The Marseille Metro is a rapid transit system serving the city of Marseille, in southern France. The Marseille Metro opened in 1977; as of 2013, the system comprises two lines underground, serving 28 stations, with an overall route length of 21.5 kilometres. The first line opened on November 26, 1977. After the opening of a second line and multiple extensions, the metro serves 28 stations, two of which provide interchange with another line; the Metro uses the rubber-tyred metro technology developed by the RATP Paris transport operator for some lines of the Paris Metro. In 2013 the Marseille Metro carried 76.7 million passengers in 2012, making it a core part of the transport network in the Marseille urban area, with 49% of journeys using the metro. Since 1986 the Régie des transports métropolitains has operated the network, operating it since 2016 on behalf of the Aix-Marseille-Provence Metropolis; the first plans for a metro system in Marseille appeared in the early years of the 20th century, following the opening of the Paris metro.
Many plans were put forward, but abandoned due to lack of financing. The most serious proposal emanated in 1918 from the Compagnie d'électricité de Marseille, which proposed to build an underground network similar to the Paris métro; this proposal was met with fierce opposition from the Compagnie générale française de tramways, which owned and operated the city's tramway system. This project failed, the idea of building a metro in Marseille was abandoned for many decades; the tramway system, badly damaged during the Second World War, was completely scrapped during the 1950s and replaced by buses. However, by 1960, the city was suffering from severe congestion due to the growth in automobile use. New metro projects resurfaced as a means to alleviate traffic congestion. After several years of studies, the city council voted unanimously in 1969 for the creation of a metro system. Construction of the first line started on August 13, 1973 and lasted until early 1977. Revenue operation started on November 26, 1977 on a portion of the line, between La Rose and Saint-Charles.
The rest of the line opened on March 11, 1978. The plans for the second line were approved in 1978. Construction began in 1980; the central portion of the line, between Joliette and Castellane, opened on March 3, 1984. Southern and northern portions of the line were opened in February 1986 and February 1987 respectively. Subsequent extensions took place in the following years on line 1, first between Castellane and La Timone on September 5, 1992, between La Timone and La Fourragère in 2010; the rolling stock comprises 36 4-car trains, named MPM 76. Trains have a capacity of 472 passengers. MPM 76 trains use the rubber tyre metro technology developed by the RATP for the Paris métro. Trains were built in Valenciennes, France, by a group of French companies which are now part of Alstom group. A first batch of 21 3-car trains was delivered in 1976, for line 1. A second batch of 15 was delivered in 1983, for line 2. In 1985, a fourth car was added on every train; the metro system is operated by the Régie des Transports de Marseille, on behalf of the Urban Community of Marseille Provence Métropole, which owns the infrastructure as well as the rolling stock.
Service is open every day, from 5 am to 1 am the next day. Trains run every 3 minutes during rush hour, every 10 minutes during evenings; the metro system transported 76.7 million passengers in 2012, leading to an average daily ridership of over 210,000. A 900-metre long extension of line 2 to Capitaine Gèze is expected to open in 2019, north of the current terminus station Bougainville; the new Capitaine Gèze station will feature a park and ride facility. This short extension will reuse existing service tracks that lead to the Zoccola depot; the cost is estimated to be 80 million euros. Several other long-term extensions, including a southern extension of line 2 from Sainte-Marguerite to St-Loup, are being considered; the replacement of the MPM76 rolling stock is expected to take place by the year 2020. However, no decision has been made as of January 2013. List of Marseille Metro stations Marseille tramway List of metro systems Jacques. Marseille et son Métro. Éditions Paul Tacussel. ISBN 2903963665.
Groneck, Christoph. Metros in France. Robert Schwandl Verlag. ISBN 978-3936573138. Media related to Marseille Metro at Wikimedia Commons Marseille Metro Map on Google earth with geolocation RTM – official website Marseille at UrbanRail.net
Trams in France
Trams in France date from 1837 when a 15 km steam tram line connected Montrond-les-Bains and Montbrison in the Loire. With the development of electric trams at the end of the 19th century, networks proliferated in French cities over a period of 15 years. Although nearly all of the country's tram systems were replaced by bus services in the 1930s or shortly after the Second World War, France is now in the forefront of the revival of tramways and light rail systems around the globe. Only tram lines in Lille and Saint-Étienne have operated continuously since the 19th century. Since the opening of the Nantes tramway in 1985, more than twenty towns and cities across France have built new tram lines; as of 2013, there are 25 operational tram networks in France, with 3 under construction and 4 more planned. France is home to Alstom, a leading tram manufacturer. One of the key inventions in the world history of trams was that of the girder rail developed in 1852 by Frenchman Alphonse Loubat, it brought the tram track down to road level, avoiding accidents to pedestrians and other vehicles caused by the standard protruding rail used until then.
Inspired by John Stephenson of New York City, it was in Paris that Loubat built the first line of this type, for horse trams, inaugurated on 21 November 1853 in connection with the 1855 World Fair. On a trial basis, it ran along the banks of the Seine from the Place de la Concorde to the Pont de Sèvres in the village of Boulogne. Several French cities were equipped with horse-tram networks towards the end of the 19th century. In Paris, Tramways Sud operated horse trams from 1875 to 1901. In Marseille, horse trams operated by Compagnie Générale Française de Tramways entered service in 1876 on a number of routes including the Canebière. In Strasbourg, horse tram services began in 1877; as horse trams presented a number of disadvantages, it was not long before various mechanical traction systems came into use. These included: Compressed air systems, first introduced in Nantes in 1879 with Mékarski compressed air cars operating between Doulon and the Gare Maritime. There was a fleet of 22 trams, two locos and four open-topped double-deck trailers.
The first line was just over 6 km long, built to standard gauge and was level, running along the quays of the Loire. Mekarski trams were operated in Paris, Aix-les-Bains, Saint-Quentin, La Rochelle. Steam traction was introduced widely in the 1880s and 1890s, in most cases for short periods as electric trams were soon to follow. For example, the Versaille Tramway started using steam trams for the stretch to Saint-Cyr in 1889 before electrification in 1895. In Strasbourg, there were steam trams from 1879 to 1899 although electrification began in 1895. Marseille's steam trams came in 1892, shortly before their electric counterparts in 1900. Although Werner von Siemens demonstrated the electric tram in 1881 at the International Electrical Exhibition in Paris, it was not until 1890 that the first électric tram was opened in Clermont-Ferrand, in 1895 the Tramway de Versailles was converted from steam power to electric power. While electricity offered considerable benefits including ease of operation, many municipalities were reluctant to bring overhead cabling into their city centres.
Over the next 15 years, well over 100 standard and small gauge electric tram networks came into operation. Most of France's tram systems closed in the post-war years; the only systems which have remained in continuous use are those in Lille and Saint-Étienne but these were extensively reduced in size before the recent revival. Over the past 30 years, a growing number of France's cities have developed modern tramways or light rail networks. At present, there are 22 modern tram systems spread right across the country. Many of these are being extended while at least seven other municipalities are in the process of planning or acquiring new tram networks; the most popular rolling stock is the Citadis tram from Alstom, designed by RCP Design Global agency. This model serves 10 of the current networks. In many cases, the vehicles have been restyled or customised: for example the transport authority for the Nice area required special external styling, greater passenger accessibility and battery support for travelling though the city centre without the need for overhead cables.
Alstom produced the earlier Tramway Français Standard or TFS which continues to run in five networks including Grenoble and Nantes where it has been specially adapted to provide accessibility. The Canadian manufacturer Bombardier has delivered a variant of its Flexity Outlook series to Marseille with special styling from MBD Design giving the front of the tram the appearance of the bow of a ship; the Eurotram developed by Socimi of Italy. It is used in the extensive Strasbourg tram network with innovations including a powered wheelchair ramp, wide internal gangways and provision for wheelchairs and pushchairs; the trams for the revamped Lille network were supplied in the early 1990s by the Italian company Breda with styling by Pininfarina. The Paris region opted for Avanto rolling stock on its tram-train line from Aulnay-sous-Bois to Bondy; the most extensive tram systems in France today are those in Lyon, Paris/Île-de-France, Strasbourg and Bordeaux. Most modern
The Rouen tramway is a tramway/light rail network in the city of Rouen, France. Construction began in 1991 and the network opened for service on 17 December 1994; the tramway consists of two lines that share a common route in the north in and diverting into two southern branches to Saint-Étienne-du-Rouvray and Le Grand-Quevilly. The northernmost section of the line within Rouen city centre runs through a 1.7-kilometre underground section in the Rouen city centre encompassing stations Joffre–Mutualité through Bouvoisine. At the Théâtre des Arts station, transfers between the tramway and Rouen's three bus rapid transit lines can take place; the remainder of the tramway to the south of the underground portion runs on the road surface and on reserved track. In light of the fact that the new mode of transport technically is a light railway/tramway, inhabitants of Rouen and its suburbs have taken the habit of calling it the'métro'. In September 1997 the tramway was extended to the Technopôle du Madrillet.
Length of the network: 18.2 km Number of stops: 31 Number of tramcars: 28 Tramcar capacity: 178 Average commercial speed: 19.125 km/h Maximum speed: 80 km/h Daily traffic: 65,000 journeys Opening hours: 5:00am to 11:30pm Frequency of service: every 3 minutes. In January 2010, Alstom was awarded a €90m contract to supply 27 Citadis 402 trams in 2011–2012 to replace the TFS cars. All TFS trams were removed from service in 2012 and were subsequently shipped to Gazientep, Turkey as an expansion fleet for a newly-built tram line in that city; the first tramway opened in 1874 and was owned by Gustav Palmer Harding. The Compagnie des Tramways de Rouen was created on 11 September 1878. Steam hauling stopped in 1884 due to rising costs and the ineffectiveness of the system, the tramways were horse drawn. On 19 June 1892 a funicular railway linking Rouen to Bonsecours opened. Two years in 1894, the decision to operate all tramways electrically was made. A second company, the Compagnie Générale de Traction was created in 1895 and opened lines to Bapeaume, Amfreville-la-Mi-Voie and Bihorel.
The CTR electrifed its tramway network from 22 March 1896 in time for the Colonial Exposition of 1896, organised in Rouen. The CGT and CTR were supplemented by a third tramway company, the Compagnie du Tramway de Bonsecours, which in 1899 opened a line from Rouen's Pont Corneille to Bonsecours. To reach Bonsecours, the line had to climb a steep ramp, reaching 80 mm/m; this made the total length of network 38 km long. In 1906, a short lived line linking le Trianon to the Forêt du Rouvray opened, this closed in 1908. In 1910, The CGT, the Compagnie du Tramway de Bonsecours merged into the CTR. Two years the tramway was extended to Bois-Guillaume; the last line was opened on 1 August 1915, this stretched between Rouen and Grand-Quevilly, its purpose was to link military camps to the city-centre. A fire broke out in the Trianon depot on 30 November 1921. In 1930, the first bus line began operations between Cimetière Nord; the first tramway line closure was replaced by buses. The trolleybus made a discreet appearance in 1933 during tests, the first line opened in 1937 and linked Mont-Saint-Aignan to the city.
For six years, between 9 June 1940 and 20 April 1946, crossing of the River Seine was interrupted due to the World War II hostilities. The line to Amfreville was closed and replaced by buses in 1948. On 28 February 1953, the last tramway line closed; the tramway system was operated by three companies. The Compagnie des Tramways de Rouen kept its rolling stock in three tramway depots. Maromme, situated in the north of the city. Trams in Rouen Transportation in Rouen Trams in France List of town tramway systems in France TCAR – official website Rouen on UrbanRail.net Rouen Seine valley Tourist Board's Website
A tram is a rail vehicle which runs on tramway tracks along public urban streets. The lines or networks operated by tramcars are called tramways; the term electric street railways was used in the United States. In the United States, the term tram has sometimes been used for rubber-tyred trackless trains, which are unrelated to other kinds of trams. Tram vehicles are lighter and shorter than main line and rapid transit trains. Today, most trams use electrical power fed by a pantograph sliding on an overhead line. In some cases by a contact shoe on a third rail is used. If necessary, they may have dual power systems—electricity in city streets, diesel in more rural environments. Trams carry freight. Trams are now included in the wider term "light rail", which includes grade-separated systems; some trams, known as tram-trains, may have segments that run on mainline railway tracks, similar to interurban systems. The differences between these modes of rail transport are indistinct, a given system may combine multiple features.
One of the advantages over earlier forms of transit was the low rolling resistance of metal wheels on steel rails, allowing the trams to haul a greater load for a given effort. Problems included the fact that any given animal could only work so many hours on a given day, had to be housed, groomed and cared for day in and day out, produced prodigious amounts of manure, which the streetcar company was charged with disposing of. Electric trams replaced animal power in the late 19th and early 20th century. Improvements in other forms of road transport such as buses led to decline of trams in mid 20th century. Trams have seen resurgence in recent years; the English terms tram and tramway are derived from the Scots word tram, referring to a type of truck used in coal mines and the tracks on which they ran. The word tram derived from Middle Flemish trame; the identical word la trame with the meaning "crossbeam" is used in the French language. Etymologists believe that the word tram refers to the wooden beams the railway tracks were made of before the railroad pioneers switched to the much more wear-resistant tracks made of iron and steel.
The word Tram-car is attested from 1873. Although the terms tram and tramway have been adopted by many languages, they are not used universally in English; the term streetcar is first recorded in 1840, referred to horsecars. When electrification came, Americans began to speak of trolleycars or trolleys. A held belief holds the word to derive from the troller, a four-wheeled device, dragged along dual overhead wires by a cable that connected the troller to the top of the car and collected electrical power from the overhead wires. "Trolley" and variants refer to the verb troll, meaning "roll" and derived from Old French, cognate uses of the word were well established for handcarts and horse drayage, as well as for nautical uses. The alternative North American term'trolley' may speaking be considered incorrect, as the term can be applied to cable cars, or conduit cars that instead draw power from an underground supply. Conventional diesel tourist buses decorated to look like streetcars are sometimes called trolleys in the US.
Furthering confusion, the term tram has instead been applied to open-sided, low-speed segmented vehicles on rubber tires used to ferry tourists short distances, for example on the Universal Studios backlot tour and, in many countries, as tourist transport to major destinations. The term may apply to an aerial ropeway, e.g. the Roosevelt Island Tramway. Although the use of the term trolley for tram was not adopted in Europe, the term was associated with the trolleybus, a rubber-tyred vehicle running on hard pavement, which draws its power from pairs of overhead wires; these electric buses, which use twin trolley poles, are called trackless trolleys, or sometimes trolleys. The New South Wales, government has decided to use the term "light rail" for their trams; the history of trams, streetcars or trolley systems, began in early nineteenth century. It can be divided up into several discrete periods defined by the principal means of motive power used; the world's first passenger train or tram was the Swansea and Mumbles Railway, in Wales, UK.
The Mumbles Railway Act was passed by the British Parliament in 1804, horse-drawn service started in 1807. The service was restarted in 1860, again using horses, it was worked by steam from 1877, from 1929, by large electric tramcars, until closure in 1961. The Swansea and Mumbles Railway was something of a one-off however, no street tramway would appear in Britain until 1860 when one was built in Birkenhead by the American George Francis Train. Street railways developed in America before Europe due to the poor paving of the streets in American cities which made them unsuitable for horsebuses, which were common on the well-paved streets of European cities. Running the horsecars on rails allowed for a much smoother ride. There are records of a street railway running in Baltimore as early as 1828, however the first authenticated streetcar in America, was the New York and Harle
The Rennes Metro rapid transit line serves the city of Rennes in Brittany, France. Opened in 2002, it is based on the Siemens Transportation Systems VAL technology. There is the A Line, with fifteen stations. There are 140,000 passengers each day. A second line, the B Line, with an orientation north-east to south-west, is scheduled for 2020. 1986: City Council decides to create a transport line on a north-western/south-eastern axis. 1989: The municipality decides to use VAL technology. 1992: The A Line project receives planning and environmental approvals. 1997: Beginning of work on Line A. 2002: Opening of Line A. 2005: Three park-and-ride lots were set up 2006: Creation of Korrigo card 2007: City Council decides to create a second metro line 2010: The municipality decides to use CityVal technology. 2011: The B Line project receives planning and environmental approvals. 2014: Beginning of work on Line B Opened on 15 March 2002, the A Line is based on the Siemens Transportation Systems VAL technology.
There is one line, the 9.4-kilometre A Line, which runs north-west to south-east from J. F. Kennedy to La Poterie via Gare de Rennes, with fifteen stations. Services run between 05:20 and 00:40 each day, with a waiting time of 80 seconds between trains. From end to end, it takes around 16 minutes, with an average train speed of 32 km/h. All stations lifts; the system has 30 trains, each weighing 28 tonnes and 26 metres long, with a capacity of 170 passengers. In January 2005, three park-and-ride lots were set up. Two more opened in 2006–2007, able to accommodate an additional 700 vehicles. On 1 March 2006, a card called KorriGo was created as a supplement to the ticket system to improve the metro traffic and the city's bus network; the line is maintained by Service des Transports en Commun de l'Agglomération Rennaise, managed by Keolis. It has a staff of 100, it is operated from a control centre situated in Chantepie. 120 cameras monitor the stations. The station at La Poterie and viaducts on the line were designed by Norman Foster.
With a population of just 205,000 inhabitants for city proper, Rennes was the smallest city in the world to boast a metro until 2008. However in 2013, 425,000 people are served by the network in 43 municipalities. On average, there are 135,000 metro trips each day; the station names have been chosen for the nearest existing streets or for points of interest near the station locations. J. F. Kennedy Villejean-Université: University of Rennes 1 and University of Rennes 2 Pontchaillou: Teaching hospital Anatole France Sainte-Anne: city-center République: city-center Charles de Gaulle: city-center Gares: city-center Jacques Cartier Clemenceau Henri Fréville Italie Triangle Blosne La Poterie Station signage is in French and Gallo at Charles de Gaulle station and French and Breton at Gares station. A second line, the B Line, with an orientation north-east to south-west, is scheduled for 2019. Ninteen 2-car CityVal trainsets have been ordered for this line. List of metro systems Interactive Rennes Metro Map STAR – official website Projected metro line for 2015 Rennes at UrbanRail.net
Le Havre tramway
Le Havre tramway is a modern two-line tram system in the city of Le Havre in Normandy, France. The modern tramway opened on 12 December 2012. Le Havre had a first-generation tramway, operated by Compagnie des Tramways Électriques du Havre, which opened in 1894; this historical tramway closed in 1957, was replaced by trolleybuses as the main mode of public transport in Le Havre. It is in 1832. An omnibus service between the Musée and the Octroi de Rouen. By 1860, the town was served by two lines. In 1872, a Belgian businessman presented a tramway project to the municipal council. After authorisation was given, construction began with the first horse-drawn tramway opening on 1 February 1874 between Musée and the Barrière d’Or. A second line opened on the 15th of the same month between the Rond-Point. Le Havre was the fourth city in France to possess a tramway network after Paris and Nancy; the network of lines spread over the city of its neighbouring suburbs. The tramway lines all led to the town hall.
The company operated a fleet of single car trams. Operations were disrupted after the bombardments of 1944, but the 7 lines were reopened as soon as the end of 1946. On 1 August 1947, line 8 closed to let trolleybus takeover. On 5 May 1951, line 6 on 14 August 1957 line 5 were converted to trolleybus operation. Secondhand Vétra CS60 and new VBRh formed the bulk of the trolleybus network. In 1960, four Chausson-Vétra APV trolleybuses were introduced. In the following years, the CGFT acquired more rolling stock from other networks, in Marseille and Strasbourg. In Le Havre as well as in cities across France, increase in car transport encouraged Le Havre city council to set up one-way streets; the tramway and trolleybus operator was faced with a large bill to extend its network further into the suburbs and so decided to replace all its overhead vehicles with motor buses on 28 December 1970. From mid-November 2006 to the end of the March 2007, a survey of inhabitants living in the Le Havre metropolitan area was conducted about a proposal to construct a new bus lane.
Following this survey, an information campaign was launched. On 13 March 2007, the deliberations of elected representatives from CODAH lead to a consensus on a certain number of key points. Concerning the infrastructure, the construction of a new tunnel was earmarked to the east of the existing road Tunnel Jenner to guarantee a link between the upper and lower parts of the city; the layout of the route was designed in a'Y' shape, with the possibility of moving the terminus of the line in the upper part of the city. Following the various inquiries, it was apparent that residents wanted a mode of transport, frequent, comfortable and of a large size. On the 2nd May, CODAH launched a call for tenders to construct the new network. On 10 July, the railway option was selected; the layout is designed to encompass a large population base. It connects hubs like the beach, the city hall, railway station and major population areas of Caucriauville and Mont Gaillard in the upper city; the introduction of the tramway to the suburbs in the upper city coincides with a major redevelopment scheme to deprived areas of the city.
In October 2004 the National Agency for Urban Renewal signed with the municipality of Le Havre the first agreement to finance the rehabilitation of these areas. This finance agreement provides more than 340 million euros for the housing estates in the northern districts, where about 41,000 people reside; this development extends the budget for the Grand Projet de Ville. It allows the rebuilding of more than 1,700 homes; the tram plays an important role in linking the upper town with the lower town and offers an alternative form of urban transport. Nearly 90,000 inhabitants live less than 5 minutes from a station, of which 16,000 are pupils and students; the entire line has been designed in a logical manner, so that there is interconnection with other modes of transport such as the train station or the park and ride at Octeville, as well as with the all of the existing bus lines run by CODAH, the railway lines to other parts of the Haute-Normandie region such as Yvetot and Rouen, beyond that, to the capital Paris.
The entire route is lined with 17,000 shrubs and 50,000 various plants. Surveying of the ground began on 1 September 2008. In February 2009, the definitive route of the new tramway was known, as well as the plans for the proposed layout. In 2010, the first preparatory works began, diverting water pipes; the estimated date that the tramway would start operating was December 2012. Meanwhile, the bus network was restructured to offer a better service to the areas not provided by the new tramway. In October, a new website was launched, providing updates on the progress of the project, included a virtual journey. A team of 8 tramway ambassadors was put together in order to reassure and update residents and shopkeepers on the progress of the construction. In order to ensure the best circulation of traffic during the construction of the tramway lines, changes were made between June and September 2009 to the layout of the route from the Boulevard Francois I to the Chaussée Georges Pompidou; the changes included: the installation of traffic lights.
In addition, cycle lanes and pedestrian c
The Lyon Metro is the rapid transit system serving Lyon, France. It first opened in 1978; the Lyon Metro presently consists of four lines, serving 40 stations, comprising 32.0 kilometres of route. It is part of the Transports en Commun Lyonnais system of public transport, is supported by Lyon's tramways network. Unlike other French metro systems, but like the SNCF and RER, Lyon Metro trains run on the left; this is the result of an unrealised project to run the metro into the suburbs on existing railway lines. The loading gauge for all lines is 2.90 m, more generous than the average for metros in Europe. The Lyon Metro owes its inspiration to the Montreal Metro, built a few years prior, has similar rubber-wheel cars. Daily weekday ridership was 740,000 in 2011; the Lyon Metro consists of four lines, A, B, C and D, each identified on maps by different colours: Line A and Line B were constructed by cut-and-cover and went into service on May 2, 1978, as the inaugural lines of the Lyon Metro. Trains on both lines run on rubber tyres rather than steel wheels.
Line B was extended to Jean Macé on September 9, 1981, to Gerland on September 4, 2000 and to Gare d'Oullins on 11 December 2013. An extension to Vaulx-en-Velin La Soie on Line A opened in October 2007. By 2023, Line B will be automated, with the same system as Line D. New MPL 16 rolling stock has been ordered to Alstom in 2016 for Line B; the MPL 75 trains used on Line B will join the other MPL 75s on Line A to increase the capacity. The Croix-Rousse-Croix-Paquet rack railway, refurbished in 1974, was integrated into the Metro in 1978 as Line C, with an extension to Hôtel-de-Ville, it was extended to Cuire on December 8, 1984. The line was constructed using various methods; the Croix Paquet station claims to be the steepest metro station in Europe, with an incline of 17%. Line C uses an overhead wire while Lines B and D use a third rail. Line D, the first automatic metro line in France, started with operators on board trains on September 4, 1991, between Gorge de Loup and Grange Blanche; the line was extended to Gare de Vénissieux on December 11, 1992, when it switched to driverless operation.
On April 28, 1997, it was extended again to Gare de Vaise. Using rubber tyres like lines A and B, trains on line D are controlled by a system known as MAGGALY. Unusually for a driverless metro, no platform screen doors are installed on station platforms; the trains use infrared sensors to detect obstructions on the track. Only the Nuremberg U-Bahn does so as well; the deepest of the lines in Lyon, Line D was constructed using boring machines and passes under both rivers, the Rhône and the Saône. At 12.5 kilometres long with 15 stations, it is the longest line in Lyon. In 2016, new MPL 16 rolling stock wss ordered from Alstom for Line D and is expected to come into service on the line starting in 2019; these trains will increase the capacity of Line D and they will be coupled to form four-car units at rush hours. The Metro, like the rest of the local public transport system, is operated by Keolis Lyon, under the TCL brand - Transports en commun lyonnais, it is operated on behalf of SYTRAL - the Syndicat mixte des transports pour le Rhône et l'agglomération lyonnaise, a Syndicat Mixte.
Work is under way to extend Line B to a new terminus at Lyon's southern hospital complex in Saint-Genis-Laval. The extension is due to enter service in 2023. New rolling stock, capable of operating as a single two-car trainset or two coupled trainsets for four-car operation, will be introduced and the line will be automated. Existing rolling stock used on Line B will be used to enhance capacity on Line A. Line D will receive 10 new trainsets and its automatic control system will be upgraded. A new line, dubbed Line E, is under consideration to link Lyon's western suburbs to the city centre. Twelve variants were proposed. List of Lyon Metro stations List of metro systems Media related to Lyon Metro at Wikimedia Commons Lyon Metro Map on Google Maps with Geolocation TCL – official website Lyon at UrbanRail.net Comprehensive map of the Lyon metro network Métro de Lyon – French Wikipedia has a much more detailed description of the Lyon Metro