The Soviet Union the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, was a socialist state in Eurasia that existed from 1922 to 1991. Nominally a union of multiple national Soviet republics, its government and economy were centralized; the country was a one-party state, governed by the Communist Party with Moscow as its capital in its largest republic, the Russian Soviet Federative Socialist Republic. Other major urban centres were Leningrad, Minsk, Alma-Ata, Novosibirsk, it spanned over 10,000 kilometres east to west across 11 time zones, over 7,200 kilometres north to south. It had five climate zones: tundra, steppes and mountains; the Soviet Union had its roots in the 1917 October Revolution, when the Bolsheviks, led by Vladimir Lenin, overthrew the Russian Provisional Government which had replaced Tsar Nicholas II during World War I. In 1922, the Soviet Union was formed by a treaty which legalized the unification of the Russian, Transcaucasian and Byelorussian republics that had occurred from 1918. Following Lenin's death in 1924 and a brief power struggle, Joseph Stalin came to power in the mid-1920s.
Stalin committed the state's ideology to Marxism–Leninism and constructed a command economy which led to a period of rapid industrialization and collectivization. During his rule, political paranoia fermented and the Great Purge removed Stalin's opponents within and outside of the party via arbitrary arrests and persecutions of many people, resulting in at least 600,000 deaths. In 1933, a major famine struck the country. Before the start of World War II in 1939, the Soviets signed the Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, agreeing to non-aggression with Nazi Germany, after which the USSR invaded Poland on 17 September 1939. In June 1941, Germany broke the pact and invaded the Soviet Union, opening the largest and bloodiest theatre of war in history. Soviet war casualties accounted for the highest proportion of the conflict in the effort of acquiring the upper hand over Axis forces at intense battles such as Stalingrad and Kursk; the territories overtaken by the Red Army became satellite states of the Soviet Union.
The post-war division of Europe into capitalist and communist halves would lead to increased tensions with the United States-led Western Bloc, known as the Cold War. Stalin died in 1953 and was succeeded by Nikita Khrushchev, who in 1956 denounced Stalin and began the de-Stalinization; the Cuban Missile Crisis occurred during Khrushchev's rule, among the many factors that led to his downfall in 1964. In the early 1970s, there was a brief détente of relations with the United States, but tensions resumed with the Soviet–Afghan War in 1979. In 1985, the last Soviet premier, Mikhail Gorbachev, sought to reform and liberalize the economy through his policies of glasnost and perestroika, which caused political instability. In 1989, Soviet satellite states in Eastern Europe overthrew their respective communist governments; as part of an attempt to prevent the country's dissolution due to rising nationalist and separatist movements, a referendum was held in March 1991, boycotted by some republics, that resulted in a majority of participating citizens voting in favor of preserving the union as a renewed federation.
Gorbachev's power was diminished after Russian President Boris Yeltsin's high-profile role in facing down a coup d'état attempted by Communist Party hardliners. In late 1991, Gorbachev resigned and the Supreme Soviet of the Soviet Union met and formally dissolved the Soviet Union; the remaining 12 constituent republics emerged as independent post-Soviet states, with the Russian Federation—formerly the Russian SFSR—assuming the Soviet Union's rights and obligations and being recognized as the successor state. The Soviet Union was a powerhouse of many significant technological achievements and innovations of the 20th century, including the world's first human-made satellite, the first humans in space and the first probe to land on another planet, Venus; the country had the largest standing military in the world. The Soviet Union was recognized as one of the five nuclear weapons states and possessed the largest stockpile of weapons of mass destruction, it was a founding permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as well as a member of the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the World Federation of Trade Unions and the leading member of the Council for Mutual Economic Assistance and the Warsaw Pact.
The word "Soviet" is derived from a Russian word сове́т meaning council, advice, harmony and all deriving from the proto-Slavic verbal stem of vět-iti, related to Slavic věst, English "wise", the root in "ad-vis-or", or the Dutch weten. The word sovietnik means "councillor". A number of organizations in Russian history were called "council". For example, in the Russian Empire the State Council, which functioned from 1810 to 1917, was referred to as a Council of Ministers after the revolt of 1905. During the Georgian Affair, Vladimir Lenin envisioned an expression of Great Russian ethnic chauvinism by Joseph Stalin and his supporters, calling for these nation-states to join Russia as semi-independent parts of a greater union, which he named as the Union of Soviet Republics of Europe and Asia. Stalin resisted the proposal, but accepted it, although with Lenin's agreement changed the name of the newly proposed sta
Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder
The Bund der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder is the largest non-denominational, co-educational Scout and Guide association in Germany. Through its membership in the Ring deutscher Pfadfinderverbände and in the Ring Deutscher Pfadfinderinnenverbände, it is part of the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts. Founded in 1976, the association serves about 30,000 members nationwide. BdP's working methods consist of weekly meetings, hikes and other activities for its three age sections; these are organized by volunteer youth leaders. The program is based on nine pillars: Working in groups Peer education Co-Education Holistic development of physical, social and spiritual competencies International peace and understanding Adventure in nature Learning by doing Democracy and participation Shared traditions The association is divided in three sections according to age: Erwachsene do not constitute a target age section for BdP's programs, they are, however and welcome as support volunteer staff and leaders.
Ich will ein guter Wölfling/Freund sein und unsere Regeln achten. Die Regeln lauten: Ein Wölfling hilft wo er kann und ein Wölfling nimmt Rücksicht auf andere. I will follow our rules; the rules are: a Cub Scout helps wherever he/she can and a Cub Scout is considerate. Ich will nach den Regeln der Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfindermit euch leben. I promise to live with you in accordance with the Scout Law; the religious formula is optional. There is no prescribed promise for the oldest age sections. Rangers and Rovers are expected to come up with their own promise based on the Guide and Scout Law after a period of reflection. Ich will hilfsbereit und rücksichtsvoll sein. I will be considerate. Ich will den Anderen achten. I will be respectful. Ich will zur Freundschaft aller Pfadfinderinnen und Pfadfinder beitragen. I will be a friend to all Scouts. Ich will aufrichtig und zuverlässig sein. I will be trustworthy. Ich will kritisch sein und Verantwortung übernehmen. I will assume responsibilities. Ich will Schwierigkeiten nicht ausweichen.
I will not avoid difficulties. Ich will die sie zu erhalten. I will help to conserve it. Ich will mich beherrschen. I will become master of myself. Ich will dem Frieden dienen und mich für die Gemeinschaft einsetzen, in der ich lebe. I will serve peace and the community I live in; the work within BdP is characterized by the founding principles of the Guide and Scout Movements as well as by its emphasis on youth leadership and peer education. BdP is a recognized German charity and its activities are carried out by volunteer leaders only, with few exceptions for administrative personnel on national and district level; as a community youth organization, BdP is independent from political parties/organizations but promotes a comprehensive citizenship education through non-formal educational means on national and local level. In recognition of the organization's peace-building capacities, German Minister of Finance Wolfgang Schäuble donated €50,000 to BdP in 2015 in order to support international citizenship education through the Scout and Guide method.
As a community youth organization, BdP's funding consists of membership fees and public grants. Since its inception in 1976, BdP has subscribed to a co-educational approach. Programs and structures are thus targeted towards mixed groups with few local exceptions; this is reflected in the organization's logo which unites the Guide movement's trefoil and the Scout movement's fleur-de-lis. BdP is furthermore a part of both the World Organization of the Scout Movement and the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts through its memberships in the Federation of German Scout Organizations and the Federation of German Guide Organizations. BdP registers its male members with WOSM and its female members with both WOSM and WAGGGS; the formal BdP uniform consists of three elements: a dark-blue uniform shirt with BdP embroidered on the flap of the front pocket on the right. A Scout scarf in accordance with the age section of the individual: yellow for Cub Scouts, blue-yellow for Scouts and Guides, blue-yellow with the R/R badge sewn onto the corner for Rangers/Rovers.
Badges: the BdP logo on the left front pocket, the Germany/EU flag above the left front pocket, the world organization logo on the left sleeve. BdP registers its male members with WOSM and its female members with both WOSM and WAGGGS, thus male members may wear one world organization logo on their sleeves, whereas female members may wear both next to each other. As per its constitution, BdP is subdivided into districts. BdP is subdivided into twelve districts which adhere to the borders of the German Bundesländer. Notable exceptions are the merged districts of Berlin-Brandenburg, Rheinland-Pfalz/Saar, Schleswig-Holstein/Hamburg. Mecklenburg-Vorpommern is covered by the latter; the highest decision-making institution at each level is the members' or delegates' assembly. The organization's structures and processes are modeled on a representative democracy, meaning the delegates for each subsequently higher level are elected by the a
Kazakhstan the Republic of Kazakhstan, is the world's largest landlocked country, the ninth largest in the world, with an area of 2,724,900 square kilometres. It is a transcontinental country located in Asia. Kazakhstan is the dominant nation of Central Asia economically, generating 60% of the region's GDP through its oil and gas industry, it has vast mineral resources. Kazakhstan is a democratic, unitary, constitutional republic with a diverse cultural heritage. Kazakhstan shares borders with Russia, Kyrgyzstan and Turkmenistan, adjoins a large part of the Caspian Sea; the terrain of Kazakhstan includes flatlands, taiga, rock canyons, deltas, snow-capped mountains, deserts. Kazakhstan has an estimated 18.3 million people as of 2018. Given its large land area, its population density is among the lowest, at less than 6 people per square kilometre; the capital is Astana, where it was moved in 1997 from the country's largest city. The territory of Kazakhstan has been inhabited by groups included the nomadic groups and empires.
In antiquity, the nomadic Scythians have inhabited the land and the Persian Achaemenid Empire expanded towards the southern territory of the modern country. Turkic nomads who trace their ancestry to many Turkic states such as Turkic Khaganate etc have inhabited the country throughout the country's history. In the 13th century, the territory joined the Mongolian Empire under Genghis Khan. By the 16th century, the Kazakh emerged as a distinct group, divided into three jüz; the Russians began advancing into the Kazakh steppe in the 18th century, by the mid-19th century, they nominally ruled all of Kazakhstan as part of the Russian Empire. Following the 1917 Russian Revolution, subsequent civil war, the territory of Kazakhstan was reorganised several times. In 1936, it was made part of the Soviet Union. Kazakhstan was the last of the Soviet republics to declare independence during the dissolution of the Soviet Union in 1991. Nursultan Nazarbayev, the first President of Kazakhstan, was characterized as an authoritarian, his government was accused of numerous human rights violations, including suppression of dissent and censorship of the media.
Nazarbayev resigned in March 2019, with Senate Chairman Kassym-Jomart Tokayev taking office as Interim President. Kazakhstan has worked to develop its economy its dominant hydrocarbon industry. Human Rights Watch says that "Kazakhstan restricts freedom of assembly and religion", other human rights organisations describe Kazakhstan's human rights situation as poor. Kazakhstan's 131 ethnicities include Kazakhs, Uzbeks, Germans and Uyghurs. Islam is the religion of about 70% of the population, with Christianity practised by 26%. Kazakhstan allows freedom of religion, but religious leaders who oppose the government are suppressed; the Kazakh language is the state language, Russian has equal official status for all levels of administrative and institutional purposes. Kazakhstan is a member of the United Nations, WTO, CIS, the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, the Eurasian Economic Union, CSTO, OSCE, OIC, TURKSOY; the name "Kazakh" comes from the ancient Turkic word qaz, "to wander", reflecting the Kazakhs' nomadic culture.
The name "Cossack" is of the same origin. The Persian suffix -stan means "land" or "place of", so Kazakhstan can be translated as "land of the wanderers". Though traditionally referring only to ethnic Kazakhs, including those living in China, Turkey and other neighbouring countries, the term "Kazakh" is being used to refer to any inhabitant of Kazakhstan, including non-Kazakhs. Kazakhstan has been inhabited since the Paleolithic. Pastoralism developed during the Neolithic as the region's climate and terrain are best suited for a nomadic lifestyle; the Kazakh territory was a key constituent of the Eurasian Steppe route, the ancestor of the terrestrial Silk Roads. Archaeologists believe. During recent prehistoric times Central Asia was inhabited by groups like the Proto-Indo-European Afanasievo culture early Indo-Iranians cultures such as Andronovo, Indo-Iranians such as the Saka and Massagetae. Other groups included the nomadic Scythians and the Persian Achaemenid Empire in the southern territory of the modern country.
In 329 BC, Alexander the Great and his Macedonian army fought in the Battle of Jaxartes against the Scythians along the Jaxartes River, now known as the Syr Darya along the southern border of modern Kazakhstan. The Cuman entered the steppes of modern-day Kazakhstan around the early 11th century, where they joined with the Kipchak and established the vast Cuman-Kipchak confederation. While ancient cities Taraz and Hazrat-e Turkestan had long served as important way-stations along the Silk Road connecting Asia and Europe, true political consolidation began only with the Mongol rule of the early 13th century. Under the Mongol Empire, the largest in world history, administrative districts were established; these came under the rule of the emergent Kazakh Khanate. Throughout this period, traditional nomadic life and a livestock-
Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey
Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey is the national Scouting and Guiding federation of Turkey. It serves 2,883 Guides; the federation is a member of the World Organization of the Scout Movement since 1950, the World Association of Girl Guides and Girl Scouts since 1987. The start of Scouting in Turkey is attributed to the brothers Ahmet and Abdurrahman Robenson, who were sports teachers at the Galatasaray and Kabataş high schools in Constantinople in 1909, to Nafi Arif Kansu and Ethem Nejat, with first units organized at Darüşşafaka, İstanbul high schools, during the late Ottoman period. During this same period, Scouting was created independently in outlying areas of the Ottoman Empire, most notably Lebanon and Syria. In 1915 an Austro-Hungarian Scout unit in Constantinople was founded and served up to 1918; this unit was a member of the Österreichischer Pfadfinderbund This Scout Association supported the foundation of Scout groups in Damascus and Aleppo. The Scouting efforts were put to a halt during the Balkan Wars and World War I, again gained momentum after the foundation of the Republic of Turkey in 1923, following the fall of the Ottoman Empire.
In 1926, Scouting activities began to be organized nationwide in schools. Ahmet Han, the Director of Scouting, Muhittin Akdik, the Director of Education in İstanbul, visited France, the United Kingdom and Switzerland in 1946 to study Scouting and its administration, returned determined to build up the movement on fundamental and modern lines. Sıtkı Sanoplu was responsible for starting the Cub Scout program in 1950. Cub packs existed in the coeducational primary schools, were themselves coed, but boys and girls were placed in separate sixes, or dens. All the Cubmasters were women. J. S. Wilson, Director of the Boy Scouts International Bureau, began his 1952 tour of Asia visiting Cub Scout packs, Scout troops and Girl Guide companies in İstanbul and Ankara. With the 1991 breakup of the Soviet Union, it was suggested that the Turkish Scouting and Guiding Federation should assist in the creation of Scout movements in the Turkic Central Asian republics of Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan and Uzbekistan, but it is uncertain if this plan materialized.
The current Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey was organized in 1992 as administratively bound to the General Directorate of Youth and Sport. In February 2007, the federation gained autonomous status; the Scouts of Northern Cyprus is a Scouting federation active in the de facto independent Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, has strong ties to the Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey. There is an annual week called "The Scout - The Helper", which gives all members of the Scouting and Guiding Federation an opportunity to participate in community service projects, where they help for a week in hospitals, at the Red Crescent association, in similar organizations. Scouts plant trees in villages in cooperation with the Ministry of Agriculture. In Turkey, the Battle Hymn of the Republic is sung as a Scout camp song with Turkish lyrics, by both Boy Scouts and Girl Guides. Cub Scouts - ages 7 to 11 Scouts - ages 11 to 15 Venture Scout- ages 15 to 18Only the Cub packs are open to boys and girls, the older sections operate in single-gender groups.
The Scout Motto is Always Prepared in Turkish. Turkish: Tanrıya, vatanıma karşı görevlerimi yerine getireceğime, izcilik türesine uyacağıma. Translation: On my honour, I promise to do my duty to God and my country, to obey the Scouting Laws, to help other people at all times, to be physically strong, mentally awake and morally strong; the membership badge of the Scouting and Guiding Federation of Turkey incorporates elements of the coat of arms as well as the flag of Turkey. The trefoil represents the fleur-de-lis the Boy Scouts. Scouting'Round the World, John S. Wilson, first edition, Blandford Press 1959. Official website
Volunteering is considered an altruistic activity where an individual or group provides services for no financial or social gain "to benefit another person, group or organization". Volunteering is renowned for skill development and is intended to promote goodness or to improve human quality of life. Volunteering may have positive benefits for the volunteer as well as for the person or community served, it is intended to make contacts for possible employment. Many volunteers are trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an as-needed basis, such as in response to a natural disaster; the verb was first recorded in 1755. It was derived from the noun volunteer, in C.1600, "one who offers himself for military service," from the Middle French voluntaire. In the non-military sense, the word was first recorded during the 1630s; the word volunteering has more recent usage—still predominantly military—coinciding with the phrase community service. In a military context, a volunteer army is a military body whose soldiers chose to enter service, as opposed to having been conscripted.
Such volunteers are given regular pay. During this time, America experienced the Great Awakening. People realized the cause for movement against slavery. Younger people started helping the needy in their communities. In 1851, the first YMCA in the United States was started, followed seven years by the first YWCA. During the American Civil War, women volunteered their time to sew supplies for the soldiers and the "Angel of the Battlefield" Clara Barton and a team of volunteers began providing aid to servicemen. Barton founded the American Red Cross in 1881 and began mobilizing volunteers for disaster relief operations, including relief for victims of the Johnstown Flood in 1889; the Salvation Army is one of the largest organizations working for disadvantaged people. Though it is a charity organization, it has organized a number of volunteering programs since its inception. Prior to the 19th century, few formal charitable organizations existed to assist people in need. In the first few decades of the 20th century, several volunteer organizations were founded, including the Rotary International, Kiwanis International, Association of Junior Leagues International, Lions Clubs International.
The Great Depression saw one of the first large-scale, nationwide efforts to coordinate volunteering for a specific need. During World War II, thousands of volunteer offices supervised the volunteers who helped with the many needs of the military and the home front, including collecting supplies, entertaining soldiers on leave, caring for the injured. After World War II, people shifted the focus of their altruistic passions to other areas, including helping the poor and volunteering overseas. A major development was the Peace Corps in the United States in 1960; when President Lyndon B. Johnson declared a War on Poverty in 1964, volunteer opportunities started to expand and continued into the next few decades; the process for finding volunteer work became more formalized, with more volunteer centers forming and new ways to find work appearing on the World Wide Web. According to the Corporation for National and Community Service, about 64.5 million Americans, or 26.5 percent of the adult population, gave 7.9 billion hours of volunteer service worth $175 billion.
This calculates at 3 hours per week at a rate of $22 per hour. Volunteer hours in the UK are similar. In 1960, after the so called revolutionary war in Cuba ended, Ernesto Che Guevara created the concept of volunteering work, it was created with the intention that workers across the country volunteer a few hours of work on their work centers. Many schools on all education levels offer service-learning programs, which allow students to serve the community through volunteering while earning educational credit. According to Alexander Astin in the foreword to Where's the Learning in Service-Learning? by Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles, Jr."...we promote more wide-spread adoption of service-learning in higher education because we see it as a powerful means of preparing students to become more caring and responsible parents and citizens and of helping colleges and universities to make good on their pledge to'serve society.'" When describing service learning, the Medical Education at Harvard says, "Service learning unites academic study and volunteer community service in mutually reinforcing ways....service learning is characterized by a relationship of partnership: the student learns from the service agency and from the community and, in return, gives energy, commitment and skills to address human and community needs."
Volunteering in service learning seems to have the result of engaging both mind and heart, thus providing a more powerful learning experience. While not recognized by everyone as a legitimate approach, research on the efficacy of service learning has grown. Janet Eyler and Dwight E. Giles conducted a national study of American college students to ascertain the significance of service learning programs, According to Eyler and Giles,"These surveys, conducted before and after a semester of community service, examine the impact of service-learning on students." They describe their experience with students involved in service-learning in this way: "Students like service-learning. When we sit down with a group of students to discuss service-learning experiences, their enthusiasm is unmistakable....it is clear that believe that what they
History of Central Asia
The history of Central Asia concerns the history of the various peoples that have inhabited Central Asia. The lifestyle of such people has been determined by the area's climate and geography; the aridity of the region makes agriculture difficult and distance from the sea cut it off from much trade. Thus, few major cities developed in the region. Nomadic horse peoples of the steppe dominated the area for millennia. Relations between the steppe nomads and the settled people in and around Central Asia were marked by conflict; the nomadic lifestyle was well suited to warfare, the steppe horse riders became some of the most militarily potent people in the world, due to the devastating techniques and ability of their horse archers. Periodically, tribal leaders or changing conditions would organise several tribes into a single military force, which would often launch campaigns of conquest into more'civilised' areas. A few of these types of tribal coalitions included the Huns' invasion of Europe, various Turkic migrations into Transoxiana, the Wu Hu attacks on China and most notably the Mongol conquest of much of Eurasia.
The dominance of the nomads ended in the 16th century as firearms allowed settled people to gain control of the region. The Russian Empire, the Qing dynasty of China, other powers expanded into the area and seized the bulk of Central Asia by the end of the 19th century. After the Russian Revolution of 1917, the Soviet Union incorporated most of Central Asia; the Soviet areas of Central Asia saw much industrialisation and construction of infrastructure, but the suppression of local cultures and a lasting legacy of ethnic tensions and environmental problems. With the collapse of the Soviet Union in 1991, five Central Asian countries gained independence — Kazakhstan, Turkmenistan and Tajikistan. In all of the new states, former Communist Party officials retained power as local strongmen. Anatomically modern humans reached Central Asia by 50,000 to 40,000 years ago; the Tibetan Plateau is thought to have been reached by 38,000 years ago. Populations who lived in Siberia during the Last Glacial Maximum have contributed to the populations of both Europe and the Americas.
The term Ceramic Mesolithic is used of late Mesolithic cultures of Central Asia, during the 6th to 5th millennia BC. It is characterized by its distinctive type of pottery, with point or knob base and flared rims, manufactured by methods not used by the Neolithic farmers; the earliest manifestation of this type of pottery may be in the region around Lake Baikal in Siberia. It appears in the Elshan or Yelshanka or Samara culture on the Volga in Russia by about 7000 BC. and from there spread via the Dnieper-Donets culture to the Narva culture of the Eastern Baltic. In the Pontic-Caspian steppe, Chalcolithic cultures develop in the second half of the 5th millennium BC, small communities in permanent settlements which began to engage in agricultural practices as well as herding. Around this time, some of these communities began the domestication of the horse. According to the Kurgan hypothesis, the north-west of the region is considered to be the source of the root of the Indo-European languages.
The horse-drawn chariot appears in the 3rd millennium BC, by 2000 BC, in the form of war chariots with spoked wheels, thus being made more manoeuvrable, dominated the battlefields. The growing use of the horse, combined with the failure around 2000 BC, of the always precarious irrigation systems that had allowed for extensive agriculture in the region, gave rise and dominance of pastoral nomadism by 1000 BC, a way of life that would dominate the region for the next several millennia, giving rise to the Scythian expansion of the Iron Age. Scattered nomadic groups maintained herds of sheep, goats and camels, conducted annual migrations to find new pastures; the people lived in yurts – tents made of hides and wood that could be disassembled and transported. Each group had several yurts, each accommodating about five people. While the semi-arid plains were dominated by the nomads, small city-states and sedentary agrarian societies arose in the more humid areas of Central Asia; the Bactria-Margiana Archaeological Complex of the early 2nd millennium BC was the first sedentary civilisation of the region, practicing irrigation farming of wheat and barley and a form of writing.
Bactria-Margiana interacted with the contemporary Bronze Age nomads of the Andronovo culture, the originators of the spoke-wheeled chariot, who lived to their north in western Siberia and parts of Kazakhstan, survived as a culture until the 1st millennium BC. These cultures Bactria-Margiana, have been posited as possible representatives of the hypothetical Aryan culture ancestral to the speakers of the Indo-Iranian languages; the strongest of Sogdian city states of the Fergana Valley rose to prominence. After the 1st century BC, these cities became home to the traders of the Silk Road and grew wealthy from this trade; the steppe nomads were dependent on these settled people for a wide array of goods that were impossible for transient populations to produce. The nomads traded for these when they could, but because they did not produce goods of interest to sedentary people, the popular alternative was to carry out raids. A wide variety of people came to populate the steppes. Nomadic groups in Central Asia included the Huns and other Turk
World Scout Jamboree
The World Scout Jamboree is a Scouting jamboree of the World Organization of the Scout Movement attended by several tens of thousands of Scouts from around the world, aged 14 to 17. The first World Scout Jamboree was organized by The Boy Scout Association in London. With exceptions for the war years, it has been organized every four years, in the more recent years by the World Organization of the Scout Movement, in different locations over the world; the 21st World Scout Jamboree in 2007 was held in Hylands Park, United Kingdom, celebrated the Centenary of Scouting. The 22nd World Scout Jamboree was at Rinkaby, Sweden from 27 July to 8 August 2011; the next World Scout Jamboree will be held in the United States at The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve in West Virginia, from 22 July to 2 August 2019. In lexicography, "Jamboree" is considered an Americanism that traces back to 1860–65 and refers to a joyful, noisy gathering; the term is believed to shivaree, with "m" from jam. While World Scout Jamboree is the expression used by the World Organization of the Scout Movement, other organizations held events called "jamborees" for their members.
The Scouting program became an international success following its founding by Robert Baden-Powell in 1907. With its continuing growth, the founder of the movement saw a need for a gathering of representatives of Scouting from all around the world; the general aim was to foster a worldwide brotherhood, to help the young Scouts in the movement learn about other peoples and nations by direct interaction with them. The idea of organizing such periodical international gatherings was conveyed to Baden-Powell by the General Chief of the Scouts of Greece, Konstantinos Melas, during the 1918 international Scout meeting, in England. Captain Melas proposed the gatherings should repeat every four years, in the same way Olympic Games were held in Ancient Greece; the suggestion was accepted with enthusiasm by Baden-Powell, who named the gatherings "Jamborees". It was in 1920 that the first World Scout Jamboree was realized, held in the Olympia halls in Kensington, London. Symbolically, the Jamboree site bore the name of the birthplace of Olympia.
8,000 Scouts from 34 countries attended the event. Thereafter, a Jamboree has been held every four years. There are two exceptions to this: no Jamboree was held between 1937 and 1947 because of the Second World War, the 1979 Jamboree, to be held in Iran, was cancelled due to the political upheaval in the region at that time; the Jamboree has been held in different countries around the world. The first seven Jamborees were held in Europe; the eighth World Jamboree was held in North America where the tradition of moving the Jamboree among the continents began. As yet, Africa has not hosted a jamboree. To replace the cancelled event of 1979, the World Scout Committee determined that an alternative celebration, the World Jamboree Year should take place. Several regional camps took place, such as the 12th Australian/4th Asia-Pacific Jamboree, held in Perth, Western Australia, along with countless Join-in-Jamboree activities — designed to allow Scouts from around the world to participate in an activity that thousands of other Scouts around the world were participating in at the same time.
This Join-in programme was reproduced again as part of the Scouting 2007 Centenary celebrations. So far, the greatest attendance of all Jamborees was in 2011, where over 40,000 members from around the world descended upon Rinkaby in Sweden; this number represented the permanent contingent. They were joined by hundreds of thousands of visiting Scouts; the first Jamboree was more akin to an exhibition of Scouting, allowing visitors to see how things were done in other parts of the world. The Second Jamboree was conducted on a camp basis and each successive Jamboree has developed on this format where the programme is more activity oriented, with plenty of time for Scouts from different nations to interact and learn about each other in less formal ways than an exhibition would allow; the 2007 Jamboree coincided with the Scouting Centenary celebrations. Because of this, the honour of hosting the event was again bestowed upon the United Kingdom, as the birthplace of Scouting. Over 40,000 young people camped in August at Hylands Park in Essex.
Hundreds of thousands of day visitors attended events in the south-east of England as part of the Jamboree. The following Jamboree was held at Rinkaby in Sweden, opening on 27 July 2011, followed in 2015 by Japan, the Jamboree in 2019 will be at The Summit Bechtel Family National Scout Reserve in West Virginia. Jamboree on the Air referred to as JOTA, is an international Scouting and Guiding activity held annually on the third full weekend in October; the event was first held in conjunction with the fiftieth anniversary of Scouting in 1957, was devised by radio amateur operator Leslie R. Mitchell who used the callsign G3BHK, it is now considered the largest event organized by the WOSM annually. Amateur radio operators from all over the world participate with over 500,000 Scouts and Guides to teach them about radio and to assist them to contact their fellow Scouts and Guides by means of amateur radio and since 2004, by the VOIP-based Echolink. Scouts and Guides are encouraged to send paper or electronic confirmations known as "QSL cards", or "eQSLs" when they are sent electronically.
This provides the Scouts and Guides with a means of learning about fellow Scouts and Guides from around the world. It is