Phenol is an aromatic organic compound with the molecular formula C6H5OH. It is a white crystalline solid, volatile; the molecule consists of a phenyl group bonded to a hydroxy group. It requires careful handling due to its propensity for causing chemical burns. Phenol was first extracted from coal tar, it is an important industrial commodity as a precursor to useful compounds. It is used to synthesize plastics and related materials. Phenol and its chemical derivatives are essential for production of polycarbonates, Bakelite, detergents, herbicides such as phenoxy herbicides, numerous pharmaceutical drugs. Phenol is an organic compound appreciably soluble in water, with about 84.2 g dissolving in 1000 mL. Homogeneous mixtures of phenol and water at phenol to water mass ratios of ~2.6 and higher are possible. The sodium salt of phenol, sodium phenoxide, is far more water-soluble. Phenol is weakly acidic and at high pHs gives the phenolate anion C6H5O−: PhOH ⇌ PhO− + H+ Compared to aliphatic alcohols, phenol is about 1 million times more acidic, although it is still considered a weak acid.
It reacts with aqueous NaOH to lose H+, giving the salt sodium phenoxide, whereas most alcohols react only partially. One explanation for the increased acidity over alcohols is resonance stabilization of the phenoxide anion by the aromatic ring. In this way, the negative charge on oxygen is delocalized on to the ortho and para carbon atoms through the pi system. An alternative explanation involves the sigma framework, postulating that the dominant effect is the induction from the more electronegative sp2 hybridised carbons. In support of the second explanation, the pKa of the enol of acetone in water is 10.9, making it only less acidic than phenol. Thus, the greater number of resonance structures available to phenoxide compared to acetone enolate seems to contribute little to its stabilization. However, the situation changes. A recent in silico comparison of the gas phase acidities of the vinylogues of phenol and cyclohexanol in conformations that allow for or exclude resonance stabilization leads to the inference that about 1⁄3 of the increased acidity of phenol is attributable to inductive effects, with resonance accounting for the remaining difference.
The phenoxide anion has a similar nucleophilicity to free amines, with the further advantage that its conjugate acid does not become deactivated as a nucleophile in moderately acidic conditions. Phenolate esters are more stable toward hydrolysis than acid anhydrides and acyl halides but are sufficiently reactive under mild conditions to facilitate the formation of amide bonds. Phenol exhibits keto-enol tautomerism with its unstable keto tautomer cyclohexadienone, but only a tiny fraction of phenol exists as the keto form; the equilibrium constant for enolisation is 10−13, which means only one in every ten trillion molecules is in the keto form at any moment. The small amount of stabilisation gained by exchanging a C=C bond for a C=O bond is more than offset by the large destabilisation resulting from the loss of aromaticity. Phenol therefore exists entirely in the enol form. Phenoxides are enolates stabilised by aromaticity. Under normal circumstances, phenoxide is more reactive at the oxygen position, but the oxygen position is a "hard" nucleophile whereas the alpha-carbon positions tend to be "soft".
Phenol is reactive toward electrophilic aromatic substitution as the oxygen atom's pi electrons donate electron density into the ring. By this general approach, many groups can be appended to the ring, via halogenation, acylation and other processes. However, phenol's ring is so activated—second only to aniline—that bromination or chlorination of phenol leads to substitution on all carbon atoms ortho and para to the hydroxy group, not only on one carbon. Phenol reacts with dilute nitric acid at room temperature to give a mixture of 2-nitrophenol and 4-nitrophenol while with concentrated nitric acid, more nitro groups get substituted on the ring to give 2,4,6-trinitrophenol, known as picric acid. Aqueous solutions of phenol are weakly acidic and turn blue litmus to red. Phenol is neutralized by sodium hydroxide forming sodium phenate or phenolate, but being weaker than carbonic acid, it cannot be neutralized by sodium bicarbonate or sodium carbonate to liberate carbon dioxide. C6H5OH + NaOH → C6H5ONa + H2OWhen a mixture of phenol and benzoyl chloride are shaken in presence of dilute sodium hydroxide solution, phenyl benzoate is formed.
This is an example of the Schotten-Baumann reaction: C6H5OH + C6H5COCl → C6H5OCOC6H5 + HClPhenol is reduced to benzene when it is distilled with zinc dust, or when phenol vapour is passed over granules of zinc at 400 °C: C6H5OH + Zn → C6H6 + ZnOWhen phenol is reacted with diazomethane in the presence of boron trifluoride, anisole is obtained as the main product and nitrogen gas as a byproduct. C6H5OH + CH2N2 → C6H5OCH3 + N2When phenol reacts with iron chloride solution, an intense violet-purple solution is formed; because of phenol's commercial importance, many methods have been developed for its production. The dominant current route, accounting for 95% of production, is the cumene process, which uses benzene and propene as feedstock and involves the partial oxidation of cumene vi
A non-Newtonian fluid is a fluid that does not follow Newton's law of viscosity, i.e. constant viscosity independent of stress. In non-Newtonian fluids, viscosity can change when under force to more solid. Ketchup, for example, becomes runnier when is thus a non-Newtonian fluid. Many salt solutions and molten polymers are non-Newtonian fluids, as are many found substances such as custard, toothpaste, starch suspensions, corn starch, paint and shampoo. Most the viscosity of non-Newtonian fluids is dependent on shear rate or shear rate history; some non-Newtonian fluids with shear-independent viscosity, still exhibit normal stress-differences or other non-Newtonian behavior. In a Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is linear, passing through the origin, the constant of proportionality being the coefficient of viscosity. In a non-Newtonian fluid, the relation between the shear stress and the shear rate is different; the fluid can exhibit time-dependent viscosity.
Therefore, a constant coefficient of viscosity cannot be defined. Although the concept of viscosity is used in fluid mechanics to characterize the shear properties of a fluid, it can be inadequate to describe non-Newtonian fluids, they are best studied through several other rheological properties that relate stress and strain rate tensors under many different flow conditions—such as oscillatory shear or extensional flow—which are measured using different devices or rheometers. The properties are better studied using tensor-valued constitutive equations, which are common in the field of continuum mechanics; the viscosity of a shear thickening fluid, or dilatant fluid, appears to increase when the shear rate increases. Corn starch dissolved in water is a common example: when stirred it looks milky, when stirred vigorously it feels like a viscous liquid. A familiar example of the opposite, a shear thinning fluid, or pseudoplastic fluid, is wall paint: The paint should flow off the brush when it is being applied to a surface but not drip excessively.
Note that all thixotropic fluids are shear thinning, but they are time dependent, whereas the colloidal "shear thinning" fluids respond instantaneously to changes in shear rate. Thus, to avoid confusion, the latter classification is more termed pseudoplastic. Another example of a shear thinning fluid is blood; this application is favoured within the body, as it allows the viscosity of blood to decrease with increased shear strain rate. Fluids that have a linear shear stress/shear strain relationship require a finite yield stress before they begin to flow; these fluids are called Bingham plastics. Several examples are clay suspensions, drilling mud, mayonnaise and mustard; the surface of a Bingham plastic can hold peaks. By contrast Newtonian fluids have flat featureless surfaces. There are fluids whose strain rate is a function of time. Fluids that require a increasing shear stress to maintain a constant strain rate are referred to as rheopectic. An opposite case of this is a fluid that thins out with time and requires a decreasing stress to maintain a constant strain rate.
Many common substances exhibit non-Newtonian flows. These include: Soap solutions and toothpaste Food such as butter, corn starch mixed with water, jam, mayonnaise, soup and yogurt Natural substances such as magma, gums and extracts such as vanilla extract Biological fluids such as blood, semen and synovial fluid Slurries such as cement slurry and paper pulp, emulsions such as mayonnaise, some kinds of dispersions An inexpensive, non-toxic example of a non-Newtonian fluid is a suspension of starch in water, sometimes called "oobleck", "ooze", or "magic mud"; the name "oobleck" is derived from the Oobleck. Because of its properties, oobleck is used in demonstrations that exhibit its unusual behavior. A person may walk on a large tub of oobleck without sinking due to its shear thickening properties, as long as the individual moves enough to provide enough force with each step to cause the thickening. If oobleck is placed on a large subwoofer driven at a sufficiently high volume, it will thicken and form standing waves in response to low frequency sound waves from the speaker.
If a person were to punch or hit oobleck, it would act like a solid. After the blow, the oobleck will go back to its thin liquid like state. Flubber commonly known as slime, is a non-Newtonian fluid made from polyvinyl alcohol–based glues and borax, it breaks under higher stresses and pressures. This combination of fluid-like and solid-like properties makes it a Maxwell fluid, its behaviour can be described as being viscoplastic or gelatinous. Another example of this is chilled caramel ice cream topping; the sudden application of force—by stabbing the surface with a finger, for example, or inverting the container holding it—causes the fluid to behave like a solid rather than a liquid. This is the "shear thickening" property of this non-Newtonian fluid. More gentle treatment, such as inserting a spoon, will leave it in its liquid state. Trying to jerk the spoon back out again, will trigger the return of the temporary solid state. Silly Putty is a silicone po
The Orinoco Belt is a territory in the southern strip of the eastern Orinoco River Basin in Venezuela which overlies the world's largest deposits of petroleum. Its local Spanish name is Faja Petrolífera del Orinoco; the Orinoco Belt is located Guárico and south of the Anzoátegui and Delta Amacuro states, it follows the line of the river. It is 600 kilometres from east to west, 70 kilometres from north to south, with an area about 55,314 square kilometres; the Orinoco Belt consists of large deposits of extra heavy crude. Venezuela's heavy oil deposits of about 1,200 billion barrels, found in the Orinoco Petroleum Belt, are estimated to equal the world's reserves of lighter oil. Petróleos de Venezuela S. A. has estimated that the producible reserves of the Orinoco Belt are up to 235 billion barrels which would make it the largest petroleum reserve in the world ahead of the similar unconventional oil source in the Athabasca oil sands, before Saudi Arabia In 2009, the US Geological Survey increased the estimated reserves to 513 billion barrels of oil, "technically recoverable."
No estimate of how much of the oil is economically recoverable was made. The Orinoco Belt is divided into four exploration and production areas; these are: Boyacá, Junín, Carabobo. The current exploration area is about 11,593 square kilometres. Source:The data in this section are taken directly from the official PDVSA web page. Venezuela power policy guidelines until the year 2030 are drawn up in the "Oil Sowing Plan”, which includes six development projects and consists of two stages: one to be executed in the period 2005–2012, another, to be developed in the second stage, 2012 and 2030. For the first period of this Plan, an overall investment of around US $56 billion has been estimated between 2005 and 2012. 70% of that amount will be financed by Venezuela — state operator — and the rest by the private sector. Oil Sowing Plan 2005–2012 includes six fundamental axes: Magna Reserve Project: Destined toward the quantifying and certifying of oil reserves in the Orinoco Oil Belt. In a presentation given by PDVSA at the VII LAPEC conference in Buenos Aires, March 2001, the proven Venezuelan reserves were given as 76 billion barrels.
Of this amount 52 billion barrels were heavy or extra heavy oil, including 37 billion reserves of extra heavy in the Orinoco Belt. This indicates that Venezuela’s reserves, according to PDVSA, in 2001 were 39 billion barrels excluding the Orinoco Belt. Orinoco Project: In charge of developing the Orinoco Belt. Twenty-seven blocks have been selected for development under this project with the cooperation of selected companies; because of the strategic location of this hydrocarbon reservoir, it is considered of vital importance in reducing levels of overcrowding in some parts of the country and providing local employment. Services and housing will be developed to guarantee adequate oil exploitation. Delta-Caribbean Project: Gas will be incorporated to the country energy supply; this project pursues offshore gas development in the Deltana Platform off the coast of eastern Venezuela. Further developments are located to the north-west of the country. Refinement: To increase refinement capacity in Venezuela is one of PDVSA’s strategic goals.
Oil Sowing Plan undertakes the creation of new refineries: Cabruta, Batalla de Santa Ines and Caripito. With these three new refineries and the improvement of the existing ones, PDVSA’s processing capacity on Venezuelan soil will be increased to 700,000 barrels per day. Infrastructure: More filling centers and pipelines will be set up to guarantee fuel supplies to the whole nation; the agreement for the construction of the Transguajiro gas pipeline between Venezuela and Colombia has been signed in 2005. Integration: According to Hugo Chávez's aims, oil is to be used as a geopolitical resource helping the integration of the peoples of Latin America and the Caribbean. Venezuela thus signed the Petrosur agreement. A refinery was to be built close to Petrobras in Brazil. Production blocks will be developed by PDVSA in cooperation with foreign partners. In all partnership PDVSA owns 60%. Junin block 2 is under development in cooperation with Petrovietnam. SNC-Lavalin was awarded the engineering contract on March 10, 2010.
It is expected to produce 200 thousand barrels per day by 2011. The development will include a heavy crude upgrader. Junin block 4 is developed in cooperation with CNPC, it is expected to produce 400 thousand barrels per day. Junin block 5 is developed in cooperation with Eni, it is expected to produce 75 thousand barrels per day by 2013 with late production of 240 thousand barrels per day. The development will include an oil refinery for production of motor fuels. Junin block 6 is developed in cooperation with a consortium of Russian oil companies, including Rosneft, Gazprom Neft, Lukoil, TNK-BP and Surgutneftegaz, it is expected to produce 450 thousand barrels per day.
A barrel is one of several units of volume applied in various contexts. For historical reasons the volumes of some barrel units are double the volumes of others. In many connections the term "drum" is used interchangeably with "barrel". Since medieval times the term barrel as a unit of measure has had various meanings throughout Europe, ranging from about 100 litres to 1000 litres; the name was derived in medieval times from the French baril, of unknown origin, but still in use, both in French and as derivations in many other languages such as Italian and Spanish. In most countries such usage is obsolescent superseded by SI units; as a result, the meaning of corresponding words and related concepts in other languages refers to a physical container rather than a known measure. In the international oil market context, prices in United States dollars per barrel are used, the term is variously translated to derivations of the Latin/Teutonic root fat. In other commercial connections, barrel sizes such as beer keg volumes are standardised in many countries.
US dry barrel: 7,056 cubic inches Defined as length of stave 28 1⁄2 in, diameter of head 17 1⁄8 in, distance between heads 26 in, circumference of bulge 64 in outside measurement. Any barrel, 7,056 cubic inches is recognized as equivalent; this is equal to 26.25 US dry gallons. US barrel for cranberries 5,826 cubic inches Defined as length of stave 28 1⁄2 in, diameter of head 16 1⁄4 in, distance between heads 25 1⁄4 in, circumference of bulge 58 1⁄2 in outside measurement. No equivalent in cubic inches is given in the statute, but regulations specify it as 5,826 cubic inches; some products have a standard weight or volume that constitutes a barrel: Cornmeal, 200 pounds Cement, 4 cubic feet or 376 pounds Sugar, 5 cubic feet Wheat or rye flour, three bushels or 196 pounds Lime, 280 pounds large barrel, or 180 pounds small barrel Butter and cheese in UK, 224 pounds Salt, 280 pounds Fluid barrels vary depending on what is being measured and where. In the UK a beer barrel is 36 imperial gallons. In the US most fluid barrels are 31.5 US gallons.
The size of beer kegs in the US is based loosely on fractions of the US beer barrel. When referring to beer barrels or kegs in many countries, the term may be used for the commercial package units independent of actual volume, where common range for professional use is 20-60 L a DIN or Euro keg of 50 L. Richard III, King of England from 1483 until 1485, had defined the wine puncheon as a cask holding 84 gallons and a wine tierce as holding 42 gallons. By 1700 custom had made the 42-gallon watertight tierce a standard container for shipping eel, herring, wine, whale oil and many other commodities in the English colonies. After the American Revolution in 1776, American merchants continued to use the same size barrels. In the worldwide oil industry, an oil barrel is defined as 42 US gallons, about 159 litres or 35 imperial gallons. Oil companies that are listed on American stock exchanges report their production in terms of volume and use the units of bbl, Mbbl, or MMbbl and for widest comprehensive statistics the Gbbl denoting a billion.
There is a conflict concerning the units for oil barrels. For all other physical quantities, according to the International System of Units, the uppercase letter "M" means Mega, for example: Mm, MHz, MW, MeV, but due to tradition, the Mbbl acronym is used today meaning "one thousand bbl", as a heritage of the roman number "M" meaning "one thousand". On the other hand, there are efforts to avoid this ambiguity, most of the barrel dealers today prefer to use bbl, instead of Mbbl, mbbl, MMbbl or mmbbl. Outside the United States, volumes of oil are reported in cubic metres instead of oil barrels. Cubic metre is the basic volume unit in the International System. In Canada, oil companies measure oil in cubic metres but convert to barrels on export, since most of Canada's oil production is exported to the US; the nominal conversion factor is 1 cubic metre = 6.2898 oil barrels, but conversion is done by custody transfer meters on the border since the volumes are specified at different temperatures and the exact conversion factor depends on both density and temperature.
Canadian companies operate internally and report to Canadian governments in cubic metres, but convert to US barrels for the benefit of American investors and oil marketers. They will quote prices in Canadian dollars per cubic metre to other Canadian companies, but use US dollars per barrel in financial reports and press statements, making it appear to the outside world that they operate in barrels. Companies
Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south; the kanji that make up Japan's name mean "sun origin", it is called the "Land of the Rising Sun". Japan is a stratovolcanic archipelago consisting of about 6,852 islands; the four largest are Honshu, Hokkaido and Shikoku, which make up about ninety-seven percent of Japan's land area and are referred to as home islands. The country is divided into 47 prefectures in eight regions, with Hokkaido being the northernmost prefecture and Okinawa being the southernmost one; the population of 127 million is the world's tenth largest. 90.7 % of people live in cities. About 13.8 million people live in the capital of Japan. The Greater Tokyo Area is the most populous metropolitan area in the world with over 38 million people. Archaeological research indicates; the first written mention of Japan is in Chinese history texts from the 1st century AD.
Influence from other regions China, followed by periods of isolation from Western Europe, has characterized Japan's history. From the 12th century until 1868, Japan was ruled by successive feudal military shōguns who ruled in the name of the Emperor. Japan entered into a long period of isolation in the early 17th century, ended in 1853 when a United States fleet pressured Japan to open to the West. After nearly two decades of internal conflict and insurrection, the Imperial Court regained its political power in 1868 through the help of several clans from Chōshū and Satsuma – and the Empire of Japan was established. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, victories in the First Sino-Japanese War, the Russo-Japanese War and World War I allowed Japan to expand its empire during a period of increasing militarism; the Second Sino-Japanese War of 1937 expanded into part of World War II in 1941, which came to an end in 1945 following the Japanese surrender. Since adopting its revised constitution on May 3, 1947, during the occupation led by SCAP, the sovereign state of Japan has maintained a unitary parliamentary constitutional monarchy with an Emperor and an elected legislature called the National Diet.
Japan is a member of the ASEAN Plus mechanism, UN, the OECD, the G7, the G8, the G20, is considered a great power. Its economy is the world's third-largest by nominal GDP and the fourth-largest by purchasing power parity, it is the world's fourth-largest exporter and fourth-largest importer. Japan benefits from a skilled and educated workforce. Although it has renounced its right to declare war, Japan maintains a modern military with the world's eighth-largest military budget, used for self-defense and peacekeeping roles. Japan is a developed country with a high standard of living and Human Development Index, its population enjoys the highest life expectancy and third lowest infant mortality rate in the world, but is experiencing issues due to an aging population and low birthrate. Japan is renowned for its historical and extensive cinema, influential music industry, video gaming, rich cuisine and its major contributions to science and modern technology; the Japanese word for Japan is 日本, pronounced Nihon or Nippon and means "the origin of the sun".
The character nichi means "sun" or "day". The compound therefore means "origin of the sun" and is the source of the popular Western epithet "Land of the Rising Sun"; the earliest record of the name Nihon appears in the Chinese historical records of the Tang dynasty, the Old Book of Tang. At the end of the seventh century, a delegation from Japan requested that Nihon be used as the name of their country; this name may have its origin in a letter sent in 607 and recorded in the official history of the Sui dynasty. Prince Shōtoku, the Regent of Japan, sent a mission to China with a letter in which he called himself "the Emperor of the Land where the Sun rises"; the message said: "Here, I, the emperor of the country where the sun rises, send a letter to the emperor of the country where the sun sets. How are you". Prior to the adoption of Nihon, other terms such as Yamato and Wakoku were used; the term Wa is a homophone of Wo 倭, used by the Chinese as a designation for the Japanese as early as the third century Three Kingdoms period.
Another form of Wa, Wei in Chinese) was used for an early state in Japan called Nakoku during the Han dynasty. However, the Japanese disliked some connotation of Wa 倭, it was therefore replaced with the substitute character Wa, meaning "togetherness, harmony"; the English word Japan derives from the historical Chinese pronunciation of 日本. The Old Mandarin or early Wu Chinese pronunciation of Japan was recorded by Marco Polo as Cipangu. In modern Shanghainese, a Wu dialect, the pronunciation of characters 日本; the old Malay word for Japan, Japun or Japang, was borrowed from a southern coastal Chinese dialect Fukienese or Ningpo – and this Malay word was encountered by Portuguese traders in Southeast Asia in the 16th century. These Early Portuguese traders brought the word
Venezuela the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela, is a country on the northern coast of South America, consisting of a continental landmass and a large number of small islands and islets in the Caribbean Sea. The capital and largest urban agglomeration is the city of Caracas, it has a territorial extension of 916,445 km2. The continental territory is bordered on the north by the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean, on the west by Colombia, Brazil on the south and Tobago to the north-east and on the east by Guyana. With this last country, the Venezuelan government maintains a claim for Guayana Esequiba over an area of 159,542 km2. For its maritime areas, it exercises sovereignty over 71,295 km2 of territorial waters, 22,224 km2 in its contiguous zone, 471,507 km2 of the Caribbean Sea and the Atlantic Ocean under the concept of exclusive economic zone, 99,889 km2 of continental shelf; this marine area borders those of 13 states. The country has high biodiversity and is ranked seventh in the world's list of nations with the most number of species.
There are habitats ranging from the Andes Mountains in the west to the Amazon basin rain-forest in the south via extensive llanos plains, the Caribbean coast and the Orinoco River Delta in the east. The territory now known as Venezuela was colonized by Spain in 1522 amid resistance from indigenous peoples. In 1811, it became one of the first Spanish-American territories to declare independence, not securely established until 1821, when Venezuela was a department of the federal republic of Gran Colombia, it gained full independence as a country in 1830. During the 19th century, Venezuela suffered political turmoil and autocracy, remaining dominated by regional caudillos until the mid-20th century. Since 1958, the country has had a series of democratic governments. Economic shocks in the 1980s and 1990s led to several political crises, including the deadly Caracazo riots of 1989, two attempted coups in 1992, the impeachment of President Carlos Andrés Pérez for embezzlement of public funds in 1993.
A collapse in confidence in the existing parties saw the 1998 election of former coup-involved career officer Hugo Chávez and the launch of the Bolivarian Revolution. The revolution began with a 1999 Constituent Assembly, where a new Constitution of Venezuela was written; this new constitution changed the name of the country to Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela. The sovereign state is a federal presidential republic consisting of 23 states, the Capital District, federal dependencies. Venezuela claims all Guyanese territory west of the Essequibo River, a 159,500-square-kilometre tract dubbed Guayana Esequiba or the Zona en Reclamación. Venezuela is among the most urbanized countries in Latin America. Oil was discovered in the early 20th century, today, Venezuela has the world's largest known oil reserves and has been one of the world's leading exporters of oil; the country was an underdeveloped exporter of agricultural commodities such as coffee and cocoa, but oil came to dominate exports and government revenues.
The 1980s oil glut led to a long-running economic crisis. Inflation peaked at 100% in 1996 and poverty rates rose to 66% in 1995 as per capita GDP fell to the same level as 1963, down a third from its 1978 peak; the recovery of oil prices in the early 2000s gave. The Venezuelan government under Hugo Chávez established populist social welfare policies that boosted the Venezuelan economy and increased social spending, temporarily reducing economic inequality and poverty in the early years of the regime. However, such populist policies became inadequate, causing the nation's collapse as their excesses—including a uniquely extreme fossil fuel subsidy—are blamed for destabilizing the nation's economy; the destabilized economy led to a crisis in Bolivarian Venezuela, resulting in hyperinflation, an economic depression, shortages of basic goods and drastic increases in unemployment, disease, child mortality and crime. These factors have precipitated the Venezuelan Migrant Crisis where more than three million people have fled the country.
By 2017, Venezuela was declared to be in default regarding debt payments by credit rating agencies. In 2018, the country's economic policies led to extreme hyperinflation, with estimates expecting an inflation rate of 1,370,000% by the end of the year. Venezuela is a charter member of the UN, OAS, UNASUR, ALBA, Mercosur, LAIA and OEI. According to the most popular and accepted version, in 1499, an expedition led by Alonso de Ojeda visited the Venezuelan coast; the stilt houses in the area of Lake Maracaibo reminded the Italian navigator, Amerigo Vespucci, of the city of Venice, Italy, so he named the region Veneziola, or "Little Venice". The Spanish version of Veneziola is Venezuela. Martín Fernández de Enciso, a member of the Vespucci and Ojeda crew, gave a different account. In his work Summa de geografía, he states that the crew found indigenous people who called themselves the Veneciuela. Thus, the name "Venezuela" may have evolved from the native word; the official name was Estado de Venezuela, República de Venezuela, Estados Unidos de Venezuela, a
China the People's Republic of China, is a country in East Asia and the world's most populous country, with a population of around 1.404 billion. Covering 9,600,000 square kilometers, it is the third- or fourth-largest country by total area. Governed by the Communist Party of China, the state exercises jurisdiction over 22 provinces, five autonomous regions, four direct-controlled municipalities, the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau. China emerged as one of the world's earliest civilizations, in the fertile basin of the Yellow River in the North China Plain. For millennia, China's political system was based on hereditary monarchies, or dynasties, beginning with the semi-legendary Xia dynasty in 21st century BCE. Since China has expanded, re-unified numerous times. In the 3rd century BCE, the Qin established the first Chinese empire; the succeeding Han dynasty, which ruled from 206 BC until 220 AD, saw some of the most advanced technology at that time, including papermaking and the compass, along with agricultural and medical improvements.
The invention of gunpowder and movable type in the Tang dynasty and Northern Song completed the Four Great Inventions. Tang culture spread in Asia, as the new Silk Route brought traders to as far as Mesopotamia and Horn of Africa. Dynastic rule ended in 1912 with the Xinhai Revolution; the Chinese Civil War resulted in a division of territory in 1949, when the Communist Party of China established the People's Republic of China, a unitary one-party sovereign state on Mainland China, while the Kuomintang-led government retreated to the island of Taiwan. The political status of Taiwan remains disputed. Since the introduction of economic reforms in 1978, China's economy has been one of the world's fastest-growing with annual growth rates above 6 percent. According to the World Bank, China's GDP grew from $150 billion in 1978 to $12.24 trillion by 2017. Since 2010, China has been the world's second-largest economy by nominal GDP and since 2014, the largest economy in the world by purchasing power parity.
China is the world's largest exporter and second-largest importer of goods. China is a recognized nuclear weapons state and has the world's largest standing army and second-largest defense budget; the PRC is a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council as it replaced the ROC in 1971, as well as an active global partner of ASEAN Plus mechanism. China is a leading member of numerous formal and informal multilateral organizations, including the Shanghai Cooperation Organization, WTO, APEC, BRICS, the BCIM, the G20. In recent times, scholars have argued that it will soon be a world superpower, rivaling the United States; the word "China" has been used in English since the 16th century. It is not a word used by the Chinese themselves, it has been traced through Portuguese and Persian back to the Sanskrit word Cīna, used in ancient India."China" appears in Richard Eden's 1555 translation of the 1516 journal of the Portuguese explorer Duarte Barbosa. Barbosa's usage was derived from Persian Chīn, in turn derived from Sanskrit Cīna.
Cīna was first used including the Mahābhārata and the Laws of Manu. In 1655, Martino Martini suggested that the word China is derived from the name of the Qin dynasty. Although this derivation is still given in various sources, it is complicated by the fact that the Sanskrit word appears in pre-Qin literature; the word may have referred to a state such as Yelang. The meaning transferred to China as a whole; the origin of the Sanskrit word is still a matter of debate, according to the Oxford English Dictionary. The official name of the modern state is the "People's Republic of China"; the shorter form is "China" Zhōngguó, from zhōng and guó, a term which developed under the Western Zhou dynasty in reference to its royal demesne. It was applied to the area around Luoyi during the Eastern Zhou and to China's Central Plain before being used as an occasional synonym for the state under the Qing, it was used as a cultural concept to distinguish the Huaxia people from perceived "barbarians". The name Zhongguo is translated as "Middle Kingdom" in English.
Archaeological evidence suggests that early hominids inhabited China between 2.24 million and 250,000 years ago. The hominid fossils of Peking Man, a Homo erectus who used fire, were discovered in a cave at Zhoukoudian near Beijing; the fossilized teeth of Homo sapiens have been discovered in Fuyan Cave in Hunan. Chinese proto-writing existed in Jiahu around 7000 BCE, Damaidi around 6000 BCE, Dadiwan from 5800–5400 BCE, Banpo dating from the 5th millennium BCE; some scholars have suggested. According to Chinese tradition, the first dynasty was the Xia, which emerged around 2100 BCE; the dynasty was considered mythical by historians until scientific excavations found early Bronze Age sites at Erlitou, Henan in 1959. It remains unclear whether these sites are the remains of the Xia dynasty or of another culture from the same period; the succeeding Shang dynasty is the earliest to be confirmed by contemporary records. The Shang ruled the plain of the Yellow River in eastern China from the 17th to the 11th century BCE.
Their oracle bone script