Vukašin of Serbia
Vukašin Mrnjavčević was King of Serbia as the co-ruler of Stefan Uroš V from 1365 to 1371. Principal domains of king Vukašin and his family were located in southern parts of medieval Serbia and northwestern parts of the historical region of Macedonia. According to 17th-century Ragusan historian Mavro Orbini, his father was a minor noble named Mrnjava from Zachlumia, whose sons Vukašin and Uglješa Mrnjavčević were born in Livno in western Bosnia; some of Orbin's historical accounts are based on oral traditions of his time, but a 1280 Ragusan document mentions a Mrnjan as a nobleman from Trebinje, a town in Travunia in the vicinity of Zachlumia. The same Mrnjan is mentioned again in a 1289 charter as a treasurer of the Serbian queen Helen of Anjou. After Zachlumia was annexed by Bosnia in 1326, the family of Mrnjan, or Mrnjava, could have moved to Livno; the family supported Serbian Emperor Dušan's invasion of Bosnia in 1350, as did other Zachlumian nobles, fearing punishment, emigrated to Serbia when the war was about to start.
In favor of Zachumlian or Travunian origin of Vukašin speaks the inscription on the tomb in a church in Ohrid, where certain Ostoja Rajaković of the Ugarčić clan is referred to as a cousin of Vukašin's eldest son Marko. The Ugarčić clan is attested in contemporary sources as inhabiting the region of Trebinje. After Serbia had expanded southwards into Macedonia, the local feudal lords—Greeks—were replaced with Serbs, many of whom were from Zachlumia and Travunia. In c. 1350 Emperor Dušan appointed Vukašin the župan of Prilep in Macedonia. From on Vukašin rose, was one of the most dominant Serbian nobles at the time of the sudden death of Dušan in 1355, he was given the title of despot by Dušan's successor Emperor Stefan Uroš V. In 1365 he was crowned King of the Serbs and Greeks as the co-ruler of Emperor Uroš, he ruled over an area which included Prizren and Prilep, had good relations with his brother, Despot Jovan Uglješa who ruled an area around Ser. He became strong enough to disobey Uroš. By 1369, as Uroš was childless, Vukašin designated his eldest son Prince Marko as hair to the throne, with the title of "young king".
In 1370 he contributed to the monasteries of Mount Athos and prepared a war against the Ottoman Empire, which his brother supported. Vukašin was to attack Trebinje in June 1371 but it was never carried out. In September 1371, he advanced; the Serbian army of the coalition numbering ca. 70,000 men met the Ottoman army led by beylerbey of Rumeli Lala Şâhin Paşa at Battle of Maritsa on 26 September 1371 where superior Ottoman tactics won over outnumbering coalition army. The Ottomans attacked the Serbian Army while they rested and Vukašin's forces were routed and himself killed during the battle. With his wife Jelena, Vukašin at least five children: Marko Mrnjavčević Andrijaš Mrnjavčević Dmitar Mrnjavčević Ivaniš Mrnjavčević Olivera MrnjavčevićJelisanta Jelena, married to Rajko Moneta Brian Aldiss - published an alternative-history fantasy story "The Day Of The Doomed King" about King Vukašin. House of Mrnjavčević Serbian nobility conflict Serbian epic poetry Ćirković, Sima; the Serbs. Malden: Blackwell Publishing.
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Prince Marko: The Hero of South Slavic Epics. New York: Syracuse University Press. Sedlar, Jean W.. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000-1500. Seattle: University of Washington Press. Soulis, George Christos; the Serbs and Byzantium during the reign of Tsar Stephen Dušan and his successors. Washington: Dumbarton Oaks Library and Collection
Sanjak of Çirmen
The Sanjak of Çirmen or Chirmen was a second-level Ottoman province encompassing the region of Çirmen (mod. Ormenio in Thrace, it was succeeded in 1829 by the Sanjak of Edirne. The town of Çirmen was conquered from the Byzantine Empire by the Ottoman Turks in 1371. With some interruptions, it was thereafter the centre of a distinct province, first of the Rumelia Eyalet, after the early 17th century of the Özü Eyalet; the province extended over most of the Rhodope mountains, the middle course of the Maritsa and the upper course of the Tundzha, at times including the city Edirne, which, as a former imperial capital at other times was administered as an independent crown domain. After the disbandment of Özü Eyalet in 1812, Çirmen belonged to Edirne Eyalet, in 1829, its capital was moved to Edirne. Birken, Andreas. Die Provinzen des Osmanischen Reiches. Beihefte zum Tübinger Atlas des Vorderen Orients. 13. Reichert. ISBN 9783920153568
Kapodistrias reform is the common name of law 2539 of Greece, which reorganised the country's administrative divisions. The law, named after 19th-century Greek statesman Ioannis Kapodistrias, passed the Hellenic Parliament in 1997, was implemented in 1998; the administrative system was changed again at the 2010 Kallikratis reform. Before and after the Kapodistrias reform, the difference between municipalities and communities was a matter of size. Municipalities were larger and had a more urban character than communities, which were as small as a single village; the reform reduced the number of municipalities and communities sharply: from 5775 to 1033. Municipalities and communities varied in population from 745,514 to 28 with an average of 10,603.5 and a median of only 4,661.5. The following chart illustrates the range: Municipalities and communities varied in land area from 873.552 km2 to 0.800 km2, with an average of 127.618 km2 and a median of 105.669 km2. List of municipalities and communities in Greece Administrative divisions of Greece Law 2539, Government Gazette 244, 1997
Greece the Hellenic Republic, self-identified and known as Hellas, is a country located in Southern and Southeast Europe, with a population of 11 million as of 2016. Athens is largest city, followed by Thessaloniki. Greece is located at the crossroads of Europe and Africa. Situated on the southern tip of the Balkan Peninsula, it shares land borders with Albania to the northwest, North Macedonia and Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the northeast; the Aegean Sea lies to the east of the mainland, the Ionian Sea to the west, the Cretan Sea and the Mediterranean Sea to the south. Greece has the longest coastline on the Mediterranean Basin and the 11th longest coastline in the world at 13,676 km in length, featuring a large number of islands, of which 227 are inhabited. Eighty percent of Greece is mountainous, with Mount Olympus being the highest peak at 2,918 metres; the country consists of nine geographic regions: Macedonia, Central Greece, the Peloponnese, Epirus, the Aegean Islands, Thrace and the Ionian Islands.
Greece is considered the cradle of Western civilisation, being the birthplace of democracy, Western philosophy, Western literature, political science, major scientific and mathematical principles, Western drama and notably the Olympic Games. From the eighth century BC, the Greeks were organised into various independent city-states, known as poleis, which spanned the entire Mediterranean region and the Black Sea. Philip of Macedon united most of the Greek mainland in the fourth century BC, with his son Alexander the Great conquering much of the ancient world, from the eastern Mediterranean to India. Greece was annexed by Rome in the second century BC, becoming an integral part of the Roman Empire and its successor, the Byzantine Empire, in which Greek language and culture were dominant. Rooted in the first century A. D. the Greek Orthodox Church helped shape modern Greek identity and transmitted Greek traditions to the wider Orthodox World. Falling under Ottoman dominion in the mid-15th century, the modern nation state of Greece emerged in 1830 following a war of independence.
Greece's rich historical legacy is reflected by its 18 UNESCO World Heritage Sites. The sovereign state of Greece is a unitary parliamentary republic and developed country with an advanced high-income economy, a high quality of life, a high standard of living. A founding member of the United Nations, Greece was the tenth member to join the European Communities and has been part of the Eurozone since 2001, it is a member of numerous other international institutions, including the Council of Europe, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, the World Trade Organization, the Organization for Security and Co-operation in Europe, the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie. Greece's unique cultural heritage, large tourism industry, prominent shipping sector and geostrategic importance classify it as a middle power, it is the largest economy in the Balkans. The names for the nation of Greece and the Greek people differ from the names used in other languages and cultures.
The Greek name of the country is Hellas or Ellada, its official name is the Hellenic Republic. In English, the country is called Greece, which comes from Latin Graecia and means'the land of the Greeks'; the earliest evidence of the presence of human ancestors in the southern Balkans, dated to 270,000 BC, is to be found in the Petralona cave, in the Greek province of Macedonia. All three stages of the stone age are represented for example in the Franchthi Cave. Neolithic settlements in Greece, dating from the 7th millennium BC, are the oldest in Europe by several centuries, as Greece lies on the route via which farming spread from the Near East to Europe. Greece is home to the first advanced civilizations in Europe and is considered the birthplace of Western civilisation, beginning with the Cycladic civilization on the islands of the Aegean Sea at around 3200 BC, the Minoan civilization in Crete, the Mycenaean civilization on the mainland; these civilizations possessed writing, the Minoans writing in an undeciphered script known as Linear A, the Mycenaeans in Linear B, an early form of Greek.
The Mycenaeans absorbed the Minoans, but collapsed violently around 1200 BC, during a time of regional upheaval known as the Bronze Age collapse. This ushered from which written records are absent. Though the unearthed Linear B texts are too fragmentary for the reconstruction of the political landscape and can't support the existence of a larger state contemporary Hittite and Egyptian records suggest the presence of a single state under a "Great King" based in mainland Greece; the end of the Dark Ages is traditionally dated to the year of the first Olympic Games. The Iliad and the Odyssey, the foundational texts of Western literature, are believed to have been composed by Homer in the 7th or 8th centuries BC. With the end of the Dark Ages, there emerged various kingdoms and city-states across the Greek peninsula, which spread to the shores of the Black Sea, So
Administrative regions of Greece
The administrative regions of Greece are the country's thirteen first-level administrative entities, each comprising several second-level units prefectures and, since 2011, regional units. The current regions were established in July 1986, by decision of then-Interior Minister Menios Koutsogiorgas as a second-level administrative entities, complementing the prefectures. Before 1986, there was a traditional division into broad historical–geographical regions, however, was arbitrary. Although the post-1986 regions were based on the earlier divisions, they are smaller and, in a few cases, do not overlap with the traditional definitions: for instance, the region of Western Greece, which had no previous analogue, comprises territory belonging to the Peloponnese peninsula and the traditional region of Central Greece; as part of a decentralization process inspired by then-Interior Minister Alekos Papadopoulos, they were accorded more powers in the 1997 Kapodistrias reform of local and regional government.
They were transformed into separate entities by the 2010 Kallikratis Plan, which entered into effect on 1 January 2011. In the 2011 changes, the government-appointed general secretary was replaced with a popularly elected regional governor and a regional council with 5-year terms. Many powers of the prefectures, which were abolished or reformed into regional units, were transferred to the region level; the regional organs of the central government were in turn replaced by seven Decentralized administrations, which group from one to three regions under a government-appointed general secretary. Bordering the region of Central Macedonia there is one autonomous region, Mount Athos, a monastic community under Greek sovereignty, it is located on the easternmost of the three large peninsulas jutting into the Aegean from the Chalcidice Peninsula. Administrative divisions of Greece ISO 3166-2:GR List of Greek regions by Human Development Index
Western Thrace or West Thrace is a geographic and historical region of Greece, between the Nestos and Evros rivers in the northeast of the country. Inhabited since paleolithic times, it has been under the political and linguistic influence of the Greek world since the classical era. Under the Byzantine Empire, Western Thrace benefited from its position close to the imperial heartland and became a center of medieval Greek commerce and culture. Topographically, Thrace alternates between mountain-enclosed basins of varying size and cut river valleys, it is divided into the three regional units: Xanthi and Evros, which together with the Macedonian regional units of Drama and Thasos form the Region of East Macedonia and Thrace. The Fourth Army Corps of the Hellenic Army has its headquarters in Xanthi; the approximate area of Western Thrace is 8,578 km² with a population of 371,208 according to the 2011 census. It's estimated that two-thirds of the population are Orthodox Christian Greeks, while the remainder are Muslims who are an recognised minority of Greece.
Of these, about half are of Turkish origin, while another third are Pomaks who inhabit the mountainous parts of the region. The Romani of Thrace are mainly Muslim, unlike their ethnic kin in other parts of the country who profess the Orthodox faith of the Greek majority. Thrace is bordered by Bulgaria to the north, Turkey to the east, the Aegean Sea to the south and the Greek region of Macedonia to the west. Alexandroupoli is the largest city, with a municipal population of 72,959 according to the 2011 census. Below is a table of the five largest Thracian cities: After the Roman conquest, Western Thrace further belonged to the Roman province of Thrace founded in 46 AD. At the beginning of the 2nd AD century Roman emperor Trajan founded here, as a part of the provincial policy, two cities of Greek type and Plotinopolis. From this region passed the famous via Egnatia, which ensured the communication between East and West, while its ramifications were connecting the Aegean world with Thracian hinterland.
From the coast passed the sea route Troad–Macedonia, which the Apostle Paul had used in his journeys in Greece. During the great crisis of the Roman Empire in the 3rd century AD, Western Thrace suffered from the frequent incursions of the barbarians until the reign of Diocletian, when it managed to prosper again thanks to its administrative reforms; the region had been under the rule of the Byzantine Empire from the time of the division of the Roman Empire into Eastern and Western empires in the early fourth century AD. The Ottoman Empire conquered most of the region in the 14th century and ruled it till the Balkan Wars of 1912–1913. During Ottoman rule, Thrace had a mixed population of Turks and Bulgarians, with a strong Greek element in the cities and the Aegean Sea littoral. A smaller number of Pomaks, Jews and Romani lived in the region. At 1821, several parts of Western Thrace, such as Lavara and Samothraki rebelled and participated in the Greek War of Independence. During the First Balkan War, the Balkan League fought against the Ottoman Empire and annexed most of its European territory, including Thrace.
Western Thrace was occupied by Bulgarian troops. On November 15, 1912 on the right bank of the river Maritza Macedonian-Adrianopolitan Volunteer Corps captured the Turkish corps of Yaver Paha, which defends the Eastern Rhodopes and Western Thrace from invading Bulgarians; the victors fell into dispute on how to divide the newly conquered lands, resulting in the Second Balkan War. In August 1913 Bulgaria was defeated, but gained Western Thrace under the terms of the Treaty of Bucharest. In the following years, the Central Powers, with which Bulgaria had sided, lost World War I and as a result Western Thrace was withdrawn from Bulgaria under the terms of the 1919 Treaty of Neuilly. Western Thrace was under temporary management of the Entente led by French General Charles Antoine Charpy. In the second half of April 1920 in San Remo conference of the prime ministers of the main allies of the Entente powers Western Thrace was given to Greece. Throughout the Balkan Wars and World War I, Bulgaria and Turkey each forced respective minority populations in the Thrace region out of areas they controlled.
A large population of Greeks in Eastern Thrace, Black Sea coastal and southern Bulgaria, was expelled south and west into Greek-controlled Thrace. Concurrently, a large population of Bulgarians was forced from the region into Bulgaria by Greek and Tur
The Ottoman Empire known in Western Europe as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a state that controlled much of Southeast Europe, Western Asia and North Africa between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern Anatolia in the town of Söğüt by the Oghuz Turkish tribal leader Osman I. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe, with the conquest of the Balkans, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire; the Ottomans ended the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople by Mehmed the Conqueror. During the 16th and 17th centuries, at the height of its power under the reign of Suleiman the Magnificent, the Ottoman Empire was a multinational, multilingual empire controlling most of Southeast Europe, parts of Central Europe, Western Asia, parts of Eastern Europe and the Caucasus, North Africa and the Horn of Africa. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained numerous vassal states; some of these were absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy during the course of centuries.
With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians; the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy and military throughout the 17th and much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the Habsburg and Russian empires; the Ottomans suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, which prompted them to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernisation known as the Tanzimat. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organised, despite suffering further territorial losses in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged.
The empire allied with Germany in the early 20th century, hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, thus joined World War I on the side of the Central Powers. While the Empire was able to hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent with the Arab Revolt in its Arabian holdings. During this time, atrocities were committed by the Young Turk government against the Armenians and Pontic Greeks; the Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the aftermath of World War I resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful Turkish War of Independence against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the Republic of Turkey in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy; the word Ottoman is a historical anglicisation of the name of Osman I, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman.
Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name ʿUthmān. In Ottoman Turkish, the empire was referred to as Devlet-i ʿAlīye-yi ʿOsmānīye, or alternatively ʿOsmānlı Devleti. In Modern Turkish, it is known as Osmanlı Devleti; the Turkish word for "Ottoman" referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century, subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population, was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the early modern period, an educated urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker, not a member of the military-administrative class would refer to himself neither as an Osmanlı nor as a Türk, but rather as a Rūmī, or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former Byzantine Empire in the Balkans and Anatolia; the term Rūmī was used to refer to Turkish-speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond.
In Western Europe, the two names "Ottoman Empire" and "Turkey" were used interchangeably, with "Turkey" being favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was ended in 1920–23, when the newly established Ankara-based Turkish government chose Turkey as the sole official name. Most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character; as the Seljuk Sultanate of Rum declined in the 13th century, Anatolia was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the Anatolian Beyliks. One of these beyliks, in the region of Bithynia on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I, a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the Sakarya River.
It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their