The Auld Alliance was an alliance made in 1295 between the kingdoms of Scotland and France. The alliance was formed for the purpose of controlling England's numerous invasions; the Scots word auld, meaning old, has become a affectionate term for the long-lasting alliance between the two countries. It remained until the signing of the Treaty of Edinburgh in 1560; the alliance played a significant role in the relations between Scotland and England from its beginning in 1295 to 1560. The alliance was renewed by all the French and Scottish monarchs of that period except Louis XI. By the late 14th century, the renewal occurred regardless of whether either kingdom was in a war with England at the time; the alliance dates from the treaty signed by John Balliol and Philip IV of France in 1295 against Edward I of England. The terms of the treaty stipulated that if either country was attacked by England, the other country would invade English territory, as seen in the 1513 Battle of Flodden, where the Scots invaded England in response to the English campaign against France.
The alliance played an important role in conflicts between both countries and England, such as the Wars of Scottish Independence, the Hundred Years' War, the War of the League of Cambrai and the Rough Wooing. The dynastic turmoil caused by the death of Scotland's seven-year-old queen, left the covetous king Edward I of England with an irresistible opportunity to assert his authority over Scotland. By 1295 it was clear. In response the Council of Twelve who had taken over the government of Scotland temporarily, sought alliances wherever they could be found. With France and England close to war following Philippe IV's declaration of England's possession of Gascony forfeit in 1293, alliance with France was a clear course to take. In October 1295, a Scottish embassy to Philippe agreed to the Treaty of Paris; as with all subsequent renewals of what became the Auld Alliance, the treaty favoured France more than Scotland. The French were required to do no more than continue their struggle against the English in Gascony.
However, the cost of any outright war between Scotland and England was to be borne by the Scots. Scotland, as remote and impoverished as it was, was now aligned to a major European power. If more symbolic than actual, the benefits of the alliance mattered to Scotland. In the short term however, the treaty proved to have no protection against Edward, whose swift and devastating invasion of Scotland in 1296 all but eradicated its independence. Furthermore, the cessation of hostilities between England and France in 1299, followed by the treaty of "perpetual peace and friendship," allowed Edward to devote all of his attention and forces to attack the Scots. Scotland, in the end, owed its eventual survival to the military acumen and inspiration of Robert the Bruce and the mistakes of Edward II, rather than its Auld Alliance with France. In 1326, Robert the Bruce renewed the alliance, with the Treaty of Corbeil; the motive for this renewal was precautionary more than anything: neither realm seemed to have much to fear from England at the time.
This, however changed after 1330 when Edward III set out to complete his conquest of Scotland and to reassert his power in France. For the first time the Franco-Scottish alliance had been given a sense of emergency. In 1346, Edward overwhelmed French forces at the Battle of Crécy. Two months David II of Scotland was captured at the Battle of Neville's Cross, in a botched invasion of Northern England, his 11-year absence as Edward's prisoner only increased the internal turmoil and power struggles of Scotland. David II was forced to reach a deal with Edward III to gain his freedom. After his release in 1357, David spent most of his remaining reign attempting to further English interests in Scotland; the alliance was renewed between the two kingdoms in 1371, with the embassy of the Bishop of Glasgow and the Lord of Galloway to France. The treaty was signed by Charles V at the Château de Vincennes on 30 June, at Edinburgh Castle by Robert II on 28 October; the accession of pro-French Robert II led to the immediate renewal of the alliance.
Plans were drawn up in 1385 for a Franco-Scottish invasion of England. This included the dispatch of a small French force to Scotland for the first time; these plans never came to any form of action. The deteriorating relations between France and Scotland were summed up by the French Chronicler Jean Froissart who "wished the King of France would make a truce with the English for two or three years and march to Scotland and utterly destroy it", yet it was necessity that had driven the two kingdoms together and the need to resist aggressive new Lancastrian Kings of England that kept the alliance together in the 15th century. In 1418, with France on the brink of surrendering to the forces of Henry V, the Dauphin, Charles VII, called on his Scottish allies for help. Between 1419 and 1424 as many as 15,000 Scottish troops were sent to France. French and Scottish forces together won against the English at the Battle of Baugé in 1421; as it marked the turning point of the Hundred Years War, the significance of this battle was great.
However, their victory was a short-lived one: at Verneuil in 1424, the Scots army was defeated. Despite this defeat, the Scots had given France a valuable breathing space saving the country from English domination. In addition, in 1429 Scots came to the aid of Joan of Arc in her famous relief of Orléans. Scottish soldiers served in the Garde Écossaise, the loyal bodyguard of the F
Coat of arms
A coat of arms is a heraldic visual design on an escutcheon, surcoat, or tabard. The coat of arms on an escutcheon forms the central element of the full heraldic achievement which in its whole consists of shield, supporters and motto. A coat of arms is traditionally unique to an individual person, state, organization or corporation; the Roll of Arms is a collection of many coats of arms, since the early Modern Age centuries it has been a source of information for public showing and tracing the membership of a noble family, therefore its genealogy across time. The ancient Greek hoplites used individual insignia on their shields; the ancient Romans used similar insignia on their shields. Heraldic designs came into general use among western nobility in the 12th century. Systematic, heritable heraldry had developed by the beginning of the 13th century. Who had a right to use arms, by law or social convention, varied to some degree between countries. Early heraldic designs were personal. Arms become hereditary by the end of the 12th century, in England by King Richard I during the Third Crusade.
Burgher arms are used in Northern Italy in the second half of the 13th century, in the Holy Roman Empire by the mid 14th century. In the late medieval period, use of arms spread to the clergy, to towns as civic identifiers, to royally chartered organizations such as universities and trading companies; the arts of vexillology and heraldry are related. The term coat of arms itself in origin refers to the surcoat with heraldic designs worn by combattants in the knightly tournament, in Old French cote a armer; the sense is transferred to the heraldic design itself in the mid-14th century. Despite no widespread regulation, heraldry has remained consistent across Europe, where tradition alone has governed the design and use of arms; some nations, like England and Scotland, still maintain the same heraldic authorities which have traditionally granted and regulated arms for centuries and continue to do so in the present day. In England, for example, the granting of arms has been controlled by the College of Arms.
Unlike seals and other general emblems, heraldic "achievements" have a formal description called a blazon, which uses vocabulary that allows for consistency in heraldic depictions. In the present day, coats of arms are still in use by a variety of institutions and individuals: for example, many European cities and universities have guidelines on how their coats of arms may be used, protect their use as trademarks. Many societies exist that aid in the design and registration of personal arms. Heraldry has been compared to modern corporate logos; the French system of heraldry influenced the British and Western European systems. Much of the terminology and classifications are taken from it. However, with the fall of the French monarchy there is not a Fons Honorum to enforce heraldic law; the French Republics that followed have either affirmed pre-existing titles and honors or vigorously opposed noble privilege. Coats of arms are considered an intellectual property of municipal body. Assumed arms are considered valid unless they can be proved in court to copy that of an earlier holder.
In the heraldic traditions of England and Scotland, an individual, rather than a family, had a coat of arms. In those traditions coats of arms are legal property transmitted from father to son. Undifferenced arms are used only by one person at any given time. Other descendants of the original bearer could bear the ancestral arms only with some difference: a colour change or the addition of a distinguishing charge. One such charge is the label, which in British usage is now always the mark of an heir apparent or an heir presumptive; because of their importance in identification in seals on legal documents, the use of arms was regulated. This has been carried out by heralds and the study of coats of arms is therefore called "heraldry". In time, the use of arms spread from military entities to educational institutes, other establishments. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms has criminal jurisdiction to control the use of arms. In England, Northern Ireland and Wales the use of arms is a matter of civil law and regulated by the College of Arms and the High Court of Chivalry.
In reference to a dispute over the exercise of authority over the Officers of Arms in England, Arthur Annesley, 1st Earl of Anglesey, Lord Privy Seal, declared on 16 June 1673 that the powers of the Earl Marshal were "to order and determine all matters touching arms, ensigns of nobility and chivalry. It was further declared that no patents of arms or any ensigns of nobility should be granted and no augmentation, alteration, or addition should be made to arms without the consent of the Earl Marshal. In Ireland the usage and granting of coats of arms was regulated by the Ulster King of Arms from the office's creation in 1552. After Irish independence in 1922 the office was still working out of Dublin Castle; the last Ulster King of Arm
Private Officer of Arms
A private officer of arms is one of the heralds and pursuivants appointed by great noble houses to handle all heraldic and genealogical questions. Since the development of heraldry in the Middle Ages and the rise of officers of arms, noble families have appointed heralds and pursuivants to look after the correct marshalling of their coats of arms and research genealogical links. Many noblemen in Britain retained heralds from about 1170 onwards, as did important knights such as Sir John Chandos; the heralds were concerned with war and tournaments and identifying people by their arms. As such, they developed an interest in genealogy; the Lord of the Isles had Ross Herald and Islay Pursuivant. On the forfeiture of the Lordship these became, remain, Royal Officers. In 1725, Blanc Coursier Herald was created to serve Prince William, Duke of Cumberland, the tabard of the office includes Prince Williams differenced arms. Today, most officers of arms are employed by state heraldic authorities. There are, some private officers that still exist.
In Scotland, there are four private pursuivants of arms that are recognized by the Court of the Lord Lyon King of Arms. These are appointed by clan chiefs to look after matters of clan genealogy; the four recognized private Scottish pursuivants are listed below: Slains Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Hay – the Earl of Erroll, Lord High Constable of Scotland Garioch Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Mar – the Countess of Mar Endure Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Lindsay – the Earl of Crawford & Balcarres Finlaggan Pursuivant, appointed by the Chief of the Name and Arms of Macdonald and High Chief of Clan Donald – the Lord Macdonald of Slate. This post was revived, after five centuries in August 2005 In 10 November 1962 Fernando Muñoz Altea was appointed King of Arms of the Royal House of the Two Sicilies by HRH Prince Ranieri, Duke of Castro, Head of the Royal House; the Kingdom of Sicily did not have actual heralds in recent times, but rather a Commission for Titles of Nobility based in Naples until 1861.
This commission concerned itself with administration of certain nobiliary institutions and recognition of titles of nobility. Muñoz Altea continues this tradition as a Private Officer of Arms of the Royal House. In addition to his office as King of Arms, Muñoz Altea is delegate of the Sacred Military Constantinian Order of Saint George. Heraldry Officer of Arms King of Arms Herald of Arms Pursuivant of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Chief Herald of Ireland The Court of the Lord Lyon The College of Arms The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland
A pursuivant or, more pursuivant of arms, is a junior officer of arms. Most pursuivants are attached to official heraldic authorities, such as the College of Arms in London or the Court of the Lord Lyon in Edinburgh. In the mediaeval era, many great nobles employed their own officers of arms. Today, there still exist some private pursuivants. In Scotland, for example, several pursuivants of arms have been appointed by Clan Chiefs; these pursuivants of arms look after matters of heraldic and genealogical importance for clan members. Some Masonic Grand Lodges have an office known as the Grand Pursuivant, it is the Grand Pursuivant's duty to announce all applicants for admission into the Grand Lodge by their names and Masonic titles. The office is at the local Masonic lodge level in the jurisdiction of the Grand Lodge of Pennsylvania. In that jurisdiction it is the Pursuivant's duty to guard the door of the lodge, announce and escort applicants for admission into the lodge; the office is unknown at the local level in Masonic jurisdictions outside Pennsylvania, where the equivalent role is named the Inner Guard.
Bluemantle Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Portcullis Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Rouge Croix Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Fitzalan Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary Howard Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary Bute Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Carrick Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Dingwall Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Kintyre Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Ormond Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Unicorn Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Linlithgow Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary Falkland Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary March Pursuivant of Arms Extraordinary Athlone Pursuivant Rouge Dragon Pursuivant of Arms in Ordinary Slains Pursuivant of Arms Garioch Pursuivant of Arms Endure Pursuivant of Arms Finlaggan Pursuivant of Arms Persevante León Blanco de Armas Heraldry Officer of Arms Private Officer of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Court of the Lord Lyon The College of Arms The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland
A crown is an emblem of a sovereign state a monarchy, but used by some republics. A specific type of crown is employed in heraldry under strict rules. Indeed, some monarchies never had a physical crown, just a heraldic representation, as in the constitutional kingdom of Belgium. Crowns are often used as symbols of religious status or veneration, by divinities or by their representatives, e.g. the Black Crown of the Karmapa Lama, sometimes used a model for wider use by devotees. A crown can be a charge in a coat of arms, or set atop the shield to signify the status of its owner, as with the coat of arms of Norway. Oftentimes, the crown depicted and used in heraldry differs from any specific physical crown that may be used by a monarchy. If the bearer of a coat of arms has the title of baron or higher, he or she may display a coronet of rank above the shield below the helm in British heraldry, above the crest in Continental heraldry. In this case, the appearance of the crown or coronet follows a strict set of rules.
A royal coat of arms may display a royal crown, such as that of Norway. A princely coat of arms may display a princely crown, so on. A mural crown is displayed on coats of arms of towns and some republics. Other republics may omit the use of a crown altogether; the heraldic forms of crowns are inspired by the physical appearance of the respective country's actual royal or princely crowns. Ships and other units of some navies have a naval crown, composed of the sails and sterns of ships, above the shield of their coats of arms. Squadrons of some air forces have an astral crown, composed of stars. There is the Eastern crown, made up of spikes, when each spike is topped with a star, it becomes a celestial crown. Whereas most county councils in England use mural crowns, there is a special type of crown, used by Scottish county councils, it was composed of spikes, was shown vert and had golden wheat sheaves between the spikes. Today, most of the Scottish unitary authorities still use this "wheat sheaf crown", but it is now the usual gold.
In formal English, the word crown is reserved for the crown of a monarch, whereas the word coronet is used for all other crowns used by members of the British royal family and peers of the realm. In the British peerage, the design of a coronet shows the rank of its owner, as in German and various other heraldic traditions; the coronet of a duke has eight strawberry leaves, that of a marquess has four strawberry leaves and four silver balls, that of an earl has eight strawberry leaves and eight "pearls" raised on stalks, that of a viscount has sixteen "pearls", that of a peerage baron or lord of parliament has six "pearls". Between the 1930s and 2004, feudal barons in the baronage of Scotland were granted a chapeau or cap of maintenance as a rank insignia; this is placed between the helmet in the same manner as a peer's coronet. Since a person entitled to heraldic headgear customarily displays it above the shield and below the helm and crest, this can provide a useful clue as to the owner of a given coat of arms.
Members of the British royal family have coronets on their coats of arms, they may wear physical versions at coronations. They are according to regulations made by King Charles II in 1661, shortly after his return from exile in France and Restoration, they vary depending upon the holder's relationship to the monarch. Additional royal warrants vary the designs for individuals. In Canadian heraldry, special coronets are used to designate descent from United Empire Loyalists. A military coronet signifies ancestors who served in Loyalist regiments during the American Revolution, while a civil coronet is used by all others; the loyalist coronets are used only in heraldry, never worn. Because there are many traditions and more variation within some of these, there are a plethora of continental coronet types. Indeed, there are some coronets for positions that do not exist, or do not entitle use of a coronet, in the Commonwealth tradition; such a case in French heraldry of the Ancien Régime, where coronets of rank did not come into use before the 16th century, is the vidame, whose coronet is a metal circle mounted with three visible crosses.
Helmets are substitutes for coronets, some coronets are worn only on a helmet. Austrian Empire German Empire The older crowns are still seen in the heraldry of older families. Kingdom of Portugal Empire of Brazil During the Swedish reign, Swedish coronets were used. Crowns were used in the coats of arms of the historical provinces of Finland. For Finland Proper, Satakunta and Karelia, it was a ducal coronet, for others, a comital coronet. In 1917 with independence, the coat of arms of Finland was introduced with a Grand Ducal coronet, but it was soon removed, in 1920. Today, some cities use coronets, e.g. Pori has Vaasa a Crown of Nobility. In heraldry, a charge is an image occupying the field of a coat of arms. Many coats of arms incorporate crowns as charges. One notable example of this lies in the Three Crowns of the arms of Sweden. Additionally, many animal charges and sometimes human heads appear crowned. Animal charges gorged of an open coronet occur, though far less frequently. Crown jewels Imperial crown List of monarchies Cor
Dexter and sinister
Dexter and sinister are terms used in heraldry to refer to specific locations in an escutcheon bearing a coat of arms, to the other elements of an achievement. "Dexter" means to the right from the viewpoint of the bearer of the shield, i.e. the bearer's proper right, to the left from that of the viewer. "Sinister" means to the left from the viewpoint of the bearer, the bearer's proper left, to the right from that of the viewer. The dexter side is considered the side of greater honour, for example. Thus, by tradition, a husband's arms occupy the dexter half of his shield, his wife's paternal arms the sinister half; the shield of a bishop shows the arms of his see in the dexter half, his personal arms in the sinister half. King Richard II adopted arms showing the attributed arms of Edward the Confessor in the dexter half, the royal arms of England in the sinister. More by ancient tradition, the guest of greatest honour at a banquet sits at the right hand of the host; the Bible is replete with passages referring to being at the "right hand" of God.
Sinister is used to mark that an ordinary or other charge is turned to the heraldic left of the shield. A bend sinister is a bend which runs from the bearer's top left to bottom right, as opposed to top right to bottom left; as the shield would have been carried with the design facing outwards from the bearer, the bend sinister would slant in the same direction as a sash worn diagonally on the left shoulder. This division is key to dimidiation, a method of joining two coats of arms by placing the dexter half of one coat of arms alongside the sinister half of the other. In the case of marriage, the dexter half of the husband's arms would be placed alongside the sinister half of the wife's; the practice fell out of use as early as the 14th century and was replaced by impalement, as in some cases, it could render the arms that are cut in half unrecognizable and in some cases, it would result in a shield that looked like one coat of arms rather than a combination of two. The Great Seal of the United States features an eagle clutching an olive branch in its dexter talon and arrows in its sinister talon, indicating the nation's intended inclination to peace.
In 1945, one of the changes ordered for the arranged Flag of the President of the United States by President Harry S. Truman was having the eagle face towards its right and thus towards the olive branch; the sides of a shield were named for the purpose of military training of knights and soldiers long before heraldry came into use early in the 13th century so the only viewpoint, relevant was the bearer's. The front of the purely-functional shield was undecorated, it is that the use of the shield as a defensive and offensive weapon was as developed as that of the sword itself and so the various positions or strokes of the shield needed to be described to students of arms. Such usage may indeed have descended directly from Roman training techniques that were spread throughout Roman Europe and continued during the age of chivalry, when heraldry came into use
Officer of arms
An officer of arms is a person appointed by a sovereign or state with authority to perform one or more of the following functions: to control and initiate armorial matters to arrange and participate in ceremonies of state to conserve and interpret heraldic and genealogical records. The medieval practice of appointing heralds or pursuivants to the establishment of a noble household is still common in European countries those in which there is no official heraldic control or authority; such appointments are still made in Scotland, where four private officers of arms exist. These appointments are all purely advisory. Traditionally in England, the authority of the thirteen officers of arms in ordinary, who form the corporation of the Kings and Pursuivants of Arms, extends throughout the Commonwealth, with the exception of Scotland and South Africa. Officers of arms are of three ranks: kings of arms, heralds of arms, pursuivants of arms. Officers of arms whose appointments are of a permanent nature are known as officers of arms in ordinary.
The officers of arms in ordinary who form the College of Arms are members of the royal household and receive a nominal salary. In Scotland, the Lord Lyon King of Arms, the Lyon Clerk and Keeper of the Records control matters armorial within a strict legal framework not enjoyed by their fellow officers of arms in London, the court, a part of Scotland's criminal jurisdiction has its own prosecutor, the court's Procurator Fiscal, however not an officer of arms. Lord Lyon and the Lyon Clerk are appointed by the crown, with the Crown's authority, Lyon appoints the other Scottish officers; the officers of arms in Scotland are members of the royal household. In the Republic of Ireland, matters armorial and genealogical come within the authority of an officer designated the Chief Herald of Ireland; the legal basis for Ireland's heraldic authority, therefore all grants since 1943, has been questioned by the Attorney General, therefore, on May 8, 2006 Senator Brendan Ryan introduced the Genealogy & Heraldry Bill, 2006, in Seanad Éireann to remedy this situation and legitimise actions since the transfer of power from the Ulster King of Arms.
In the Netherlands, officers of arms do not exist as permanent functions. Private heraldry is not legislated, state heraldry and the heraldry of the nobility is regulated by the High Council of Nobility. During the royal inauguration ceremony however, two Kings of Arms and two or four Heralds of Arms have figured; these were members of the High Council of Nobility. During the inaugurations of Wilhelmina and Juliana, the Kings of Arms wore nineteenth-century style court dress, whereas the Heralds wore tabards. All officers wore chains of office. In the inauguration of Queen Beatrix in 1980, the ceremonial office was held by members of the resistance, Erik Hazelhoff Roelfzema being the elder King of Arms. Like most other participants in the pageant the officers of arms were no longer wearing ceremonial dress, but white tie instead; the senior King of Arms proclaims the King to be inaugurated after he or she has sworn allegiance to the constitution. The Heralds step outside the New Church in Amsterdam, where the inauguration ceremony is held, to announce this fact to the people gathered outside the church.
Heraldry King of Arms Herald of Arms Pursuivant of Arms Private Officer of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Canadian Heraldic Authority The Chief Herald of Ireland The Flemish Heraldic Council Hofpfalzgraf Cronista Rey de Armas Portugal King of Arms The College of Arms The Court of the Lord Lyon The Office of the Chief Herald of Ireland The Canadian Heraldic Authority The office of the Chief Herald of Sweden, Riksheraldikerämbetet