support amphibious operations and defend remote bases. It was based with a modified tail and added floats. A total of 327 were built, including the original prototype; the aircraft was deployed in 1942, referred to as the "Suisen 2", was only utilized in defensive actions in the Aleutians and Solomon Islands operations. Such seaplanes were effective in harassing American PT boats at night, they could drop flares to illuminate the PTs which were vulnerable to destroyer gunfire, depended on cover of darkness. The seaplane served as an interceptor for protecting fueling depots in Balikpapan and Avon Bases and reinforced the Shumushu base in the same period; such fighters served aboard seaplane carriers Kamikawa Maru in the Solomons and Kuriles areas and aboard Japanese raiders Hokoku Maru and Aikoku Maru in Indian Ocean raids.
In the Aleutian Campaign this fighter engaged with RCAF Curtiss P-40 Warhawk, Lockheed P-38 Lightning fighters and Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress bombers. The aircraft was used for interceptor, fighter-bomber, short reconnaissance support for amphibious landings, among other uses. In the conflict the Otsu Air Group utilized the A6M2-N as an interceptor alongside Kawanishi N1K1 Kyofu aircraft based in Biwa lake in the Honshū area; the last A6M2-N in military service was a single example recovered by the French forces in Indochina after the end of World War II. It crashed shortly after being overhauled. JapanImperial Japanese Navy Air Service Yokohama Air Group Toko Air Group Otsu Air Group Yokosuka Air Group 11th Air Fleet 5th Air Fleet 36th Air Fleet 452nd Air Fleet 934th Air Fleet FranceFrench Navy - Postwar, one Nakajima A6M-2N was captured in Indo-China, it was impressed into service with the French Navy in late 1945. Data from Japanese Aircraft of the Pacific War General characteristics Crew: 1 Length: 10.10 m Wingspan: 12.00 m Height: 4.30 m Wing area: 22.44 m² Empty weight: 1,912 kg Loaded weight: 2,460 kg Max.
Takeoff weight: 2,880 kg Powerplant: 1 × Nakajima NK1C Sakae 12 air cooled 14 cylinder radial engine, 950 hp at 4,200 m Performance Maximum speed: 436 km/h at 5,000 m Cruise speed: 296 km/h Range: 1,782 km Service ceiling: 10,000 m Climb rate: 6 min 43 s to 5,000 m Armament Guns: 2 × 7.7 mm Type 97 machine guns in forward fuselage 2 × 20 mm Type 99 cannons -fixed in outer wings Bombs: 2 × 60 kg bombs Related development Mitsubishi A6M ZeroAircraft of comparable role and era Bernard H 110 Dewoitine HD.780 Grumman F4F-3S Wildcatfish Kawanishi N1K1 Kyōfū Loire 210 Supermarine Spitfire floatplanes Related lists List of aircraft of Japan during World War II List of aircraft of World War II List of fighter aircraft List of military aircraft of Japan Media related to Nakajima A6M2-N Rufe at Wikimedia Commons
Japanese aircraft carrier Jun'yō
Jun'yō was a Hiyō-class aircraft carrier of the Imperial Japanese Navy. She was laid down as the passenger liner Kashiwara Maru, but was purchased by the IJN in 1941 while still under construction and converted into an aircraft carrier. Completed in May 1942, the ship participated in the Aleutian Islands Campaign the following month and in several battles during the Guadalcanal Campaign in the year, her aircraft were used from land bases during several battles in the New Guinea and Solomon Islands Campaigns. Jun ` spent three months under repair, she was damaged by several bombs during the Battle of the Philippine Sea in mid-1944, but returned to service. Lacking aircraft, she was torpedoed again in December. Jun'yō was under repair until March 1945, when work was cancelled as uneconomical, she was effectively hulked for the rest of the war. After the surrender of Japan in September, the Americans decided that she was not worth the cost to make her serviceable for use as a repatriation ship, she was broken up in 1946–1947.
The ship was ordered in late 1938 as the fast luxury passenger liner Kashiwara Maru by Nippon Yusen Kaisha. In exchange for a 60 percent subsidy of her building costs by the Navy Ministry, she was designed to be converted to an auxiliary aircraft carrier, one of 10 such ships subsidized by the IJN. Jun'yō had an overall length of 219.32 meters, a beam of 26.7 meters and a draft of 8.15 meters. She displaced 24,150 metric tons at standard load, her crew ranged from 1,187 to men. The ship was fitted with two Mitsubishi-Curtis geared steam turbine sets with a total of 56,250 shaft horsepower, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by six Mitsubishi three-drum water-tube boilers. Jun ` yō reached 26 knots during her sea trials; the ship carried 4,100 metric tons of fuel oil, which gave her a range of 12,251 nautical miles at 18 knots. Jun ` yō's flight deck had a maximum width of 27.3 meters. The ship was designed with two superimposed hangars, each 153 meters long, 15 meters wide and 5 meters high.
Each hangar could be subdivided by four fire curtains and they were fitted with fire fighting foam dispensers on each side. The hangars were served by two aircraft elevators; the ship's air group was intended to consist of 12 Mitsubishi A5M fighters, plus 4 in storage, 18 Aichi D3A "Val" dive bombers, plus 2 in reserve, 18 Nakajima B5N "Kate" torpedo bombers. This was revised to substitute a dozen Mitsubishi A6M Zero fighters, together with 3 more in storage, for the A5Ms by the time the ship commissioned in 1942; as a result of the lessons learned from the Battle of Midway in June, the ship's fighter complement was strengthened to 21 Zeros, the other aircraft reduced to 12 D3As and 9 B5Ns. By the end of the year, 6 more Zeros replaced an equal number of D3As. Although it was possible to fit all these aircraft into the hangars, 8 or 9 were stored on the flight deck to reduce cramping below decks; as a conversion from an ocean liner, the ship could not support much armor, although it had a double bottom.
Two plates of Ducol steel, each 25 mm thick, protected the sides of the ship's machinery spaces. The ship's aviation gasoline tanks and magazines were protected by one layer of Ducol steel, her machinery spaces were further subdivided by transverse and longitudinal bulkheads to limit any flooding. The ship's primary armament consisted of a dozen 40-caliber 12.7 cm Type 89 anti-aircraft guns in six twin-gun mounts on sponsons along the sides of the hull. Jun'yō was initially equipped with eight triple mounts for 25 mm Type 96 light AA guns alongside the flight deck. In mid-1943, four more triple mounts were added and another four triple mounts in late 1943 and early 1944. Two of these last four mounts were mounted on the stern and the others were placed in front of and behind the island. A dozen single mounts were added, some of which were portable and could be mounted on the flight deck. After the Battle of the Philippine Sea in June 1944, the ship's anti-aircraft armament was reinforced with three more triple mounts, two twin mounts and eighteen single mounts for the 25 mm Type 96 gun.
These guns were supplemented by six 28-round AA rocket launchers. In October 1944, Jun'yō had a total of 91 Type 96 guns: 57 in nineteen triple mounts, 4 in two twin mounts, 30 single mounts. Two Type 94 high-angle fire-control directors, one on each side of the ship, were fitted to control the Type 89 guns; each director mounted a 4.5-meter rangefinder. When Jun'yō was first commissioned only the rangefinders were fitted and the directors were added later. Four Type 95 directors controlled the 25 mm guns and another pair were added in early 1943. Early warning was provided by two Type 2, Mark 2, Model 1 early-warning radars; the first of these was mounted on the top of the island in July 1942, shortly after she was completed, the other was added in the year on the port side of the hull, outboard of the rear elevator. A smaller Type 3, Mark 1, Model 3 early-warning radar was added in 1944. Jun'yō's keel was laid down by Mitsubishi on Slipway No. 3 at their shipyard in Nagasaki on 20 March 1939.
She had the name Kashiwara Maru at that time. The ship was purchased on 10 February 1941 by the Navy Ministry and she was temporarily referred to as No. 1001 Ship (Dai 1001
Attu is the westernmost and largest island in the Near Islands group of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, the westernmost point of land relative to Alaska. The island became uninhabited in 2010; the island was the site of the only World War II land battle fought on the continental United States, its battlefield area is a U. S. National Historic Landmark. Attu Station, a former Coast Guard LORAN station, is located at 52°51′N 173°11′E, making it one of the westernmost points of the United States relative to the rest of the country. However, since it is in the Eastern Hemisphere, being on the opposite side of the 180° longitude line as the contiguous 48 states, it can be considered one of the easternmost points of the country (a second Aleutian Island, Semisopochnoi Island at 179°46′E, is the easternmost location in the United States by this definition. In the chain of the Aleuts, the next island to the west of Attu are the Russian Commander Islands, 208 miles away. Attu is nearly 1,100 miles from the Alaskan mainland and 750 miles northeast of the northernmost of the Kurile Islands of Russia, as well as being 1,500 miles from Anchorage, 2,000 miles from Alaska's capital of Juneau, 4,845 miles from New York City.
Attu is about 20 by 35 miles in size with a land area of 344.7 square miles, making it #23 on the list of largest islands in the United States. The population in the 2010 census was 20 people, all at the Attu Station, though all inhabitants left the island in the year when the station closed, it is the largest uninhabited island in the United States. As of 1982, the only significant trees on the island were those planted by American soldiers at a chapel constructed after the 1943 battle when the Japanese occupation was over. Although Attu Island is the westernmost body of land east of the International Date Line, its time zone is the same as other western Aleutian Islands, UTC−10, which means that locations to the south-southeast have earlier clocks; the name Attu is a transliteration of the Aleut name of the island. It was called Saint Theodore by the explorer Aleksei Chirikov in 1742. Attu, being the nearest to Kamchatka, was the first of the Aleutian Islands exploited by Russian traders; the first population estimate by the Russians put at most 175 Aleuts on Attu.
However, the large number and size of archeological sites on Attu have led to estimates of 2,000–5,000 inhabitants during the centuries preceding European contact. Russians would stay several years on the island hunting sea otters clashing with the local Aleut population. After the initial wave of traders, Attu was overlooked by ships heading further east; the Aleuts were the primary inhabitants of the island prior to World War II. But, on June 7, 1942, six months after the Japanese attack on Pearl Harbor, the 301st Independent Infantry Battalion of the Japanese Northern Army landed on the island, without opposition, one day after landing on nearby Kiska. Earlier, American territorial authorities had evacuated about 880 Aleuts from villages elsewhere in the Aleutian Islands to civilian camps in the Alaska Panhandle, where about 75 of them died of various infectious diseases over two years. However, Attu Village had not yet been evacuated. At the time, Attu's population consisted of 45 native Aleuts and two white Americans, Charles Foster Jones, a radio technician from St. Paris and his wife Etta, a schoolteacher from Vineland, New Jersey.
The village consisted of several houses around Chichagof Harbor. The 42 Attu inhabitants who survived the Japanese invasion were taken to a prison camp near Otaru, Hokkaidō. Sixteen of them died. Mr. Jones, 63, was killed by the Japanese forces immediately after the invasion. Mrs. Jones, 63, was subsequently taken to the Bund Hotel in Yokohama, which housed Australian prisoners of war from the 1942 Battle of Rabaul in Papua New Guinea. Mrs. Jones and the Australian prisoners were held at the Yokohama Yacht Club from 1942 to 1944, at the Totsuka prisoner of war camp until their release in August 1945. Mrs. Jones died in December 1965 at age 86 in Florida. Before the Attu villagers were returned to the U. S. the American government stated publicly. According to Gen. Kiichiro Higuchi, the Commander of the Japanese Northern Army, the invasion of Kiska and Attu was part of a threefold objective: To break up any offensives against Japan by way of the Aleutians. To place a barrier between the U. S. and Russia in case Russia decided to join the war against Japan.
To make preparation for air bases for future offensive action. In late September 1942, the Japanese garrison on Attu was transferred to Kiska, Attu was left unoccupied, but American forces made no attempt to occupy Attu during this time. On October 29, 1942, the Japanese reestablished a base on Attu at Holtz Bay under the command of Lt. Col. Hiroshi Yanekawa; the garrison was about 500 troops, but through reinforcements, that number reached about 2,300 by March 10, 1943. No more reinforcements arrived after that time, owing to the efforts of the U. S. naval force under Rear Admiral Charles "Soc" McMorris, U. S. Navy submarines. McMorris had been assigned to interdict reinforcement convoys. After the sizable naval Battle of the Komandorski Islands, the Japanese abandoned their attempts to resupply its Aleutian garrisons by surface ships. From on, o
Adak Island is an island near the western extent of the Andreanof Islands group of the Aleutian Islands in Alaska. Alaska's southernmost town, Adak, is located on the island; the island has a land area of 274.59 square miles, measuring 33.9 miles on length and 22 miles on width, making it the 25th largest island in the United States. Due to harsh winds, frequent cloud cover, cold temperatures, vegetation is tundra at lower elevations; the highest point is Mt. Moffett, near the northwest end of the island, at an elevation of 3,924 feet, it is snow covered the greater part of the year. Adak, Alaska, is principal city; the word Adak is from the Aleut word adaq, which means "father". Adak Island has been the home to Aleut peoples since ancient times. Russian explorers in the 18th century visited the island but made no permanent settlements. During World War II, the Imperial Japanese Army took control of two of the westernmost Aleutian Islands - Attu and Kiska; the Japanese attacked the American base at Dutch Harbor by air.
The Japanese campaign coincided with the more well-known Battle of Midway. In response, the United States military began a campaign to oust the invaders. Since the nearest U. S. military presence was in Cold Bay, the U. S. began to construct bases in the western Aleutian Islands from which to launch operations against the Japanese. Adak Island was chosen as the site of an airfield, flight operations began in September 1942. On May 11, 1943, four days after the initial invasion date was delayed by bad weather, American soldiers landed on Attu Island and defeated the Japanese garrison there, at the cost of 2,300 Japanese and 550 American lives. Expecting a similar battle for Kiska Island, U. S. soldiers landing there August 15, 1943, found the occupiers had been stealthily evacuated by Japanese naval forces since the end of May, 1943. So, over 313 American soldiers died from friendly fire and other anti-personnel devices during U. S. operations to recover Kiska into U. S. territory. In 1953, remains of 236 Japanese dead, buried in Adak Cemetery were reburied in Japan's Chidorigafuchi National Cemetery.
After the war was over, the 6,000 American military men who served on Adak during World War II recalled Adak's cold, windy weather. Fresh food was a rarity. Adak Naval Air Station continued to be a military base during the Cold War but was designated a Base Realignment and Closure site in 1995 and closed in March 1997. Shortly thereafter, the town of Adak was incorporated at the site of the former base. Down from a peak population of 6,000, the island recorded a 2010 census population of 326 residents, all in the city of Adak, in the northern part of the island. In 1980, the Aleutian Islands National Wildlife Refuge was created and much of Adak Island lies within its boundaries; the Alaska Department of Fish and Game introduced 200 caribou to the island to help prevent emergency famine. The now large caribou herd is a popular hunting destination. Adak has a subpolar oceanic climate, characterized by persistently overcast skies, moderated temperatures, high winds, frequent cyclonic storms. At Adak, overcast conditions average nearly 75% of the time during June and July, dropping back to 50% of the time from October through February.
Adak averages 173 days per year with fog. The foggiest months are August when an average of 26 of the 31 days have fog; this number drops toward the winter season where the months of December through March have, on average, fewer than ten days with fog during any one month. Gales occur in all months of the year at Adak with the greatest chance from December through March. A peak gust of 109 knots occurred at Adak in March 1954. Adak's average temperatures range from 20 to 60 degrees Fahrenheit, with a record high of 75 °F and a record low of 3 °F. Average annual precipitation is about 54.8 inches. October to January are the wettest months due to frequent and intense mid-latitude cyclonic storms, while May to July represent markedly drier months. November is the average wettest month. Average snowfall is 100 inches, falling on the upper reaches of the volcanoes. Adak has an average of 341 days per year with measurable precipitation. Adak is served by the Aleutian Region Schools; the Adak School has around 20 students.
A land exchange between Aleut Corp. the U. S. Navy, the Department of the Interior has transferred most of the naval facilities to the Aleut Corp. A portion of the Island will remain within the National Maritime National Wildlife Refuge, managed by U. S. Fish & Wildlife. Adak provides a fueling port and crew transfer facility for foreign fishing fleets—an airport, housing facilities and food services are available. A grocery and ship supply store and restaurant opened in February 1999. Aleut Corporation maintains the facilities. Contractors are performing an environmental clean-up. Alaskan-owned Norquest-Adak Seafood Co. processes Pacific cod, mackerel, halibut and brown king crab. Four residents hold a commercial fishing permit for groundfish; the January 2006 National Geographic magazine presented pictures of the Sea-based X-band Radar in tow around Cape Horn to Adak for the purpose of anti-ballistic missile space surveillance. This operation required about one hundred technicians. Google Earth p
Japanese aircraft carrier Ryūjō
Ryūjō was a light aircraft carrier built for the Imperial Japanese Navy during the early 1930s. Small and built in an attempt to exploit a loophole in the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922, she proved to be top-heavy and only marginally stable and was back in the shipyard for modifications to address those issues within a year of completion. With her stability improved, Ryūjō returned to service and was employed in operations during the Second Sino-Japanese War. During World War II, she provided air support for operations in the Philippines and the Dutch East Indies, where her aircraft participated in the Second Battle of the Java Sea. During the Indian Ocean raid in April 1942, the carrier attacked British merchant shipping with both her guns and her aircraft. Ryūjō next participated in the Battle of the Aleutian Islands in June, she was sunk by American carrier aircraft at the Battle of the Eastern Solomons on 24 August 1942. Ryūjō was planned as a light carrier of around 8,000 metric tons standard displacement to exploit a loophole in the Washington Naval Treaty of 1922 that carriers under 10,000 long tons standard displacement were not regarded as "aircraft carriers".
While Ryūjō was under construction, Article Three of the London Naval Treaty of 1930 closed the above-mentioned loophole. Ryūjō had a length of 179.9 meters overall. With a beam of 20.32 meters and a draft of 5.56 meters. She displaced 8,000 metric tons at 10,150 metric tons at normal load, her crew enlisted men. To keep Ryūjō's weight to 8,000 metric tons, the hull was built and no armor could be provided, although some protective plating was added abreast the machinery spaces and magazines, she was designed with only a single hangar, which would have left an low profile. Between the time the carrier was laid down in 1929 and launched in 1931, the Navy doubled her aircraft stowage requirement to 48 in order to give her a more capable air group; this necessitated the addition of a second hangar atop the first. Coupled with the ship's narrow beam, the consequent top-heaviness made her minimally stable in rough seas, despite the fitting of Sperry active stabilizers; this was a common flaw amongst many treaty-circumventing Japanese warships of her generation.
The Tomozuru Incident of 12 March 1934, in which a top-heavy torpedo boat capsized in heavy weather, caused the IJN to investigate the stability of all their ships, resulting in a number of design changes to improve stability and increase hull strength. Ryūjō known to be only marginally stable, was promptly docked at the Kure Naval Arsenal for modifications that strengthened her keel and added ballast and shallow torpedo bulges to improve her stability, her funnels were moved higher up the side of her hull and curved downward to keep the deck clear of smoke. Shortly afterward, Ryūjō was one of many Japanese warships caught in a typhoon on 25 September 1935 while on maneuvers during the "Fourth Fleet Incident." The ship's bridge, flight deck and superstructure were damaged and the hangar was flooded. The forecastle was raised one deck and the bow was remodelled with more flare to improve the sea handling. After these modifications, the beam and draft increased to 20.78 meters and 7.08 meters respectively.
The displacement increased to 10,600 metric tons at standard load and 12,732 metric tons at normal load. The crew grew to 924 officers and enlisted men; the ship was fitted with two geared steam turbine sets with a total of 65,000 shaft horsepower, each driving one propeller shaft, using steam provided by six Kampon water-tube boilers. Ryūjō had a designed speed of 29 knots, but reached 29.5 knots during her sea trials from 65,270 shp. The ship carried 2,490 long tons of fuel oil, which gave her a range of 10,000 nautical miles at 14 knots; the boiler uptakes were trunked to the ship's starboard side amidships and exhausted horizontally below flight deck level through two small funnels. Ryūjō was a flush-decked carrier without an island superstructure; the 156.5-meter flight deck was 23 meters wide and extended well beyond the aft end of the superstructure, supported by a pair of pillars. Six transverse arrestor wires were installed on the flight deck and were modernised in 1936 to stop a 6,000 kg aircraft.
The ship's hangars were both 102.4 meters long and 18.9 meters wide, had an approximate area of 3,871 square metres. Between them, they gave the ship the capacity to store 48 aircraft, although only 37 could be operated at one time. After the Fourth Fleet Incident, Ryūjō's bridge and the leading edge of the flight deck were rounded off to make them more streamlined; this reduced the length of the flight deck by 2 meters. Aircraft were transported between the flight deck by two elevators; the small rear elevator became a