Pyrénées-Atlantiques is a department in the region of Nouvelle-Aquitaine, in southwestern France. It takes its name from the Atlantic Ocean, it covers the Béarn. Named Basses-Pyrénées, it is one of the first 83 departments of France created during the French Revolution, on 4 March 1790, it was created out of parts belonging to the former greater province of Guyenne and Gascony, as well as the Béarn-Navarre, i.e. the Basques provinces of Basse-Navarre, Labourd and Soule, Béarn. The 1790 administrative design brought about the end of native laws; the Basque third-estate representatives overtly opposed the new administrative layout since it suppressed their institutions and laws. The representatives of Lower Navarre refused to vote arguing that they were not part of the Kingdom of France, those of Soule voted against, while the brothers Garat, representing Labourd voted yes, thinking that would give them a say in upcoming political decisions. On 10 October 1969, Basses-Pyrénées was renamed Pyrénées-Atlantiques.
Pyrénées-Atlantiques is part of the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of Southwest France. It is bordered by Hautes-Pyrénées, Gers departments and the Bay of Biscay. Principal settlements include Pau, Oloron-Sainte-Marie, Biarritz, Anglet, Saint-Jean-de-Luz and Hendaye. Lac Gentau is located here. Pyrénées-Atlantiques, a border province, has cultivated a number of economic and cultural links with Spain. Two urban concentrations exist in the east and west of the département: Pau, which has 145,000 inhabitants, 344,000 workers in the local area. Both the Gascon Bearnese variant and Basque language are indigenous to the region in their respective districts. Gascon in turn is a dialect of Occitan the main language of southern France, it is more related to Catalan than it is to French. Basque is a language isolate, not related to any known language. Today, the sole official language of the French Republic, is the predominant native language and is spoken by all inhabitants. Pyrénées-Atlantiques is home to a number of professional sports teams, including Aviron Bayonnais, Biarritz Olympique, Section Paloise, Élan Béarnais Pau-Orthez and Pau FC.
The Pau Grand Prix, an auto race first held in 1901, has hosted the World Touring Car Championship, British Formula Three, Formula 3 Euro Series and FIA European Formula 3 Championship. The coat of arms of Pyrénées-Atlantiques combines those of four traditional provinces: Béarn Labourd Lower Navarre Soule Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department General Council website Archives of the Pyrenees-Atlantiques department website Photography Panoramics 360° website Prefecture official website Pyrenees-Atlantiques at Curlie Pyrenees-Atlantiques Monuments, Villages and Attractions Information on living and visiting Pyrenees Atlantiques
Alos-Sibas-Abense is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. It is located in the former province of Soule; the inhabitants of the commune are known as Aloztar-Ziboztar-Oniztar Alos-Sibas-Abense is located some 90 km south-east of Bayonne and 80m km west of Lourdes. The D918 road does not enter. Access to the commune is on road D247 from Alcay-Alcabehety-Sunharette in the southwest which runs through the heart of the commune to the village, it continues to the southeast linking with the D918 at Tardets-Sorholus. Most of the commune is farmland with some forest and it has a network of country roads covering most of the commune. Located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, the Saison river passes along and forms the eastern border of the commune parallel with the D918 road; the Aphoura stream, fed by the Ardounc, the Batasse, the Laritolle, the Jaga, the Uthurrotche erreka, flows near the village and to the Saisson. The commune name in Basque is Aloze-Ziboze-Onizegaine.
The Basque form of Sibas can be Ziborotz. Jean-Baptiste Orpustan suggested that Abense came from a Roman phonetic change to the Basque Oniz > onise > oénse > auénse > abense. The base of the name is the oronym ona present in Bayonne and Oneix; the modern Basque form are equivalent to "Upper". Brigitte Jobbé-Duval suggests; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Cassini: 1750 Cassini Map EHESS: Abense on the Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Origins: Luntz: Soule: Customs of Soule Duchesne: Duchesne collection volume CXIV Sibas merged with Alos on 23 October 1843 to form Alos-Sibas. On 16 April 1859, following the annexation of part of the territory of Abense-de-Haut, the commune took the name of Alos-Sibas-Abense. On the same day the commune of Abense-de-Haut disappeared, its territory being divided between Alos-Sibas and Tardets.
Lists of Successive Mayors of Alos-Sibas-Abense AlosSibasAbense-de-Haut Alos-SibasAbense-de-Haut Alos-Sibas-Abense The town is part of six intercommunal structures: the community of communes of Soule-Xiberoa the union to support Basque culture SIVOM of the canton of Tardets the municipal association for the gaves of Oloron and Mauleon SIVU for Tourism in Haute-Soule and Barétous the AEP Union for Soule country In 2009 the commune had 274 inhabitants. The evolution of the number of inhabitants is known through the population censuses conducted in the town since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of municipalities with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Economic activity is focused on agriculture; the town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone of Ossau-iraty. Etchandia House owned by the Etchandy family. La Salle d'Abense The Church of Abense contains a Processional Cross, registered as an historical object.
The common practices Controlled burns for prevention of forest fires. The town has an Ikastola. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Alos-Sibas-Abense official website Alos-Sibas-Abense personal website ALOZE-ZIBOZE-ONIZEGAINE in the Bernardo Estornés Lasa - Auñamendi Encyclopedia Alos-Sibas-Abense on Lion1906 Alos-Sibas-Abense on Google Maps Alos-Sibas-Abense on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Alos and Abens on the 1750 Cassini Map Alos-Sibas-Abense on the INSEE website INSEE
Aramits is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region of south-western France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Aramitsiennes. Aramits is located in part of the Barétous valley, the westernmost of the three main valleys of Béarn crossing the Pyrenees, it is located 3 km north of Arette. Access is by the D919 road from Ance in the north-east to the village continuing to Lanne-en-Baretous in the south-west. There are the minor roads D659 from the village north to join the D159 on the northern border and the D133 which goes south from the village to Arette. Bus route 848 of the Inter-urban network of Pyrénées-Atlantiques, which connects La Pierre Saint-Martin to Oloron-Sainte-Marie, has a stop in Aramits. Located in the drainage basin of the Adour, the commune is bisected from south-west to north-east by: Le Vert a tributary of the Gave d'Oloron which gathers many tributaries of its own in the commune including the Aurone, the Lancy, the Littos, the Talou Gros, by the arrècs of Bugalaran, Bitole and Labaigt.
The tributaries of the Joos: the Arriou de Sulu and the Bouhatéko erreka flow through the commune. The commune name in béarnais is Aràmits. For Brigitte Jobbé-Duval, the origin of the name is from the Basque aran and -itz giving "place of valleys" or "confluence", it would indicate that the inhabitants were once nicknamed grenouilles - a name for the inhabitants of wetlands). The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Ossau: Titles of the Ossau Valley Luntz: Insinuations: Insinuations of the Diocese of Oloron Aspe: Titles of the Aspe Valley Census: Census of Béarn Cour Majour: Regulations of the Cour Majour Military: Military Inspection of Béarn Paul Raymond on page 7 of his 1863 dictionary that Aramits is the former capital of the Barétous valley and that there were two Lay Abbeys, vassals of the Viscounts of Béarn: The Abadie-Susan and Abadie-Jusan.
He further noted that in 1385 there were 52 fires at Aramits and it depended on the bailiwick of Oloron. Shortly before, the priest of Aramits played the role of mediator in conflicts between the Navarrese and the Bearnese which gave birth to the treaty called the Junta de Roncal, leading to the yearly tribute of the three cows paid by Aramits to Isaba. In 1790, the Canton of Aramits included Esquiule. On 13 March 2000 Aramits was hit by an earthquake of magnitude 4.2. List of Successive Mayors Aramits is part of five inter-communal structures: The Community of communes of the Barétous Valley. In 2009 the commune had 677 inhabitants; the evolution of the number of inhabitants is known from the population censuses conducted in the commune since 1793. From the 21st century, a census of communes with fewer than 10,000 inhabitants is held every five years, unlike larger towns that have a sample survey every year. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The economy of the town is oriented toward agriculture and livestock.
It is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. The Parish church of Saint-Vincent is registered as an historical monument, it was a former Lay Abbey with the remains of a portal from the 17th century but the old church was demolished in 1880. The new Romanesque-Byzantine style church was built from 1884 to 1886; the Sommet de Souek is 623 metres high The Soum d'Unars is 604 metres The Barrat de Sottou is 556 metres. The commune has a primary school. Rugby Union: the Entente Aramits plays in Fédérale 2. Pierre Capdevielle played there from 1985 to 1994. Henri d'Aramitz lived in the commune, he was the son of Charles Aramitz and a sergeant in the company of musketeers, the inspiration for Aramis in the novels The Three Musketeers, Twenty Years After and The Vicomte de Bragelonne by Alexandre Dumas. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Aramits Official web site Aramits on Lion1906 Aramits on Google Maps Aramits on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Aramits on the 1750 Cassini Map Aramits on the INSEE website INSEE
Agnos is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Agnosiens or Agnosiennes Agnos is located just 2 km south of Oloron-Sainte-Marie and some 25 km southwest of Pau, it can be accessed on the D155 road from Bidos in the northeast coming southwest to the village continuing southeast to Gurmençon. The D555 road passes through the commune from the north and joins the D155 northeast of the village; the commune is mixed farmland and forests with the forests scattered throughout the commune. Located in the Adour basin, the Mielle river flows from south of the commune forming part of the southern border continuing north through the village and together with several tributaries rising in the commune joins the Gave d'Oloron north of Oloron-Sainte-Marie; the commune name in béarnais is Anhos. Michel Grosclaude suggested that Agnos came from a Latin man's name Annius with an Aqitaine suffix -ossum the whole meaning "domain of Annius".
The following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table. Grosclaude: Toponymic Dictionary of communes, Béarn, 2006 Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750Origins: Fors de Béarn Census: Census of Béarn Reformation: Reformation of Béarn Paul Raymond noted on page 3 of his 1863 dictionary that in 1385 Agnos had seventeen fires and depended on the bailiwick of Oloron; the commune was merged with Gurmençon on 1 February 1973 to form the commune called Val-du-Gave d'Aspe. It was restored to its previous status on 1 January 1983. List of Successive Mayors of Agnos The town is part of five inter-communal organisations: the Community of communes of Piedmont Oloronais the SIVU to limit floods in Agnos the AEP Union for Agnos-Gurmençon the Inter-communal Union for Sanitisation for the Aspe gateway the energy union for Pyrénées-Atlantiques Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 Agnos is part of the urban area of Oloron-Sainte-Marie.
The activity of the commune is agricultural. The town is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée of ossau-iraty; the 2006 classification by INSEE showed the median household incomes for each commune with more than 50 households. It classed Agnos at the rank of 6,323, for an average income of €18,420; the Church has a Trinitarian steeple. It contains many items which are registered as historical objects: An Altar 6 Candlesticks A Cross A Tabernacle A Chalice A Ciborium A Retable The Forests of Bugangue and Labaigt are inter-association woods managed by the National Office of Forests which provide valuable shelter for preserving local flora and fauna. Many species are protected. An arboretum is a result of collaboration with the ONF; the Mielle, a small stream that rises in Agnos, is listed in the Natura 2000 program for three rare species: white-clawed crayfish, European pond turtles, the rare European mink which does not exist anywhere in France except in the south-west. The Pyrenees are rich in scenery and the village of Agnos is the starting point of one of the most attractive routes for cycling across the foothills: From Agnos to Mail Arrouil and back in a variety of environments, rocks, meadows with views of the Pyrenees.
This route, like many others, is managed by the local hiking plan of the Community of communes of Piémont Oloronais. AssociationsThe model aircraft club welcomes its members in the Sayette neighborhood. EducationThe town has a primary school. Multi-Media LibraryThe Multi-media library project of the CCPO identified the municipal library of Agnos as a relay point. Sports and sports equipmentThe basketball club merged with that of Asasp in 2006 to form BCHB. Catherine Capdevielle, born in 1938 in Agnos, is an athlete specialising in ordeal sprinting. Cantons of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Arrondissements of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Agnos Town Hall website Agnos official website Community of communes of Piémont oloronais website Agnos on Lion1906 Agnos on the 1750 Cassini Map Agnos on the INSEE website INSEE
Ainhoa is a commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Ainhoars; the commune of Ainhoa is in the traditional Basque province of Labourd. Ainhoa is some 20 km due south of Bayonne and is directly on the Spanish border which forms the southern border of the commune; the commune is mountainous and forested in the south-east portion but with farmland in the northwest of the commune. There is one border crossing to Spain on the southern border at the village of Dantxana. Ainhoa and Sare, together with the two Spanish communes of Zugarramurdi and Urdazubi, form a cross-border territory, called Xareta. Straddling the border with Spain, it is a passage for the Way of St. James from Bayonne to Pamplona; the commune's border with Spain is in the Dancharia area and accesses the area of Dantxarinea d'Urdazubi. The commune is connected to Espelette in the north-east by Highway D20 which passes through the village and continues south to the Spanish border.
Highway D305 branches continues west to join Highway D4 before Cherchebruit. A network of small country roads covers all parts of the commune. Located in the watershed of the Adour, the Nivelle river runs along the southern border and forms the border between France and Spain. Numerous streams arise in the commune and flow down to the Nivelle including the Opalazioko erreka, the Lapitxuri and its tributaries, the Larreko erreka, the Erdiko erreka, the Farendeiko erreka, the Haitzagerriko erreka, the Barretako erreka. Paul Raymond mentions the Haïçaguerry, a tributary of the Nivelle, which descended to Gorospila on the Spanish border, which crossed the territory of Ainhoue; the commune name in basque is the same - Ainhoa. Brigitte Jobbé-Duval suggested that the name could come from the Basque aino which means "goat"; the following table details the origins of the commune name and other names in the commune. Sources: Orpustan: Jean-Baptiste Orpustan, New Basque Toponymy Raymond: Topographic Dictionary of the Department of Basses-Pyrenees, 1863, on the page numbers indicated in the table.
Map: The Map of the Government-General of Guyenne and Gascony and the neighbouring region Cassini: Cassini Map from 1750 Ldh/EHESS/Cassini: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini database Lhande: Pierre Lhande, Basque-French DictionaryOrigins: Saint-Claire: Titles of the Abbey of Sainte-Claire of Bayonne Collations: Collations of the Diocese of Bayonne The ancient redoubt of Urrizti reflects the ancient past of the area. Paul Raymond noted on page 4 of his 1863 dictionary that the parish of Ainhoa was in the gift of the Abbot of Urdax; the Curacy of Ainhoa was created by the Priory of the Premonstratensian of Urdazubi in the 13th century. On 27 April 1238 the new king Theobald I of Navarre purchased the toll rights instituted by Viscount Juan Pérez de Baztan, Ainhoa being at the borders between the Duchy of Aquitaine since 1151, run by the Angevin Kings of England and the Navarrese kingdom; such tolls were charged to pilgrims and traders traveling to Santiago de Compostela on the Way of St. James in Galicia, Spain.
Military clashes between the "English run" Basques of Aquitaine and the Navarrese in 1249 led the Seigneur of Ainhoa, in 1250, to recognize the suzerainty of King Henry III of England. By 1265 Gonzalvo Juanis, Seigneur of Ainhoa known as Gonzalvo Ibáñez or Gonzalvo Yáñes, did not recognize either the English or the Navarrese; however he opened the way to conquest based on old historical claims. Garda Arnaut de Espelette, with loyalty to the "English run" Basques of the Duchy of Aquitaine, sent a letter, dated 29 July 1289 praying the Ainhoa people to adequately connive with him; the outcome of such frontier business was to set up an "undivided" land as had been done previously with the nearby Aldudes close to the Baztan valley. Documents from Estella dated September 1369, some 80 years proved that the people from Ainhoa paid taxes to both the King of Navarre and the "English" Seneschal of the Landes territory in return for their fiscal and personal privileges; when "English run" Bayonne surrendered to the French in 1451 it is not known if these "undivided status" villages on the English-Navarrese frontier were taken by the French as well.
In the Spanish Invasion of 1636 in the Labourd territories many villages, including Ainhoa, were razed. Because of the 1659 "Treaty of the Pyrénées" whereby the Spanish-born Queen regent of France Anne of Austria with the help of Cardinal Mazarin, the First Minister of France, set up an advantageous peace and obtained Maria Theresa of Spain as a wife for her son Louis XIV of France. Ainhoa was repopulated again. Disputes between the new settlers and the old residents concerning the use of communal lands for cattle grazing and fodder and the access by newcomers to town hall positions, church grants, etc. had to be settled by the autonomous Parliament of Bordeaux in the sense of paying for access to village privileges. Ainhoa was destroyed during the Thirty Years War and rebuilt; the only remains from before the destruction are the Machitorénéa House. In 1724, following the revolts in Saint-Jean-le-Vieux Mouguerre and Saint-Pierre-d'Irube, the people of Ainhoa revolted against the salt tax and against other new taxes.
This was a prelude to the uprisings in all of Labourd in 1726 against the said taxes. Bayonne and Saint-Jean-Pied-de-Port followed in 1748; the Law of 4 March 1790 determined a new administrative landscape of France by creating departments and districts. This resulted in the creation of the department of Basses-Pyrénées and reuniting the Béarn, the
Abos is a French commune in the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department in the Nouvelle-Aquitaine region in southwestern France. The inhabitants of the commune are known as Abosiens or Abosiennes. Abos is located 15 km north-west of Pau and 20 km southeast of Lescar, on the left bank of the Gave de Pau, the north east boundary of the commune. Highway D2 passes through the commune; the southeastern boundary of the commune is formed by Highway D229. The commune is located in the Drainage basin of the Adour, with the Gave de Pau in the northeast and a number of streams in the commune feed into the La Baise river and Juscle. Bagneres Cap de Castel Chateau of Abos Idernes Le Moulin d'en Bas Le Moulin d'en Haut Peyré Saint-Laurent The name Abos is mentioned in 1116 and 1234 and in the 13th century, it appears in the forms: Abossium Abos Abous Abos (1630 Pierre de Marca and in 1750 on the Cassini Map. Michel Grosclaude proposed a Latin etymology of Avus with the aquitaine suffix -ossum; the commune name in Béarnais is Abòs.
Aubrun was a farm in Abos, mentioned in 1538 as La boyrie aperade d'Aubrun, Reformation of Béarn B. 637 in the 1863 dictionary. Cap de Castel is a hamlet in Abos mentioned by the dictionary in 1863. Paul Raymond said in 1863 that the Chateau of Abos or Castet-d'Abos, was a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn. Donadon was a fief under the Viscounts of Béarn, mentioned in 1538; the fief of Idernes was a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn and appeared in the forms: Ydernas and Ydernes. Maucor was a fief of Abos, cited with the spelling of L'ostau de Maucoo in 1385 in the Census of Béarn; this fief was a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn restored to the Bailiwick of Lagor and Pardies as was Saint Jean, another fief of Abos mentioned in 1385 in the form of L'ostau de Sent-Johan d'Abos. Saint-Laurent, a hamlet and fief of Abos under the Viscounts of Béarn, was restored to the Bailiwick of Lagor and Pardies, it was mentioned in the forms Sent-Laurentz d'Abos and Saint-Laurens d'Abos. Paul Raymond noted that the commune had a Lay Abbey a vassal of the Viscounts of Béarn and in 1385, Abos depended on the bailiwick of Lagos and Pardies with 49 fires.
The Lord of Abos was of the first rank after the Barons of Béarn. List of Successive Mayors of Abos The town is a member of nine inter-communal organisations: the community of communes of Lacq SIVU for the development and management of the river basin of the baïse AEP union for the Gave and the baïse. Population change Sources: Ldh/EHESS/Cassini until 1962, INSEE database from 1968 The commune is part of the Jurançon AOC and Béarn AOC vineyard regions. Activity in the commune is agricultural; the commune is part of the Appellation d'origine contrôlée zone designation of Ossau-iraty. The 2006 classification of INSEE, indicated the median household incomes for each municipality with more than 50 households ranked Abos at 7513, for an income of €18,000 per person; the Church of Saint John the Baptist dates to the 19th century. The town has a primary school. Didier Courrèges is a French horseman, a former high level event rider and a member of the Cadre Noir - elite instructors at the National Riding School of Saumur.
He now lives in Abos. Communes of the Pyrénées-Atlantiques department Abos on Géoportail, National Geographic Institute website Abos on the 1750 Cassini Map Abos on the INSEE website INSEE
Departments of France
In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, five are overseas departments, which are classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; each department is administered by an elected body called a departmental council. From 1800 to April 2015, these were called general councils; each council has a president. Their main areas of responsibility include the management of a number of social and welfare allowances, of junior high school buildings and technical staff, local roads and school and rural buses, a contribution to municipal infrastructures. Local services of the state administration are traditionally organised at departmental level, where the prefect represents the government; the departments were created in 1790 as a rational replacement of Ancien Régime provinces with a view to strengthen national unity.
All of them were named after physical geographical features, rather than after historical or cultural territories which could have their own loyalties. The division of France into departments was a project identified with the French revolutionary leader the Abbé Sieyès, although it had been discussed and written about by many politicians and thinkers; the earliest known suggestion of it is from 1764 in the writings of d'Argenson. They have inspired similar divisions in some of them former French colonies. Most French departments are assigned a two-digit number, the "Official Geographical Code", allocated by the Institut national de la statistique et des études économiques. Overseas departments have a three-digit number; the number is used, for example, in the postal code, was until used for all vehicle registration plates. While residents use the numbers to refer to their own department or a neighbouring one, more distant departments are referred to by their names, as few people know the numbers of all the departments.
For example, inhabitants of Loiret might refer to their department as "the 45". In 2014, President François Hollande proposed to abolish departmental councils by 2020, which would have maintained the departments as administrative divisions, to transfer their powers to other levels of governance; this reform project has since been abandoned. The first French territorial departments were proposed in 1665 by Marc-René d'Argenson to serve as administrative areas purely for the Ponts et Chaussées infrastructure administration. Before the French Revolution, France gained territory through the annexation of a mosaic of independent entities. By the close of the Ancien Régime, it was organised into provinces. During the period of the Revolution, these were dissolved in order to weaken old loyalties; the modern departments, as all-purpose units of the government, were created on 4 March 1790 by the National Constituent Assembly to replace the provinces with what the Assembly deemed a more rational structure.
Their boundaries served two purposes: Boundaries were chosen to break up France's historical regions in an attempt to erase cultural differences and build a more homogeneous nation. Boundaries were set so that every settlement in the country was within a day's ride of the capital of a department; this was a security measure, intended to keep the entire national territory under close control. This measure was directly inspired by the Great Terror, during which the government had lost control of many rural areas far from any centre of government; the old nomenclature was avoided in naming the new departments. Most were named after other physical features. Paris was in the department of Seine. Savoy became the department of Mont-Blanc; the number of departments 83, had been increased to 130 by 1809 with the territorial gains of the Republic and of the First French Empire. Following Napoleon's defeats in 1814–1815, the Congress of Vienna returned France to its pre-war size and the number of departments was reduced to 86.
In 1860, France acquired the County of Nice and Savoy, which led to the creation of three new departments. Two were added from the new Savoyard territory, while the department of Alpes-Maritimes was created from Nice and a portion of the Var department; the 89 departments were given numbers based on the alphabetical order of their names. The department of Bas-Rhin and parts of Meurthe, Moselle and Haut-Rhin were ceded to the German Empire in 1871, following France's defeat in the Franco-Prussian War. A small part of Haut-Rhin became known as the Territoire de Belfort; when France regained the ceded departments after World War I, the Territoire de Belfort was not re-integrated into Haut-Rhin. In 1922, it became France's 90th department; the Lorraine departments were not changed back to their original boundaries, a new Moselle department was created in the regaine