Appetite is the desire to eat food, sometimes due to hunger. Appealing foods can stimulate appetite when hunger is absent, although appetite can be reduced by satiety. Appetite exists in all higher life-forms, serves to regulate adequate energy intake to maintain metabolic needs, it is regulated by a close interplay between adipose tissue and the brain. Appetite has a relationship with every individual's behavior. Appetitive behaviour known as approach behaviour, consummatory behaviours, are the only processes that involve energy intake, whereas all other behaviours affect the release of energy; when stressed, appetite levels may result in an increase of food intake. Decreased desire to eat is termed anorexia. Dysregulation of appetite contributes to anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, cachexia and binge eating disorder. A limited or excessive appetite is not pathological. Abnormal appetite could be defined as eating habits causing malnutrition and related conditions such as obesity and its related problems.
Both genetic and environmental factors may regulate appetite, abnormalities in either may lead to abnormal appetite. Poor appetite may be a result of physical or psychological factors. Hyperphagia may be a result of hormonal imbalances, mental disorders and others. Dyspepsia known as indigestion, can affect appetite as one of its symptoms is feeling "overly full" soon after beginning a meal. Taste and smell or the lack thereof may effect appetite. Abnormal appetite may be linked to genetics on a chromosomal scale, shown by the 1950s discovery of Prader–Willi syndrome, a type of obesity caused by chromosome alterations. Additionally, anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa are more found in females than males – thus hinting at a possibility of a linkage to the X-chromosome. Dysregulation of appetite lies at the root of anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, binge eating disorder. Anorexia nervosa is a mental disorder characterized as severe dietary restriction and intense fear of weight gain. Furthermore, persons with anorexia nervosa may exercise ritualistically.
Individuals who have anorexia have high levels of ghrelin, a hormone that stimulates appetite, so the body is trying to cause hunger, but the urge to eat is being suppressed by the person. Binge eating disorder is described as eating excessively between periodic time intervals; the risk for BED can be present in children and most manifests during adulthood. Studies suggest that the heritability of BED in adults is 50%. To bulimia some people may be involved in purging and binging, they might take purgatives. However, the person may still believe. Various hereditary forms of obesity have been traced to defects in hypothalamic signaling or are still awaiting characterization – Prader-Willi syndrome – in addition, decreased response to satiety may promote development of obesity, it has been found. Other than genetically-stimulated appetite abnormalities, there are physiological ones that do not require genes for activation. For example and leptin are released from the stomach and adipose cells into the blood stream.
Ghrelin stimulates feelings of hunger. Any changes in normal production levels of these two hormones can lead to obesity. Looking at leptin, the more cells present in a body, the more adipose tissues there are, thus, the more leptin would be produced; this overproduction of leptin will cause the hypothalamus to become resistant to leptin and so, although the adipose cells are producing leptin, the body will not understand that it should stop eating. This will produce a perpetual cycle for those. Eating issues such as "picky eating" affects about 25% of children, but among children with development disorders this number may be higher, which in some cases may be related to the sounds and tastes. Glycemic index has been thought to effect satiety. Mechanisms controlling appetite are a potential target for weight loss drugs. Appetite control mechanisms seem to counteract undereating, whereas they appear weak to control overeating. Early anorectics were phentermine. A more recent addition is sibutramine which increases serotonin and noradrenaline levels in the central nervous system, but had to be withdrawn from the market when it was shown to have an adverse cardiovascular risk profile.
The appetite suppressant rimonabant had to be withdrawn when it was linked with worsening depression and increased risk of suicide. Recent reports on recombinant PYY 3-36 suggest that this agent may contribute to weight loss by suppressing appetite. Given the epidemic proportions of obesity in the Western world and the fact that it is increasing in some poorer countries, observers expect developments in this area to snowball in the near future. Weight loss and loss of appetite is an effect of some diseases, a side effect of some drugs. Certain progestins such as medroxyprogesterone acetate and megestrol
Arousal is the physiological and psychological state of being awoken or of sense organs stimulated to a point of perception. It involves activation of the ascending reticular activating system in the brain, which mediates wakefulness, the autonomic nervous system, the endocrine system, leading to increased heart rate and blood pressure and a condition of sensory alertness and readiness to respond. Arousal is mediated by several different neural systems. Wakefulness is regulated by the ARAS, composed of projections from five major neurotransmitter systems that originate in the brainstem and form connections extending throughout the cortex. Activation of these neurons produces an increase in cortical activity and subsequently alertness. Arousal is important in regulating consciousness, attention and information processing, it is crucial for motivating certain behaviours, such as mobility, the pursuit of nutrition, the fight-or-flight response and sexual activity. It is important in emotion and has been included in theories such as the James-Lange theory of emotion.
According to Hans Eysenck, differences in baseline arousal level lead people to be extraverts or introverts. The Yerkes-Dodson law states that an optimal level of arousal for performance exists, too little or too much arousal can adversely affect task performance. One interpretation of the Yerkes-Dodson Law is the Easterbrook cue-utilisation hypothesis. Easterbrook states. Wakefulness is regulated by the ascending reticular activating system, composed of five major neurotransmitter systems – the acetylcholine, dopamine and serotonin systems – that originate in the brainstem and form connections which extend throughout the cerebral cortex; when stimulated, these systems alertness. The noradrenergic system is a bundle of axons that originate in the locus coeruleus and ascends up into the neocortex, limbic system, basal forebrain. Most of the neurons are projected to the posterior cortex, important with sensory information, alertness; the activation of the locus coeruleus and release of norepinephrine causes wakefulness and increases vigilance.
The neurons that project into the basal forebrain impact cholinergic neurons that results in a flood of acetylcholine into the cerebral cortex. The acetylcholinergic system has its neurons located in the basal forebrain. Stimulation of these neurons result in cortical activity, shown from EEG records, alertness. All of the other four neurotransmitters play a role in activating the acetylcholine neurons. Another arousal system, the dopaminergic system, releases dopamine produced by the substantia nigra; the neurons arise in the ventral tegmental area in the midbrain, projects to the nucleus accumbens, the striatum forebrain, limbic system, prefrontal cortex. The limbic system is important for control of mood, the nucleus accumbens signal excitement and arousal; the path terminating in the prefrontal cortex is important in regulating motor movements reward oriented movements. The serotonergic system has all of its serotonergic neurons originating in the raphe nuclei; this system projects to the prefrontal cortex.
Stimulation of these axons and release of serotonin causes cortical arousal and impacts locomotion and mood. The neurons of the histaminergic system are in the tuberomammillary nucleus of the hypothalamus; these neurons send pathways to the cerebral cortex and the basal forebrain, where they stimulate the release of acetylcholine into the cerebral cortex. All of these systems show similar redundancy; the pathways described are ascending pathways, but there arousal pathways that descend. One example is the ventrolateral preoptic area, which release GABA reuptake inhibitors, which interrupt wakefulness and arousal. Neurotransmitters of the arousal system, such as acetylcholine and norepinephrine, work to inhibit the ventrolateral preoptic area. Arousal is important in regulating consciousness and information processing, it is crucial for motivating certain behaviors, such as mobility, the pursuit of nutrition, the fight-or-flight response and sexual activity. Arousal is an essential element in many influential theories of emotion, such as the James-Lange theory of emotion or the Circumplex Model.
According to Hans Eysenck, differences in baseline arousal level lead people to be either extraverts or introverts. Research suggests that extroverts and introverts have different arousability, their baseline arousal level is the same. The Yerkes–Dodson law states that there is a relationship between arousal and task performance arguing that there is an optimal level of arousal for performance, too little or too much arousal can adversely affect task performance. One interpretation of the Yerkes–Dodson law is the Easterbrook cue-utilisation theory, it predicted that high levels of arousal will lead to attention narrowing, during which the range of cues from the stimulus and the environment decreases. According to this hypothesis, attention will be focused on the arousing details of the stimulus, so that information central to the source of the emotional arousal will be encoded while peripheral details will not. In positive psychology, arousal is described as a respon
A person is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, consciousness or self-consciousness, being a part of a culturally established form of social relations such as kinship, ownership of property, or legal responsibility. The defining features of personhood and what makes a person count as a person differ among cultures and contexts. In addition to the question of personhood, of what makes a being count as a person to begin with, there are further questions about personal identity and self: both about what makes any particular person that particular person instead of another, about what makes a person at one time the same person as they were or will be at another time despite any intervening changes; the common plural of "person", "people", is used to refer to an entire nation or ethnic group. The plural "persons" is used in philosophical and legal writing; the criteria for being a person... are designed to capture those attributes which are the subject of our most humane concern with ourselves and the source of what we regard as most important and most problematical in our lives.
Personhood is the status of being a person. Defining personhood is a controversial topic in philosophy and law, is tied to legal and political concepts of citizenship and liberty. According to common worldwide general legal practice, only a natural person or legal personality has rights, privileges and legal liability. Personhood continues to be a topic of international debate, has been questioned during the abolition of slavery and the fight for women's rights, in debates about abortion, fetal rights, in animal rights advocacy. Various debates have focused on questions about the personhood of different classes of entities; the personhood of animals and slaves has been a catalyst of social upheaval. In most societies today, living adult humans are considered persons, but depending on the context, theory or definition, the category of "person" may be taken to include or not children or such non-human entities as animals, artificial intelligences, or extraterrestrial life, as well as legal entities such as corporations, sovereign states and other polities, or estates in probate.
Personal identity is the unique identity of persons through time. That is to say, the necessary and sufficient conditions under which a person at one time and a person at another time can be said to be the same person, persisting through time. In the modern philosophy of mind, this concept of personal identity is sometimes referred to as the diachronic problem of personal identity; the synchronic problem is grounded in the question of what features or traits characterize a given person at one time. Identity is an issue for analytic philosophy. A key question in continental philosophy is in what sense we can maintain the modern conception of identity, while realizing many of our prior assumptions about the world are incorrect. Proposed solutions to the problem of personal identity include continuity of the physical body, continuity of an immaterial mind or soul, continuity of consciousness or memory, the bundle theory of self, continuity of personality after the death of the physical body, proposals that there are no persons or selves who persist over time at all.
In ancient Rome, the word persona or prosopon referred to the masks worn by actors on stage. The various masks represented the various "personae" in the stage play; the concept of person was further developed during the Trinitarian and Christological debates of the 4th and 5th centuries in contrast to the word nature. During the theological debates, some philosophical tools were needed so that the debates could be held on common basis to all theological schools; the purpose of the debate was to establish the relation and differences between the Λóγος/Verbum and God. The philosophical concept of person arose; therefore and God were defined as different "persons". This concept was applied to the Holy Ghost, the angels and to all human beings. Since a number of important changes to the word's meaning and use have taken place, attempts have been made to redefine the word with varying degrees of adoption and influence. Cornelia J. de Vogel. The Concept of Personality in Greek and Christian Thought. In Studies in Philosophy and the History of Philosophy.
Vol. 2. Edited by J. K. Ryan, Washington: Catholic University of America Press. Pp. 20–60 Lukes, Steven. The Category of the Person: Anthropology, History. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-27757-4. Puccetti, Roland. Persons: A Study of Possible Moral Agents in the Universe. London: Macmillan and Company. Stephens, William O.. The Person: Readings in Human Nature. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Pearson. ISBN 978-0-13-184811-5. Herbermann, Charles, ed.. "Person". Catholic Encyclopedia. New York: Robert Appleton Company. Korfmacher, Carsten. "Personal Identity". The Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy. Retrieved 2011-03-09. Rights of Non-Human Persons Program
A reflex, or reflex action, is an involuntary and nearly instantaneous movement in response to a stimulus. A reflex is made possible by neural pathways called reflex arcs which can act on an impulse before that impulse reaches the brain; the reflex is an automatic response to a stimulus that does not receive or need conscious thought. Myotatic reflexes The myotatic reflexes, provide information on the integrity of the central nervous system and peripheral nervous system. Decreased reflexes indicate a peripheral problem, lively or exaggerated reflexes a central one. A stretch reflex is the contraction of a muscle in response to its lengthwise stretch. Biceps reflex Brachioradialis reflex Extensor digitorum reflex Triceps reflex Patellar reflex or knee-jerk reflex Ankle jerk reflex While the reflexes above are stimulated mechanically, the term H-reflex refers to the analogous reflex stimulated electrically, tonic vibration reflex for those stimulated to vibration. A tendon reflex is the contraction of a muscle in response to striking its tendon.
The Golgi tendon reflex is the inverse of a stretch reflex. Newborn babies have a number of other reflexes which are not seen in adults, referred to as primitive reflexes; these automatic reactions to stimuli enable infants to respond to the environment before any learning has taken place. They include: Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex Palmomental reflex Moro reflex known as the startle reflex Palmar grasp reflex Rooting reflex Sucking reflex Symmetrical tonic neck reflex Tonic labyrinthine reflex Other reflexes found in the central nervous system include: Abdominal reflexes Gastrocolic reflex Anocutaneous reflex Baroreflex Cough reflex Cremasteric reflex Diving reflex Muscular defense Photic sneeze reflex Scratch reflex Sneeze Startle reflex Withdrawal reflex Crossed extensor reflexMany of these reflexes are quite complex requiring a number of synapses in a number of different nuclei in the CNS. Others of these involve just a couple of synapses to function. Processes such as breathing and the maintenance of the heartbeat can be regarded as reflex actions, according to some definitions of the term.
In medicine, reflexes are used to assess the health of the nervous system. Doctors will grade the activity of a reflex on a scale from 0 to 4. While 2+ is considered normal, some healthy individuals are hypo-reflexive and register all reflexes at 1+, while others are hyper-reflexive and register all reflexes at 3+. List of reflexes All-or-none law Automatic behavior Conditioned reflex Instinct Jumping Frenchmen of Maine Voluntary action Preflexes
The vertebrate cerebrum is formed by two cerebral hemispheres that are separated by a groove, the longitudinal fissure. The brain can thus be described as being divided into left and right cerebral hemispheres; each of these hemispheres has an outer layer of grey matter, the cerebral cortex, supported by an inner layer of white matter. In eutherian mammals, the hemispheres are linked by the corpus callosum, a large bundle of nerve fibers. Smaller commissures, including the anterior commissure, the posterior commissure and the fornix join the hemispheres and these are present in other vertebrates; these commissures transfer information between the two hemispheres to coordinate localized functions. There are three known poles of the cerebral hemispheres: the occipital pole, the frontal pole, the temporal pole; the central sulcus is a prominent fissure which separates the parietal lobe from the frontal lobe and the primary motor cortex from the primary somatosensory cortex. Macroscopically the hemispheres are mirror images of each other, with only subtle differences, such as the Yakovlevian torque seen in the human brain, a slight warping of the right side, bringing it just forward of the left side.
On a microscopic level, the cytoarchitecture of the cerebral cortex, shows the functions of cells, quantities of neurotransmitter levels and receptor subtypes to be markedly asymmetrical between the hemispheres. However, while some of these hemispheric distribution differences are consistent across human beings, or across some species, many observable distribution differences vary from individual to individual within a given species; each cerebral hemisphere has an outer layer of cerebral cortex, of grey matter and in the interior of the cerebral hemispheres is an inner layer or core of white matter known as the centrum semiovale. The interior portion of the hemispheres of the cerebrum includes the lateral ventricles, the basal nuclei, the white matter. There are three poles of the cerebrum, the occipital pole, the frontal pole, the temporal pole. If the upper part of either hemisphere be removed, at a level about 1.25 cm above the corpus callosum, the central white matter will be exposed as an oval-shaped area, the centrum ovale minus, surrounded by a narrow convoluted margin of gray substance, studded with numerous minute red dots, produced by the escape of blood from divided bloodvessels.
If the remaining portions of the hemispheres be drawn apart a broad band of white substance, the corpus callosum, will be observed, connecting them at the bottom of the longitudinal fissure. Each labium is part of the cingulate gyrus described. If the hemispheres be sliced off to a level with the upper surface of the corpus callosum, the white substance of that structure will be seen connecting the two hemispheres; the large expanse of medullary matter now exposed, surrounded by the convoluted margin of gray substance, is called the centrum ovale majus. The blood supply to the centrum ovale is from the superficial middle cerebral artery; the cortical branches of this artery descend to provide blood to the centrum ovale. The cerebral hemispheres are derived from the telencephalon, they arise five weeks after conception as bilateral invaginations of the walls. The hemispheres grow round in a C-shape and back again, pulling all structures internal to the hemispheres with them; the intraventricular foramina allows communication with the lateral ventricles.
The choroid plexus is formed from vascular mesenchyme. Broad generalizations are made in popular psychology about certain functions being lateralized, that is, located in the right or left side of the brain; these claims are inaccurate, as most brain functions are distributed across both hemispheres. Most scientific evidence for asymmetry relates to low-level perceptual functions rather than the higher-level functions popularly discussed. In addition to this lateralization of some functions, the low-level representations tend to represent the contralateral side of the body; the best example of an established lateralization is that of Broca's and Wernicke's Areas where both are found on the left hemisphere. These areas correspond to handedness however, meaning the localization of these areas is found on the hemisphere opposite to the dominant hand. Function lateralization such as semantics, intonation, prosody, etc. has since been called into question and been found to have a neuronal basis in both hemispheres.
Perceptual information is processed in both hemispheres, but is laterally partitioned: information from each side of the body is sent to the opposite hemisphere. Motor control signals sent out to the body come from the hemisphere on the opposite side. Thus, hand preference is related to hemisphere lateralization. In some aspects, the hemispheres are asymmetrical. There are higher levels of the neurotransmitter norepinephrine on the right and higher levels of dopamine on the left. There is more white matter on the more grey matter on the left. Linear reasoning functions of language such as grammar and word production are late
Sleep is a recurring state of mind and body, characterized by altered consciousness inhibited sensory activity, inhibition of nearly all voluntary muscles, reduced interactions with surroundings. It is distinguished from wakefulness by a decreased ability to react to stimuli, but more reactive than coma or disorders of consciousness, sleep displaying different and active brain patterns. Sleep occurs in repeating periods, in which the body alternates between two distinct modes: REM sleep and non-REM sleep. Although REM stands for "rapid eye movement", this mode of sleep has many other aspects, including virtual paralysis of the body. A well-known feature of sleep is the dream, an experience recounted in narrative form, which resembles waking life while in progress, but which can be distinguished as fantasy. During sleep, most of the body's systems are in an anabolic state, helping to restore the immune, nervous and muscular systems; the internal circadian clock promotes sleep daily at night. The diverse purposes and mechanisms of sleep are the subject of substantial ongoing research.
Sleep is a conserved behavior across animal evolution. Humans may suffer from various sleep disorders, including dyssomnias such as insomnia, hypersomnia and sleep apnea; the advent of artificial light has altered sleep timing in industrialized countries. The most pronounced physiological changes in sleep occur in the brain; the brain uses less energy during sleep than it does when awake during non-REM sleep. In areas with reduced activity, the brain restores its supply of adenosine triphosphate, the molecule used for short-term storage and transport of energy. In quiet waking, the brain is responsible for 20% of the body's energy use, thus this reduction has a noticeable effect on overall energy consumption. Sleep increases the sensory threshold. In other words, sleeping persons perceive fewer stimuli, but can still respond to loud noises and other salient sensory events. During slow-wave sleep, humans secrete bursts of growth hormone. All sleep during the day, is associated with secretion of prolactin.
Key physiological methods for monitoring and measuring changes during sleep include electroencephalography of brain waves, electrooculography of eye movements, electromyography of skeletal muscle activity. Simultaneous collection of these measurements is called polysomnography, can be performed in a specialized sleep laboratory. Sleep researchers use simplified electrocardiography for cardiac activity and actigraphy for motor movements. Sleep is divided into two broad types: non-rapid eye movement sleep and rapid eye movement sleep. Non-REM and REM sleep are so different that physiologists identify them as distinct behavioral states. Non-REM sleep after a transitional period is called slow-wave sleep or deep sleep. During this phase, body temperature and heart rate fall, the brain uses less energy. REM sleep known as paradoxical sleep, represents a smaller portion of total sleep time, it is the main occasion for dreams, is associated with desynchronized and fast brain waves, eye movements, loss of muscle tone, suspension of homeostasis.
The sleep cycle of alternate NREM and REM sleep takes an average of 90 minutes, occurring 4–6 times in a good night's sleep. The American Academy of Sleep Medicine divides NREM into three stages: N1, N2, N3, the last of, called delta sleep or slow-wave sleep; the whole period proceeds in the order: N1 → N2 → N3 → N2 → REM. REM sleep occurs as a person returns to stage 1 from a deep sleep. There is a greater amount of deep sleep earlier in the night, while the proportion of REM sleep increases in the two cycles just before natural awakening. Awakening can mean the end of sleep, or a moment to survey the environment and readjust body position before falling back asleep. Sleepers awaken soon after the end of a REM phase or sometimes in the middle of REM. Internal circadian indicators, along with successful reduction of homeostatic sleep need bring about awakening and the end of the sleep cycle. Awakening involves heightened electrical activation in the brain, beginning with the thalamus and spreading throughout the cortex.
During a night's sleep, a small amount of time is spent in a waking state. As measured by electroencephalography, young females are awake for 0–1% of the larger sleeping period. In adults, wakefulness increases in cycles. One study found 3% awake time in the first ninety-minute sleep cycle, 8% in the second, 10% in the third, 12% in the fourth, 13–14% in the fifth. Most of this awake time occurred shortly. Today, many humans wake up with an alarm clock. Many sleep quite differently on workdays versus days off, a pattern which can lead to chronic circadian desynchronization. Many people look at television and other screens before going to bed, a factor which may exacerbate disruption of the circadian cycle. Scientific studies on sleep have shown that sleep stage at awakening is an important factor in amplifying sleep inertia. Sleep timing is controlled by the circadian clock, sleep-wake homeostasis, to some extent by individual will. Sleep timing depends on hormo
Misorientation is the difference in crystallographic orientation between two crystallites in a polycrystalline material. In crystalline materials, the orientation of a crystallite is defined by a transformation from a sample reference frame to the local reference frame of the crystalline lattice, as defined by the basis of the unit cell. In the same way, misorientation is the transformation necessary to move from one local crystal frame to some other crystal frame; that is, it is the distance in orientation space between two distinct orientations. If the orientations are specified in terms of matrices of direction cosines gA and gB the misorientation operator ∆gAB going from A to B can be defined as follows: g B = Δ g A B g A Δ g A B = g B g A − 1 where the term gA−1 is the reverse operation of gA, that is, transformation from crystal frame A back to the sample frame; this provides an alternate description of misorientation as the successive operation of transforming from the first crystal frame back to the sample frame and subsequently to the new crystal frame.
Various methods can be used to represent this transformation operation, such as: Euler angles, Rodrigues vectors, axis/angle, or unit quaternions. The effect of crystal symmetry on misorientations is to reduce the fraction of the full orientation space necessary to uniquely represent all possible misorientation relationships. For example, cubic crystals have 24 symmetrically related orientations; each of these orientations is physically indistinguishable. Therefore, the size of orientation space is reduced by a factor of 24; this defines the fundamental zone for cubic symmetries. For the misorientation between two cubic crystallites, each possesses its 24 inherent symmetries. In addition, there exists a switching symmetry, defined by: Δ g A B = Δ g B A which recognizes the invariance of misorientation to direction; the fraction of the total orientation space in the cubic-cubic fundamental zone for misorientation is given by: 1 24 ⋅ 24 ⋅ 2 = 1 1152 or 1/48 the volume of the cubic fundamental zone.
This has the effect of limiting the maximum unique misorientation angle to 62.8°Disorientation describes the misorientation with the smallest possible rotation angle out of all symmetrically equivalent misorientations that fall within the FZ. Calculation of these variants involves application of crystal symmetry operators to each of the orientations during the calculation of misorientation. Δ g A B = O B c r y s g B − 1. The misorientation distribution is analogous to the ODF used in characterizing texture; the MD describes the probability of the misorientation between any two grains falling into a range d Δ g around a given misorientation Δ g. While similar to a probability density, the MD is not mathematically the same due to the normalization; the intensity in a MD is given as "multiples of random density" with respect to the distribution expected in a material with uniformly distributed misorientations. The MD can be calculated by either series expansion using generalized spherical harmonics, or by a discrete binning scheme, where each data point is assigned to a bin and accumulated.
Discrete misorientations or the misorientation distribution can be described as plots in the Euler angle, axis/angle, or Rodrigues vector space. Unit quaternions, while computationally convenient, do not lend themselves to graphical representation because of their four-dimensional nature. For any of the representations, plots are constructed as sections through the fundamental zone. Due to the irregular shape of the cubic-cubic FZ, the plots are given as sections through the cubic FZ with the more restrictive boundaries overlaid. Mackenzie plots are a one-dimensional representation of the MD plotting the relative frequency of the misorientation angle, irrespective of the axis. Mackenzie determined the misorientation distribution for a cubic sample with a random texture; the following is an example of the algorithm for determining the axis/angle representation of misorientation between two texture components given as Euler angles: Copper S3 The first step is converting the Euler angle representation to an orientation matrix g by: [