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Oriental Institute (Chicago)

The Oriental Institute, established in 1919, is the University of Chicago's interdisciplinary research center for ancient Near Eastern studies and archaeology museum. It was founded for the university by professor James Henry Breasted with funds donated by John D. Rockefeller, Jr, it conducts research on ancient civilizations throughout the Near East, including at its facility, Chicago House, in Luxor, Egypt. The Institute publicly exhibits an extensive collection of artifacts related to ancient civilizations at its on-campus building in the Hyde Park, Chicago community. According to anthropologist William Parkinson, the OI's focused "near Eastern, or southwest Asian and Egyptian" collection is one of the finest in the world. In the early 20th century, James Henry Breasted built up the collection of the university's Haskell Oriental Museum, which he oversaw along with his field work, teaching duties, he dreamed, however, of establishing a research institute, “a laboratory for the study of the rise and development of civilization”, that would trace Western civilization to its roots in the ancient Middle East.

As World War I wound down, he sensed an opportunity to use his influence in the new political climate. He wrote to John D. Rockefeller, Jr. and proposed the foundation of what would become the Oriental Institute. Fundamental to the implementation of his plan was a research trip through the Middle East, which Breasted had optimistically, or naively, suggested was ready to receive scholars again after the disturbances of the war. Breasted received a reply from Rockefeller pledging $50,000 over five years for the Oriental Institute. Rockefeller assured University of Chicago President Harry Pratt Judson that he would pledge another $50,000 to the cause; the University of Chicago contributed additional support, in May 1919 the Oriental Institute was founded. The Institute is housed in an unusual Art-Deco/Gothic building at the corner of 58th Street and University Avenue, designed by the architectural firm Mayers Murray & Phillip. Construction was completed in 1930, the building was dedicated in 1931.

The early years of the institute give background for the fictional archaeologist and adventurer Indiana Jones. Both Breasted and the OI archaeologist Robert Braidwood have been suggested as character models. In the 1990s, Tony Wilkinson, founded the'Center for Ancient Middle Eastern Landscapes' based at the institute, its role is to investigate the Middle East through landscape archaeology and the analysis of spatial data, including images from many decades of Middle Eastern aerial photography, survey maps, as well as, modern satellite imagery. The Museum of the Oriental Institute has artifacts from digs in Egypt, Syria, Turkey and Iran. Notable works in the collection include the famous Megiddo Ivories; the museum has free admission. The Oriental Institute is a center of active research on the ancient Near East; the building's upper floors contain a library and faculty offices, its gift shop, the Suq sells textbooks for the University's classes on Near Eastern studies. In addition to carrying out many digs in the Fertile Crescent, OI scholars have made contributions to the understanding of the origins of human civilization.

The term "Fertile Crescent" was coined by J. H. Breasted, the OI founder, who popularized the connection of the rise of civilization in the Near East with the development of European culture. In 2011, among other projects OI scholars completed publication of the 21-volume Chicago Assyrian Dictionary, a basic cultural reference work; the effort was begun in 1921 by J. H. Breasted, continued by Edward Chiera and Ignace Gelb, with the first volume published in 1956. Dr. Erica Reiner as editor-in-charge led the research teams for 44 years, she was succeeded by dean of humanities at the university. Similar dictionaries are including the Chicago Hittite Dictionary and one for Demotic; the Institute oversees the work of Chicago House in Egypt. The Egyptian facility, established in 1924, performs the Epigraphic Survey, which documents and researches the historical sites in Luxor, it manages conservation at various sites. In 2006, the Oriental Institute was the center of a controversy when a U. S. federal court ruling sought to seize and auction a valuable collection of ancient Persian tablets held by the museum.

The proceeds were to compensate the victims of a 1997 bombing in Ben Yehuda Street, Jerusalem, an attack which the United States claimed was funded by Iran. The ruling threatened sale of an invaluable collection of ancient clay tablets, held by the Oriental Institute since the 1930s, but owned by Iran; the Achaemenid clay tablets were loaned to the University of Chicago in 1937. They were discovered by archaeologists in 1933 and are the property of the National Museum of Iran and the Iran's Cultural Heritage Organization; the artifacts were loaned based on the understanding. The tablets, from Persepolis, the capital of the Achaemenid Empire, date to about 500 BCE; the tablets give a view of daily life, itemizing such elements as the daily rations of barley given to workers in nearby regions of the empire. The tablets were sent to the capital to provide a record of. Gil Stein, former director of the Oriental Institute, said that details concern food for people on diplomatic or military missions.

Each tablet is about half the size

Antiochus (praepositus sacri cubiculi)

Antiochus or Antiochos was an influential eunuch courtier and official of the Byzantine Empire. According to the Byzantine chroniclers, he was of Persian origin, had served under Narses, who occupied the post of chief minister of the Sasanian Empire for the entire first half of the 5th century, he first appears in the Byzantine court in c. 404. At the time he was a servant of the imperial bedchamber, although young of age enjoyed the favour of emperor Arcadius; this allowed him to influence imperial policy, gained him the post of tutor to the young heir to the throne, the future Theodosius II. The 9th-century chronicle of Theophanes the Confessor reports erroneously that Antiochus came to Constantinople only after Arcadius' death in 408, having been dispatched by the Persian shah Yazdegerd I to watch over the young Theodosius, it may be, that this report reflects the recognition of his position as imperial tutor by Yazdegerd, whom the dying Arcadius had entrusted with ensuring his son's position during his minority.

Antiochus was a zealous Christian, in his correspondence with Yazdegerd succeeded in securing the well-being of Christians in his home country. Antiochus exercised his duties as tutor until 414, when Theodosius' sister Pulcheria took over. By c. 421, he had risen to the post of praepositus sacri cubiculi, head of the imperial bedchamber, the exalted rank of patricius. At about that time, he was dismissed from his palace posts by Theodosius, who resented his patronising attitude after the emperor's marriage to Aelia Eudocia, his property was confiscated, he was forced to retire as a monk to the Church of Saint Euphemia at Chalcedon, where he died. His palace in Constantinople, adjacent to the Hippodrome, was confiscated by the emperor. Greatrex, Geoffrey. "Antiochus the "Praepositus": A Persian Eunuch at the Court of Theodosius II". Dumbarton Oaks Papers. 50: 171–197. Doi:10.2307/1291743. JSTOR 1291743. Kostenec, Jan. "Palace of Antiochos". Encyclopedia of the Hellenic World, Constantinople. Archived from the original on 2015-12-08.

Retrieved 2014-07-21. Martindale, John R. ed.. The Prosopography of the Later Roman Empire: Volume II, AD 395–527. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-20159-4

Liviu Antal

Liviu Ion Antal is a Romanian professional footballer who plays as a winger for Lithuanian club Žalgiris. He was the top goalscorer of the 2013–14 Liga I, as he netted fifteen times for Vaslui, relegated at the end of the season due to financial issues. After moving abroad and having brief spells in Turkey and Israel, he repeated the performance with Lithuanian side Žalgiris in 2018, he was a important player for Oțelul Galați helping the team win their first title in the 2010–11 season. He played in the 2011–12 UEFA Champions League season against teams like Manchester United, S. L. Benfica or FC Basel. On 14 June 2012, Antal signed a 4-year deal with FC Vaslui, he scored his first goal for FC Vaslui on 1 August 2012 in a 1–1 draw against Fenerbahce in the UEFA Champions League third qualifying round. In July 2014, Antal started his first experience abroad. After FC Vaslui declared bankruptcy, Antal became a free agent and signed a contract with the Turkish side Gençlerbirliği, he made his debut for the club coming on as a 67' substitute on 13 September 2014.

He scored his first goal for the club on 25 October 2014 against Fenerbahce. On 1 February 2015, Antal signed a 1-year deal with Beitar Jerusalem F. C.. Antal made his debut for the club that same week in an away game at Hapoel Haifa, scoring Beitar's second goal from a penalty as Beitar went on to win 4–3. Antal signed for Vilnius based club on 20 June 2017, he agreed to 1,5 years deal with Lithuanian champions. Antal made his debut for the Romanian national team at the age of 22 in 2011 in a friendly game against Paraguay; as of 27 November 2019 Oțelul Galați Liga I: 2010–11 Supercupa României: 2011Žalgiris Lithuanian Cup: 2018 Liga I top scorer: 2013–14 DigiSport Liga I Player of the Month: October 2015 A Lyga top scorer: 2018 A Lyga Team of the Year: 2018 A Lyga Player of the Month: May 2018, August 2018 Liviu Antal at RomanianSoccer.ro and StatisticsFootball.com Liviu Antal at National-Football-Teams.com Liviu Antal – UEFA competition record