Calvados is a department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. It takes its name from a cluster of rocks off the English Channel coast. Calvados is one of the original 83 departments created during the French Revolution on 4 March 1790, it was created from a part of the former province of Normandy. The name "Orne inférieure" was proposed for the department, but it was decided to call the area Calvados after a group of rocks off its coast. One popular legend ascribes its etymology to the Salvador, a ship from the Spanish Armada that sank by the rocks near Arromanches-les-bains in 1588, it is more however, that the name Calvados was derived from calva dorsa, meaning bare backs, in reference to two sparsely vegetated rocks off its shore. After the allied victory at Waterloo the department was occupied by Prussian troops between June 1815 and November 1818. On 6 June 1944, the Allied forces landed on the beaches of the Bay of the Seine in what became known as the Battle of Normandy. Calvados belongs to the region of Normandy and is surrounded by the departments of Seine-Maritime, Eure and Manche.
To the north is the Baie de la Seine, part of the English Channel. On the east, the Seine River forms the boundary with Seine-Maritime. Calvados includes the Bessin area, the Pays d'Auge and the area known as the "Suisse normande"; the most notable places in Calvados include Deauville and the elegant 19th-century casino resorts of the coast. Agriculture dominates the economy of Calvados; the area is known for producing butter, cheese and Calvados, the apple spirit that takes its name from the area. The President of the General Council is the centrist Jean-Léonce Dupont, the former dominant figure of the right and centre in the department; the Conseil General of Calvados and Devon County Council signed a Twinning Charter in 1971 to develop links with the English county of Devon. The inhabitants of Calvados are called "Calvadosiens" and "Calvadosiennes". In 1999, Calvados had 648,299 inhabitants. Age distribution in Calvados: 75 years and older: 7.2% 60–74 years old: 13.16% 40–59 years old: 25.52% 20–39 years old: 28.53% 0–19 years old: 25.6% The Bayeux Tapestry is on display in Bayeux and makes the city one of the most-visited tourist destinations in Normandy.
Juno Beach Centre at Courseulles-sur-Mer, commemorates the D-Day landing of the Canadian liberation forces at Juno Beach during World War II in 1944. The cult of Saint Thérèse de Lisieux brings large numbers of people on pilgrimage to Lisieux, where she lived in a Carmelite convent; every September, Deauville hosts the Festival of the American Movie and the beach resort of Cabourg hosts the Festival of the Romantic Movie. Annually, the city of Caen celebrates the festival of the electronical cultures called "Nordik Impakt" & The festival of Beauregard, just around Caen; the local dialect of the Norman language is known as Augeron. It is spoken by a minority of the population. Calvados is one of the most visited areas in France because of its seaside resorts which are among the most prestigious in France with their luxurious hotels, green countryside, castles, the quiet, the chalk cliffs, the typical Norman houses, the history of William the Conqueror, Bayeux, the famous D-day beaches and numerous museums about the Second World War.
The culinary specialties from the verdant countryside of Calvados are abundant: cider, calvados and Pont-l'Évêque cheeses. One of the advantage of Calvados is to be near large urban centers. Calvados is therefore preferred for holidays and for weekends and sometimes considered as the countryside of Paris. Calvados, via the port of Ouistreham, is an entrance to the continent from Britain. There are two airports: Deauville-Saint Gatien; the department of Calvados has several popular tourist areas: the Bessin, the Plain of Caen, the Bocage Virois, the Côte de Nacre, the Côte Fleurie and the Pays d'Auge. Several beaches of Calvados are popular for water sports, including Cabourg and Merville-Franceville-Plage. Tourist capacity: 7,818 hotel rooms 13,734 camping sites 1,176 beds 619 rural gites This ranking takes into account all the municipalities having over 10% of second homes in the departement of Calvados. 80% of owners are from the Paris area, 10% are English and 10% are local. According to the general census of the population of 1 January 2006, 18.9% of housing available in the department were second homes.
Aquatic sports are played on the coasts and beaches, for example, kite surfing and beach volleyball. Stade Malherbe Caen is a professional football team from Caen, who play in Ligue 1. Arrondissements of the Calvados department Cantons of the Calvados department Communes of the Calvados department Calvados Stratégie – Calvados Development Agency Economic news from Calvados General Council website Prefecture website Calvados at Curlie Encyclopædia Britannica's guide to D-Day
Caen, is a commune in northwestern France. It is the prefecture of the Calvados department; the city proper has 108,365 inhabitants, while its urban area has 420,000, making Caen the largest city in former Lower Normandy. It is the third largest municipality in all of Normandy after Le Havre and Rouen and the third largest city proper in Normandy, after Rouen and Le Havre; the metropolitan area of Caen, in turn, is the second largest in Normandy after that of Rouen, the 21st largest in France. It is located 15 kilometres inland from the English Channel, 200 kilometres north-west of Paris, connected to the south of England by the Caen--Portsmouth ferry route. Caen is located in the centre of its northern region, it is a centre of political and cultural power. Located a few miles from the coast, the landing beaches, the bustling resorts of Deauville and Cabourg, Norman Switzerland and Pays d'Auge, Caen is considered the archetype of Normandy. Caen is known for its historical buildings built during the reign of William the Conqueror, buried there, for the Battle for Caen—heavy fighting that took place in and around Caen during the Battle of Normandy in 1944, destroying much of the city.
The city has now preserved the memory by erecting a memorial and a museum dedicated to peace, the Mémorial de Caen. Current arms: Gules, a single-towered open castle Or, windowed and masoned sable. Under the Ancien Régime: Per fess and azure, 3 fleurs de lys Or. During the First French Empire: Gules, a single-towered castle Or, a chief of Good Imperial Cities. Today, Caen has no motto; as a result, its spelling has not been updated: Un Dieu, un Roy, une Foy, une Loy. This motto is reflected in a notable old Chant royal. Caen's home port code is CN. In 1346, King Edward III of England led his army against the city, it was expected that a siege of several weeks would be required, but the army took the city in less than a day, on 26 July 1346, storming and sacking it, killing 3,000 of its citizens, burning much of the merchants' quarter on the Ile Ste-Jean. During the attack, English officials searched its archives and found a copy of the 1339 Franco-Norman plot to invade England, devised by Philip VI of France and Normandy.
This was subsequently used as propaganda to justify the supplying and financing of the conflict and its continuation. Only the castle of Caen held out, despite attempts to besiege it. A few days the English left, marching to the east and on to their victory at the Battle of Crécy, it was captured by Henry V in 1417 and treated harshly for being the first town to put up any resistance to his invasion. During the Battle of Normandy in the Second World War, Caen was liberated from the Nazis in early July, a month after the Normandy landings those by British I Corps on 6 June 1944. British and Canadian troops had intended to capture the town on D-Day; however they were held up north of the city until 9 July, when an intense bombing campaign during Operation Charnwood destroyed 70% of the city and killed 2,000 French civilians. The Allies seized the western quarters, a month than Field Marshal Montgomery's original plan. During the battle, many of the town's inhabitants sought refuge in the Abbaye aux Hommes, built by William the Conqueror some 800 years before.
Both the cathedral and the university were destroyed by the British and Canadian bombing. Post-Second World War work included the reconstruction of complete districts of the city and the university campus, it led to the current urbanization of Caen. Having lost many of its historic quarters and its university campus in the war, the city does not have the atmosphere of a traditional Normandy town such as Honfleur, Cabourg and Bayeux; the Canadian Army Film and Photo Unit filmed the D-Day offensive and Orne breakout several weeks then returned several months to document the city's recovery efforts. The resulting film, is preserved in the National Archives of Canada; the first mentions of the name of Caen are found in different acts of the dukes of Normandy: Cadon 1021/1025, Cadumus 1025, Cathim 1026/1027. Year 1070 of the Parker manuscript of the Anglo-Saxon Chronicle refers to Caen as Kadum, year 1086 of the Laud manuscript gives the name as Caþum. Despite a lack of sources as to the origin of the settlements, the name Caen would seem to be of Gaulish origin, from the words catu-, referring to military activities and magos, hence meaning "manoeuvre field" or "battlefield".
In Layamon's Brut, the poet asserts. Caen is in an area of high humidity; the Orne River flows through the city, as well as small rivers known as les Odons, most of which have been buried under the city to improve urban hygiene. Caen has a large flood zone, named "La prairie", located around the hippodrome, not far from the River Orne, submerged. Caen is 10 km from the Channel. A canal parallel to the Orne was built during the reign of Napoleon III to link the city to the sea at all times; the canal reaches the English Channel at Ouistreham. A lock keeps the tide out of the canal and lets large ships navigate up the canal to Caen's freshwater harbours. Caen has an oceanic climate, somewhat ameliorated due to its inland position. In spite of this, summers are still cool by French standards and the climate is maritime in terms of high precipitation modest
The Orne is a river in Lorraine, north-eastern France, a left tributary of the Moselle and sub-tributary of the Rhine. Its source is in the hills northeast of Verdun, it joins the Moselle near Mondelange, between Metz and Thionville. "Orne" may originate from autura, or onna as mentioned in Endlicher's glossary of Gallic names De nominibus Gallicis, in which these words are translated into Latin as flumen. If so there is no relationship with the name of the Orne river in Normandy, referred to as the Olina by Ptolemy, a homonym of Fluvius Olne, the Orne saosnoise in Sarthe, which Xavier Delamarre traces back to the Celtic olīnā; the Orne is 85.8 kilometres long. It rises in the commune of Ornes, it flows through Étain, Conflans-en-Jarnisy, Auboué, Homécourt, Jœuf, Moyeuvre-Grande, Rombas, Vitry-sur-Orne and Richemont, where it joins the Moselle at an elevation of 155 metres. The people of the Pays Orne-Moselle and Pays de l'Orne communes have formed an association for the creation of a riverside trail named "Fil Bleu" or "Promenade des Berges de l'Orne", which will extend the length of the riverbed.
The trail extends about 22 kilometres between the communes of Rombas/Clouange and Valleroy, is either concrete or macadamised over all of this length. Between Rombas/Clouange and Rosselange, it exists on both sides of the river; the section of about 2 kilometres from Joeuf to the naval base at Homècourt is marked by a number of bridges and footbridges permitting passage from one bank to the other. Two of these footbridges are however no longer passable: the "passerelle de Moyeuvre Grande" and the "passerelle de la base nautique d'Homècourt"; the trail is used by both pedestrians and cyclists, as well as by those on rollerblades. It crosses the communes of Rombas, Rosselange, Moyeuvre Grande, Homècourt, Aubouè, Moineville and Valleroy. Since 2011, the trail has been extended from its prior endpoint to the commune of Amnéville-les-Thermes. Between 500 and 600 metres of it have been built and are being maintained by the municipality of Rombas; the Orne's principal tributaries and subtributaries are: The Orne is fed by water pumped out of the mines at Jarny, Auboué and Orne-Roncourt.
The Orne is a substantial river, similar to its neighbours in the West Lorraine region which rise in the Côtes de Meuse. The Orne's flow rate has been measured over a period of 40 years at Rosselange, in the Moselle department a short way upstream of the confluence; the watershed of the Orne at Rosselange is 1,226 square kilometres its entire watershed of 1,268 square kilometres. The mean annual flow rate, or discharge of the river at Rosselange is 12.6 cubic metres per second. The Orne exhibits marked seasonal fluctuations, such as are often found in the east of France, with high water in winter/spring bringing the monthly average up to between 20.2 and 26.9 cubic metres per second from December to March inclusive, with a maximum in February. Summer low waters are quite prolonged, from June to early October, with a low monthly average of 2.81 cubic metres per second in September. These monthly figures, are just averages, conceal more pronounced short-term variation. Monthly average flow rate in m3/s measured at Rosselange hydrological stationData taken over a 41-year period At low water, the 3-year low instantaneous flow rate can drop to 0.56 cubic metres per second, as is seen for rivers of the region.
Flooding of the Orne can be significant. The maximum instananeous flow rate recorded was 318 cubic metres per second on 22 December 2003, while the maximum recorded daily average was 292 cubic metres per second on the preceding day; the Orne's instantaneous maximum flow rate for 2 and 5 years are 170 and 230 cubic metres per second respectively. These figures indicate that the flood of December 2003 was speaking, a 20-year event and thus not unusual; the Orne's IMFRs are over half that of the Meurthe, the Moselle's most significant French tributary and whose basin is 2.5 time larger. To compare with a significant river in the Paris basin, the Loing, a river known for its substantial flooding, has an IMFR10 of 190 cubic metres per second as against 280 cubic metres per second for the Orne, its IMFR50 reaches only 270 cubic metres per second as against 370 cubic metres per second for the Orne; this is despite the Loing's watershed being three and a half times larger than the Orne. The Orne is fed by heavy rainfall in the western part of its watershed.
The runoff curve number in its watershed is 326 millimetres annually, equal to the average of all France, but less than the average in the French part of the Moselle basin, 445 millimetres at Hauconcourt. The specific flow rate reaches 10.3 litres per second per square kilometre of watershed. List of rivers of France Moselle "Characteristic flow rates of the Orne". Archived from the original on 2006-11-21. Http://www.geoportail.fr The Orne at the Sandre database
In chemistry, pH is a scale used to specify how acidic or basic a water-based solution is. Acidic solutions have a lower pH, while basic solutions have a higher pH. At room temperature, pure water is neither acidic nor basic and has a pH of 7; the pH scale is logarithmic and approximates the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the molar concentration of hydrogen ions in a solution. More it is the negative of the base 10 logarithm of the activity of the hydrogen ion. At 25 °C, solutions with a pH less than 7 are acidic and solutions with a pH greater than 7 are basic; the neutral value of the pH depends on the temperature, being lower than 7 if the temperature increases. Contrary to popular belief, the pH value can be less than 0 or greater than 14 for strong acids and bases respectively; the pH scale is traceable to a set of standard solutions whose pH is established by international agreement. Primary pH standard values are determined using a concentration cell with transference, by measuring the potential difference between a hydrogen electrode and a standard electrode such as the silver chloride electrode.
The pH of aqueous solutions can be measured with a glass electrode and a pH meter, or a color-changing indicator. Measurements of pH are important in chemistry, medicine, water treatment, many other applications; the concept of pH was first introduced by the Danish chemist Søren Peder Lauritz Sørensen at the Carlsberg Laboratory in 1909 and revised to the modern pH in 1924 to accommodate definitions and measurements in terms of electrochemical cells. In the first papers, the notation had the "H" as a subscript to the lowercase "p", as so: pH; the exact meaning of the "p" in "pH" is disputed, but according to the Carlsberg Foundation, pH stands for "power of hydrogen". It has been suggested that the "p" stands for the German Potenz, others refer to French puissance. Another suggestion is that the "p" stands for the Latin terms pondus hydrogenii, potentia hydrogenii, or potential hydrogen, it is suggested that Sørensen used the letters "p" and "q" to label the test solution and the reference solution.
In chemistry, the p stands for "decimal cologarithm of", is used in the term pKa, used for acid dissociation constants. Bacteriologist Alice C. Evans, famed for her work's influence on dairying and food safety, credited William Mansfield Clark and colleagues with developing pH measuring methods in the 1910s, which had a wide influence on laboratory and industrial use thereafter. In her memoir, she does not mention how much, or how little and colleagues knew about Sørensen's work a few years prior, she said: In these studies Dr. Clark's attention was directed to the effect of acid on the growth of bacteria, he found that it is the intensity of the acid in terms of hydrogen-ion concentration that affects their growth. But existing methods of measuring acidity determined not the intensity, of the acid. Next, with his collaborators, Dr. Clark developed accurate methods for measuring hydrogen-ion concentration; these methods replaced the inaccurate titration method of determining acid content in use in biologic laboratories throughout the world.
They were found to be applicable in many industrial and other processes in which they came into wide usage. The first electronic method for measuring pH was invented by Arnold Orville Beckman, a professor at California Institute of Technology in 1934, it was in response to local citrus grower Sunkist that wanted a better method for testing the pH of lemons they were picking from their nearby orchards. PH is defined as the decimal logarithm of the reciprocal of the hydrogen ion activity, aH+, in a solution. PH = − log 10 = log 10 For example, for a solution with a hydrogen ion activity of 5×10−6 we get 1/ = 2×105, thus such a solution has a pH of log10 = 5.3. For a commonplace example based on the facts that the masses of a mole of water, a mole of hydrogen ions, a mole of hydroxide ions are 18 g, 1 g, 17 g, a quantity of 107 moles of pure water, or 180 tonnes, contains close to 1 g of dissociated hydrogen ions and 17 g of hydroxide ions. Note that pH depends on temperature. For instance at 0 °C the pH of pure water is 7.47.
At 25 °C it's 7.00, at 100 °C it's 6.14. This definition was adopted because ion-selective electrodes, which are used to measure pH, respond to activity. Ideally, electrode potential, E, follows the Nernst equation, for the hydrogen ion can be written as E = E 0 + R T F ln = E 0 − 2.303 R T F pH where E is a measured potential, E0 is the standard electrode potential, R is the gas const
Thury-Harcourt is a former commune in the Calvados department in the Normandy region in northwestern France. On 1 January 2016, it was merged into the new commune of Le Hom; the town is 24 kilometres south in the Orne valley. It is part of Norman Switzerland, which attracts visitors for various sports and outdoor activities with its hilly terrain; the original name is Thury, but the Marquis of Thury received a benefice from Henry d'Harcourt under the name of the Duke of Harcourt in 1709, requiring a change of name. 75% of the town was destroyed in the Battle of Normandy, in July 1944. At the local elections of March 2014, the mayor Paul Chandelier was re-elected; the municipal council consists of 19 members, including 5 deputy mayors. The park and gardens of the Château of the Dukes of Harcourt were constructed in 1635 by Odet d'Harcourt and expanded upon in 1714 and 1723. In the battles of the Second World War, after the Normandy landings the town was bombed for the first time on 30 June 1944.
It was during fierce fighting against the British 59th Infantry Division on 13–4 August 1944 that the German forces retreated from the town and set fire to the chateau, which had suffered little damage up to that point. The fire destroyed many public archives, a library of nearly 15,000 volumes, hundreds of family records. Roman Catholic church of Saint Sauveur, 12th century, in the middle of the town, it was bombed in the summer of 1944, only the nave remained. It has now been restored to. Thury-Harcourt railway station reconstructed in the 1950s; the passenger line opened in 1873 and was closed in 1971. Freight service stopped in 1983. A tourist train from Louvigny to Clécy operated from 1991 to 1994; the village of Saint-Benin merged with Thury-Harcourt in 1858. Its Roman Catholic church is from the 16th century; the gothic choir is in good condition. The church is constructed from mortar, it has a gable roof, crowned with a cross. The belltower is supported by four 13th century buttresses, decorated with gargoyles bearing human faces.
Pierre Gringore, the poet laureate of Louis XII, was born here. In 1863 Paul Héroult, invented the extraction of aluminium by electrometallurgy, he invented the electric oven in 1900. Jean Lesueur, priest of the parish, accompanied many local families in their migration to Canada, he became the first secular priest in New France. Jean Baptiste Legardeur de Repentigny, born at Thury-Harcourt about 1632, first lady of Québec. Raoul Tesson, Vicomte de Saint Sauveur, Seigneur de Thury et de la Roche Tesson, Sénéchal de Normandie. Maurice Delaunay, leader of Calvados 1936-1940. In the sixteenth century many families emigrated to Canada, taking with them the curate and abbot of the parish, he founded Quebec. Pierre Legardeur got general control of Nouvelle-France and gave his name to the towns of Le Gardeur and Repentigny in Quebec. Communes of the Calvados department INSEE
A river is a natural flowing watercourse freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, lake or another river. In some cases a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course without reaching another body of water. Small rivers can be referred to using names such as stream, brook and rill. There are no official definitions for the generic term river as applied to geographic features, although in some countries or communities a stream is defined by its size. Many names for small rivers are specific to geographic location. Sometimes a river is defined as being larger than a creek, but not always: the language is vague. Rivers are part of the hydrological cycle. Potamology is the scientific study of rivers, while limnology is the study of inland waters in general. Most of the major cities of the world are situated on the banks of rivers, as they are, or were, used as a source of water, for obtaining food, for transport, as borders, as a defensive measure, as a source of hydropower to drive machinery, for bathing, as a means of disposing of waste.
A river begins at a source, follows a path called a course, ends at a mouth or mouths. The water in a river is confined to a channel, made up of a stream bed between banks. In larger rivers there is also a wider floodplain shaped by flood-waters over-topping the channel. Floodplains may be wide in relation to the size of the river channel; this distinction between river channel and floodplain can be blurred in urban areas where the floodplain of a river channel can become developed by housing and industry. Rivers can flow down mountains, through valleys or along plains, can create canyons or gorges; the term upriver refers to the direction towards the source of the river, i.e. against the direction of flow. The term downriver describes the direction towards the mouth of the river, in which the current flows; the term left bank refers to the left bank in the direction of right bank to the right. The river channel contains a single stream of water, but some rivers flow as several interconnecting streams of water, producing a braided river.
Extensive braided rivers are now found in only a few regions worldwide, such as the South Island of New Zealand. They occur on peneplains and some of the larger river deltas. Anastamosing rivers are quite rare, they have multiple sinuous channels carrying large volumes of sediment. There are rare cases of river bifurcation in which a river divides and the resultant flows ending in different seas. An example is the bifurcation of Nerodime River in Kosovo. A river flowing in its channel is a source of energy which acts on the river channel to change its shape and form. In 1757, the German hydrologist Albert Brahms empirically observed that the submerged weight of objects that may be carried away by a river is proportional to the sixth power of the river flow speed; this formulation is sometimes called Airy's law. Thus, if the speed of flow is doubled, the flow would dislodge objects with 64 times as much submerged weight. In mountainous torrential zones this can be seen as erosion channels through hard rocks and the creation of sands and gravels from the destruction of larger rocks.
A river valley, created from a U-shaped glaciated valley, can easily be identified by the V-shaped channel that it has carved. In the middle reaches where a river flows over flatter land, meanders may form through erosion of the river banks and deposition on the inside of bends. Sometimes the river will cut off a loop, shortening the channel and forming an oxbow lake or billabong. Rivers that carry large amounts of sediment may develop conspicuous deltas at their mouths. Rivers whose mouths are in saline tidal waters may form estuaries. Throughout the course of the river, the total volume of water transported downstream will be a combination of the free water flow together with a substantial volume flowing through sub-surface rocks and gravels that underlie the river and its floodplain. For many rivers in large valleys, this unseen component of flow may exceed the visible flow. Most but not all rivers flow on the surface. Subterranean rivers flow underground in caverns; such rivers are found in regions with limestone geologic formations.
Subglacial streams are the braided rivers that flow at the beds of glaciers and ice sheets, permitting meltwater to be discharged at the front of the glacier. Because of the gradient in pressure due to the overlying weight of the glacier, such streams can flow uphill. An intermittent river only flows and can be dry for several years at a time; these rivers are found in regions with limited or variable rainfall, or can occur because of geologic conditions such as a permeable river bed. Some ephemeral rivers flow during the summer months but not in the winter; such rivers are fed from chalk aquifers which recharge from winter rainfall. In England these rivers are called bournes and give their name to places such as Bournemouth and Eastbourne. In humid regions, the location where flow begins in the smallest tributary streams moves upstream in response to precipitation and downstream in its absence or when active summer vegetation diverts water for evapotrans
Aunou-sur-Orne is a commune in the Orne department in northwestern France. In 1811 Aunou-sur-Orne absorbed the neighbouring commune of Saint-Cenery-près-Séez. Nicolas-Jacques Conté was a French painter, army officer, inventor of the modern pencil, he was born at Saint-Céneri-près-Sées. Communes of the Orne department INSEE