Terrestrial Planet Finder
The Terrestrial Planet Finder was a proposed project by NASA to construct a system of space telescopes for detecting extrasolar terrestrial planets. TPF was postponed several times and cancelled in 2011. There were two telescope systems under consideration, the TPF-I, which had several small telescopes, TPF-C, which used one large telescope. In May 2002, NASA chose two TPF mission architecture concepts for further study and technology development; each would use a different means to achieve the same goal—to block the light from a parent star in order to see its much smaller, dimmer planets. The technological challenge of imaging planets near their much brighter star has been likened to finding a firefly near the beam of a distant searchlight. Additional goals of the mission would include the characterization of the surfaces and atmospheres of newfound planets, looking for the chemical signatures of life; the two planned architectures were: Infrared astronomical interferometer: Multiple small telescopes on a fixed structure or on separated spacecraft floating in precision formation would simulate a much larger powerful telescope.
The interferometer would use a technique called nulling to reduce the starlight by a factor of one million, thus enabling the detection of the dim infrared emission from the planets. Visible Light Coronagraph: A large optical telescope, with a mirror three to four times bigger and at least 100 times more precise than the Hubble Space Telescope, would collect starlight and the dim reflected light from the planets; the telescope would have special optics to reduce the starlight by a factor of one billion, thus enabling astronomers to detect faint planets. NASA and Jet Propulsion Laboratory were to issue calls for proposals seeking input on the development and demonstration of technologies to implement the two architectures, on scientific research relevant to planet finding. Launch of TPF-C had been anticipated to occur around 2014, TPF-I by 2020. According to NASA's 2007 budget documentation, released on 6 February 2006, the project was deferred indefinitely. In June 2006, a House of Representatives subcommittee voted to provide funding for the TPF along with the long-sought mission to Europa, a moon of Jupiter that might harbor extraterrestrial life.
Congressional spending limits under House Resolution 20 passed on 31 January 2007, by the United States House of Representatives and 14 February by the U. S. Senate postponed the program indefinitely. Actual funding has not materialized, TPF remains a concept. In June 2011, the TPF programs were reported as "cancelled". Automated Planet Finder, at Lick Observatory, operating since 2013 COROT, French space based exoplanet finder, operated from 2007 to 2012 Darwin, an ESA proposal similar to TPF High Accuracy Radial Velocity Planet Searcher, ground based, operating since 2003 James Webb Space Telescope, to be launched 2021 Kepler, launched 2009 Navigator Program Space Interferometry Mission, a NASA proposal List of NASA cancellations Canceling NASA's Terrestrial Planet Finder: The White House's Increasingly Nearsighted "Vision" For Space Exploration Congressional Inaction Leaves Science Still Devastated. Planetary Society. Current status of TPF development work Interferometric Nulling at TNO
Spitzer Space Telescope
The Spitzer Space Telescope the Space Infrared Telescope Facility, is an infrared space telescope launched in 2003 and still operating as of 2019. The planned mission period was to be 2.5 years with a pre-launch expectation that the mission could extend to five or more years until the onboard liquid helium supply was exhausted. This occurred on 15 May 2009. Without liquid helium to cool the telescope to the low temperatures needed to operate, most of the instruments are no longer usable. However, the two shortest-wavelength modules of the IRAC camera are still operable with the same sensitivity as before the cryogen was exhausted, have continued to be used to the present in the Spitzer Warm Mission. All Spitzer data, from both the primary and warm phases, are archived at the Infrared Science Archive. In keeping with NASA tradition, the telescope was renamed after its successful demonstration of operation, on 18 December 2003. Unlike most telescopes that are named after famous deceased astronomers by a board of scientists, the new name for SIRTF was obtained from a contest open to the general public.
The contest led to the telescope being named in honor of astronomer Lyman Spitzer, who had promoted the concept of space telescopes in the 1940s. Spitzer wrote a 1946 report for RAND Corporation describing the advantages of an extraterrestrial observatory and how it could be realized with available or upcoming technology, he has been cited for his pioneering contributions to rocketry and astronomy, as well as "his vision and leadership in articulating the advantages and benefits to be realized from the Space Telescope Program."The US$720 million Spitzer was launched on 25 August 2003 at 05:35:39 UTC from Cape Canaveral SLC-17B aboard a Delta II 7920H rocket. It follows a heliocentric instead of geocentric orbit and drifting away from Earth's orbit at 0.1 astronomical units per year. The primary mirror is 85 centimeters in diameter, f/12, made of beryllium and was cooled to 5.5 K. The satellite contains three instruments that allow it to perform astronomical imaging and photometry from 3.6 to 160 micrometers, spectroscopy from 5.2 to 38 micrometers, spectrophotometry from 5 to 100 micrometers.
By the early 1970s, astronomers began to consider the possibility of placing an infrared telescope above the obscuring effects of Earth's atmosphere. In 1979, a report from the National Research Council of the National Academy of Sciences, A Strategy for Space Astronomy and Astrophysics for the 1980s, identified a Space Infrared Telescope Facility as "one of two major astrophysics facilities for Spacelab", a Shuttle-borne platform. Anticipating the major results from an upcoming Explorer satellite and from the Shuttle mission, the report favored the "study and development of... long-duration spaceflights of infrared telescopes cooled to cryogenic temperatures." The launch in January 1983 of the Infrared Astronomical Satellite, jointly developed by the United States, the Netherlands, the United Kingdom, to conduct the first infrared survey of the sky, whetted the appetites of scientists worldwide for follow-up space missions capitalizing on the rapid improvements in infrared detector technology.
Earlier infrared observations had been made by both ground-based observatories. Ground-based observatories have the drawback that at infrared wavelengths or frequencies, both the Earth's atmosphere and the telescope itself will radiate strongly. Additionally, the atmosphere is opaque at most infrared wavelengths; this necessitates lengthy exposure times and decreases the ability to detect faint objects. It could be compared to trying to observe the stars at noon. Previous space observatories were launched during the 1980s and 1990s and great advances in astronomical technology have been made since then. Most of the early concepts envisioned repeated flights aboard the NASA Space Shuttle; this approach was developed in an era when the Shuttle program was expected to support weekly flights of up to 30 days duration. A May 1983 NASA proposal described SIRTF as a Shuttle-attached mission, with an evolving scientific instrument payload. Several flights were anticipated with a probable transition into a more extended mode of operation in association with a future space platform or space station.
SIRTF would be a 1-meter class, cryogenically cooled, multi-user facility consisting of a telescope and associated focal plane instruments. It would be launched on the Space Shuttle and remain attached to the Shuttle as a Spacelab payload during astronomical observations, after which it would be returned to Earth for refurbishment prior to re-flight; the first flight was expected to occur about 1990, with the succeeding flights anticipated beginning one year later. However, the Spacelab-2 flight aboard STS-51-F showed that the Shuttle environment was poorly suited to an onboard infrared telescope due to contamination from the "dirty" vacuum associated with the orbiters. By September 1983 NASA was considering the "possibility of a long duration SIRTF mission". Spitzer is the only one of the Great Observatories not launched by the Space Shuttle, as was intended. However, after the 1986 Challenger disaster, the Centaur LH2–LOX upper stage, which would have been required to place it in its final orbit, was banned from Shuttle use.
The mission underwent a series of redesigns during the 1990s due to budget considerations. This resulted in a much smaller but still capable mission that could use the smaller Delta II expendable launch vehicle. One of the most important
Hubble Space Telescope
The Hubble Space Telescope is a space telescope, launched into low Earth orbit in 1990 and remains in operation. Although not the first space telescope, Hubble is one of the largest and most versatile and is well known as both a vital research tool and a public relations boon for astronomy; the HST is named after the astronomer Edwin Hubble and is one of NASA's Great Observatories, along with the Compton Gamma Ray Observatory, the Chandra X-ray Observatory and the Spitzer Space Telescope. With a 2.4-meter mirror, Hubble's four main instruments observe in the ultraviolet and near infrared regions of the electromagnetic spectrum. Hubble's orbit outside the distortion of Earth's atmosphere allows it to take high-resolution images, with lower background light than ground-based telescopes. Hubble has recorded some of the most detailed visible light images allowing a deep view into space and time. Many Hubble observations have led to breakthroughs in astrophysics, such as determining the rate of expansion of the universe.
The HST was built by the United States space agency NASA, with contributions from the European Space Agency. The Space Telescope Science Institute selects Hubble's targets and processes the resulting data, while the Goddard Space Flight Center controls the spacecraft. Space telescopes were proposed as early as 1923. Hubble was funded in the 1970s, with a proposed launch in 1983, but the project was beset by technical delays, budget problems, the Challenger disaster; when launched in 1990, Hubble's main mirror was found to have been ground incorrectly, creating a spherical aberration, compromising the telescope's capabilities. The optics were corrected to their intended quality by a servicing mission in 1993. Hubble is the only telescope designed to be serviced in space by astronauts. After launch by Space Shuttle Discovery in 1990, five subsequent Space Shuttle missions repaired and replaced systems on the telescope, including all five of the main instruments; the fifth mission was canceled on safety grounds following the Columbia disaster.
However, after spirited public discussion, NASA administrator Mike Griffin approved the fifth servicing mission, completed in 2009. The telescope is operating as of 2019, could last until 2030–2040. After numerous delays, its successor, the James Webb Space Telescope, is scheduled to be launched in March 2021. In 1923, Hermann Oberth—considered a father of modern rocketry, along with Robert H. Goddard and Konstantin Tsiolkovsky—published Die Rakete zu den Planetenräumen, which mentioned how a telescope could be propelled into Earth orbit by a rocket; the history of the Hubble Space Telescope can be traced back as far as 1946, to the astronomer Lyman Spitzer's paper "Astronomical advantages of an extraterrestrial observatory". In it, he discussed the two main advantages that a space-based observatory would have over ground-based telescopes. First, the angular resolution would be limited only by diffraction, rather than by the turbulence in the atmosphere, which causes stars to twinkle, known to astronomers as seeing.
At that time ground-based telescopes were limited to resolutions of 0.5–1.0 arcseconds, compared to a theoretical diffraction-limited resolution of about 0.05 arcsec for a telescope with a mirror 2.5 m in diameter. Second, a space-based telescope could observe infrared and ultraviolet light, which are absorbed by the atmosphere. Spitzer devoted much of his career to pushing for the development of a space telescope. In 1962, a report by the US National Academy of Sciences recommended the development of a space telescope as part of the space program, in 1965 Spitzer was appointed as head of a committee given the task of defining scientific objectives for a large space telescope. Space-based astronomy had begun on a small scale following World War II, as scientists made use of developments that had taken place in rocket technology; the first ultraviolet spectrum of the Sun was obtained in 1946, the National Aeronautics and Space Administration launched the Orbiting Solar Observatory to obtain UV, X-ray, gamma-ray spectra in 1962.
An orbiting solar telescope was launched in 1962 by the United Kingdom as part of the Ariel space program, in 1966 NASA launched the first Orbiting Astronomical Observatory mission. OAO-1's battery failed after three days, it was followed by OAO-2, which carried out ultraviolet observations of stars and galaxies from its launch in 1968 until 1972, well beyond its original planned lifetime of one year. The OSO and OAO missions demonstrated the important role space-based observations could play in astronomy, in 1968, NASA developed firm plans for a space-based reflecting telescope with a mirror 3 m in diameter, known provisionally as the Large Orbiting Telescope or Large Space Telescope, with a launch slated for 1979; these plans emphasized the need for manned maintenance missions to the telescope to ensure such a costly program had a lengthy working life, the concurrent development of plans for the reusable Space Shuttle indicated that the technology to allow this was soon to become available.
The continuing success of the OAO program encouraged strong consensus within the astronomical community that the LST should be a major goal. In 1970, NASA established two committees, one to plan the engineering side of the space telescope project, the other to determine the scientific goals of the mission. Once these had been established, the next hurdle for NASA was to obtain funding for the instrument, which would be far more costly than any Earth-bas
High Resolution Imaging Science Experiment is a camera on board the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter. The 65 kg, US$40 million instrument was built under the direction of the University of Arizona's Lunar and Planetary Laboratory by Ball Aerospace & Technologies Corp, it consists of a 0.5 m aperture reflecting telescope, the largest so far of any deep space mission, which allows it to take pictures of Mars with resolutions of 0.3 m/pixel, resolving objects below a meter across. HiRISE has imaged Mars landers on the surface, including the ongoing Curiosity and Opportunity rover missions. In the late 1980s, Alan Delamere of Ball Aerospace began planning the kind of high-resolution imaging needed to support sample return and surface exploration of Mars. In early 2001 he teamed up with Alfred McEwen of the University of Arizona to propose such a camera for the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter, NASA formally accepted it November 9, 2001. Ball Aerospace was given the responsibility to build the camera and they delivered HiRISE to NASA on December 6, 2004 for integration with the rest of the spacecraft.
It was prepared for launch on board the MRO on August 12, 2005, to the cheers of the HiRISE team who were present. During the cruise phase of MRO, HiRISE took multiple test shots including several of the Moon and the Jewel Box cluster; these images helped to prepare it for taking pictures of Mars. On March 10, 2006, MRO achieved Martian orbit and primed HiRISE to acquire some initial images of Mars; the instrument had two opportunities to take pictures of Mars before MRO entered aerobraking, during which time the camera was turned off for six months. It was turned on on September 27, took its first high-resolution pictures of Mars on September 29. On October 6, 2006 HiRISE took the first image of Victoria Crater, a site, under study by the Opportunity rover. In February 2007 seven detectors showed signs of degradation, with one IR channel completely degraded, one other showing advanced signs of degradation; the problems seemed to disappear when higher temperatures were used to take pictures with the camera.
As of March, the degradation appeared to have stabilized. Subsequent experiments with the Engineering Model at Ball Aerospace provided definitive evidence for the cause: contamination in the analog-to-digital converters which results in flipping bits to create the apparent noise or bad data in the images, combined with design flaws leading to delivery of poor analog waveforms to the ADCs. Further work showed. On 2007-10-03, HiRISE was turned toward Earth, took a picture of it and the Moon. In a full-resolution color image, Earth was 90 pixels across and the Moon was 24 pixels across from a distance of 142 million km. On May 25, 2008, HiRISE imaged NASA's Mars Phoenix Lander parachuting down to Mars, it was the first time that one spacecraft imaged the final descent of another spacecraft onto a planetary body. By 2010, HiRISE had imaged about one percent of Mars's surface and by 2016 the coverage was around 2.4%. It was designed to capture smaller areas at high resolution—other instruments scan much more area to find things like fresh impact craters.
On April 1, 2010, NASA released the first images under the HiWish program in which the public suggested places for HiRISE to photograph. One of the eight locations was Aureum Chaos; the first image below gives a wide view of the area. The next two images are from the HiRISE image; the following three images relate to the first images taken under the HiWish program. The first is a context image from CTX to show; the following group of images show some significant images taken by the instrument. Some of these hint at possible sources of water for future colonists; the following set of pictures show first a full image of a scene and enlargements from parts of it. A program called; some pictures are in color. HiRISE takes a color strip down the middle only; the HiRISE camera is designed to view surface features of Mars in greater detail than has been possible. It has provided a closer look at fresh martian craters, revealing alluvial fans, viscous flow features and ponded regions of pitted materials containing breccia clast.
This allows for the study of the age of Martian features, looking for landing sites for future Mars landers, in general, seeing the Martian surface in far greater detail than has been done from orbit. By doing so, it is allowing better studies of Martian channels and valleys, volcanic landforms, possible former lakes and oceans, sand dune fields such as Hagal and Nili Patera, other surface landforms as they exist on the Martian surface; the general public is allowed to request sites for the HiRISE camera to capture. For this reason, due to the unprecedented access of pictures to the general public, shortly after they have been received and processed, the camera has been termed "The People's Camera"; the pictures can be viewed online, downloaded, or with the free HiView software. HiRISE was designed to be a high resolution camera from the beginning, it consists of a large mirror, as well as a large CCD camera. Because of this, it achieves 0.3 meter at a height of 300 km. It can image in 400 -- 600 nm, 550 -- 850 nm and 800 -- 1,000 nm.
HiRISE incorporates a 0.5-meter primary mirror, the largest optical telescope sent beyond Earth's orbit. The mass of the instrument is 64
Chang'e 4 is a Chinese lunar exploration mission that achieved the first soft landing on the far side of the Moon, on 3 January 2019. A communication relay satellite, was first launched to a halo orbit near the Earth-Moon L2 point in May 2018; the robotic lander and Yutu 2 rover were launched on 7 December 2018 and entered orbit around the Moon on 12 December 2018. The mission is the follow-up to the first Chinese landing on the Moon; the spacecraft was built as a backup for Chang'e 3 and became available after Chang'e 3 landed in 2013. The configuration of Chang'e 4 was adjusted to meet new scientific objectives. Like its predecessors, the mission is named after Chang ` the Chinese Moon goddess; the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program is designed to be conducted in three phases of incremental technological advancement: the first is to reach lunar orbit, a task completed by Chang'e 1 in 2007 and Chang'e 2 in 2010. The program aims to facilitate a crewed lunar landing in the 2030s and build an outpost near the south pole.
The Chinese Lunar Exploration Program has started to incorporate private investment from individuals and enterprises for the first time, a move aimed at accelerating aerospace innovation, cutting production costs, promoting military–civilian relationships. The Chang'e 4 mission was first scheduled for launch in 2015 as part of the second phase of the Chinese Lunar Exploration Program, but the adjusted objectives and design of the mission imposed delays, launched on 7 December 2018, 18:23 UTC. The spacecraft entered lunar orbit on 12 December 2018, 08:45 UTC; the orbit's perilune was lowered to 15 km on 30 December 2018, 00:55 UTC. Landing took place on 3 January 2019 at 02:26 UTC, shortly after lunar sunrise over the crater Von Kármán; this mission will attempt to determine the age and composition of an unexplored region of the Moon, as well as develop technologies required for the stages of the program. An ancient collision event on the Moon left behind a large crater, called the Aitken Basin, now about 13 km deep, it is thought that the massive impactor exposed the deep lunar crust, the mantle materials.
If Chang'e 4 can find and study some of this material, it would get an unprecedented view into the Moon's internal structure and origins. The specific scientific objectives are: Measure the chemical compositions of lunar rocks and soils Measure lunar surface temperature over the duration of the mission. Carry out low-frequency radio astronomical observation and research using a radio telescope Study of cosmic rays Observe the solar corona, investigate its radiation characteristics and mechanism, to explore the evolution and transport of coronal mass ejections between the Sun and Earth. Direct communication with Earth is impossible on the far side of the Moon, since transmissions are blocked by the Moon. Communications must go through a communications relay satellite, placed at a location that has a clear view of both the landing site and the Earth. On 20 May 2018, the China National Space Administration launched the Queqiao relay satellite to a halo orbit around the Earth–Moon L2 point; the relay satellite is based on the Chang'e 2 design, has a mass of 425 kg, it uses a 4.2 m antenna to receive X band signals from the lander and rover, relay them to Earth control on the S band.
The spacecraft took 24 days to reach L2. On 14 June 2018, Queqiao finished its final adjustment burn and entered the L2 halo mission orbit, about 65,000 kilometres from the Moon; this is the first lunar relay satellite at this location. The name Queqiao came from the Chinese tale The Cowherd and the Weaver Girl; as part of the Chang'e 4 mission, two microsatellites named Longjiang-1 and Longjiang-2, were launched along with Queqiao in May 2018. Longjiang-1 failed to enter lunar orbit, but Longjiang-2 succeeded and is operational in lunar orbit; these microsatellites were tasked to observe the sky at low frequencies, corresponding to wavelengths of 300 to 10 metres, with the aim of studying energetic phenomena from celestial sources. Due to the Earth's ionosphere, no observations in this frequency range have been done in Earth orbit, offering potential breakthrough science; as is the case with many of China's space missions, the details of the spacecraft and the mission have been limited. What is known is that much of the Chang'e 4 lander and rover design is modeled after Chang'e-3 and its Yutu rover.
In fact, Chang'e 4 was built as a backup to Chang'e 3, based on the experience and results from that mission, Chang'e 4 was adapted to the specifics of the new mission. The lander and rover were launched on 7 December 2018, 18:23 UTC, six months after the launch of the Queqiao relay satellite; the total landing mass is 1,200 kg. Both the stationary lander and Yutu-2 rover are equipped with a radioisotope heater unit in order to heat their subsystems during the long lunar nights, while electrical power is generated by solar panels. After landing, the lander extended a ramp to deploy the Yutu-2 rover to the lunar surface; the rover measures 1.5 × 1.0 × 1
Kepler space telescope
Kepler space telescope is a retired space telescope launched by NASA to discover Earth-size planets orbiting other stars. Named after astronomer Johannes Kepler, the spacecraft was launched on March 7, 2009, into an Earth-trailing heliocentric orbit; the principal investigator was William J. Borucki. After nine years of operation, the telescope's reaction control system fuel was depleted, NASA announced its retirement on October 30, 2018. Designed to survey a portion of Earth's region of the Milky Way to discover Earth-size exoplanets in or near habitable zones and estimate how many of the billions of stars in the Milky Way have such planets, Kepler's sole scientific instrument is a photometer that continually monitored the brightness of approx 150,000 main sequence stars in a fixed field of view; these data are transmitted to Earth analyzed to detect periodic dimming caused by exoplanets that cross in front of their host star. Only planets whose orbits are seen edge-on from Earth can be detected.
During its over nine years of service, Kepler detected 2,662 planets. Kepler space telescope was part of NASA's Discovery Program of low-cost science missions; the telescope's construction and initial operation were managed by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory, with Ball Aerospace responsible for developing the Kepler flight system. The Ames Research Center is responsible for the ground system development, mission operations since December 2009, scientific data analysis; the initial planned lifetime was 3.5 years, but greater-than-expected noise in the data, from both the stars and the spacecraft, meant additional time was needed to fulfill all mission goals. In 2012, the mission was expected to be extended until 2016, but on July 14, 2012, one of the spacecraft's four reaction wheels used for pointing the spacecraft stopped turning, completing the mission would only be possible if all other reaction wheels remained reliable. On May 11, 2013, a second reaction wheel failed, disabling the collection of science data and threatening the continuation of the mission.
On August 15, 2013, NASA announced that they had given up trying to fix the two failed reaction wheels. This meant the current mission needed to be modified, but it did not mean the end of planet hunting. NASA had asked the space science community to propose alternative mission plans "potentially including an exoplanet search, using the remaining two good reaction wheels and thrusters". On November 18, 2013, the K2 "Second Light" proposal was reported; this would include utilizing the disabled Kepler in a way that could detect habitable planets around smaller, dimmer red dwarfs. On May 16, 2014, NASA announced the approval of the K2 extension. By January 2015, Kepler and its follow-up observations had found 1,013 confirmed exoplanets in about 440 star systems, along with a further 3,199 unconfirmed planet candidates. Four planets have been confirmed through Kepler's K2 mission. In November 2013, astronomers estimated, based on Kepler space mission data, that there could be as many as 40 billion rocky Earth-size exoplanets orbiting in the habitable zones of Sun-like stars and red dwarfs within the Milky Way.
It is estimated. The nearest such planet may be 3.7 parsecs away, according to the scientists. On January 6, 2015, NASA announced the 1,000th confirmed exoplanet discovered by the Kepler space telescope. Four of the newly confirmed exoplanets were found to orbit within habitable zones of their related stars: three of the four, Kepler-438b, Kepler-442b and Kepler-452b, are Earth-size and rocky. On May 10, 2016, NASA verified 1,284 new exoplanets found by Kepler, the single largest finding of planets to date. Kepler data has helped scientists observe and understand supernovae. On October 30, 2018, after the spacecraft ran out of fuel, NASA announced that the telescope would be retired; the telescope was shut down the same day. Kepler discovered 2,662 exoplanets over its lifetime. A newer NASA mission, TESS, launched in 2018, is continuing the search for exoplanets; the telescope has a mass of 1,039 kilograms and contains a Schmidt camera with a 0.95-meter front corrector plate feeding a 1.4-meter primary mirror—at the time of its launch this was the largest mirror on any telescope outside Earth orbit, though the Herschel Space Observatory took this title a few months later.
Its telescope has a 115 deg2 field of view equivalent to the size of one's fist held at arm's length. Of this, 105 deg2 is with less than 11 % vignetting; the photometer has a soft focus to provide excellent photometry, rather than sharp images. The mission goal was a combined differential photometric precision of 20 ppm for a m=12 Sun-like star for a 6.5-hour integration, though the observations fell short of this objective. The focal plane of the spacecraft's camera is made out of forty-two 50 × 25 mm CCDs at 2200×1024 pixels each, possessing a total resolution of 94.6 megapixels, which at the time made it the largest camera system launched into space. The array was cooled by heat pipes connected to an external radiator; the CCDs were read out every 6.5 seconds and co-added on board for 58.89 seconds for short cadence targets, 1765.5 seconds for long cadence targets. Due to the larger bandwidth requirements for the former, these were limited in number to 512 compared to 170,000