Shewa, formerly romanized as Shoa, is a historical region of Ethiopia, formerly an autonomous kingdom within the Ethiopian Empire. The modern Ethiopian capital Addis Ababa is located at its center, Shewa was as defensible as any highland, and its government traced an administrative continuity with this earlier period despite the loss of neighboring lands to the Ethiopian Empire. At times, it was a haven, at other times, the towns of Debre Berhan, Ankober, Entoto and, after Shewa became a province of Ethiopia, Addis Ababa have all served as the capital of Shewa at various times. The monastery of Debre Libanos, founded by Saint Tekle Haymanot, is located in the district of Selale, Shewa first appears in the historical record as a Muslim state, which G. W. B. Huntingford believed was founded in 896, and had its capital at Walalah and it is believed to have been part of the Ethiopian Aksum kingdom for over a millennium before falling to Muslim neighbors. This state was absorbed by the Sultanate of Ifat around 1285, three urban centers thought to be part of the Islamic kingdom of Shewa were discovered by a group of French archaeologists.
Yekuno Amlak based his uprising against the Zagwe dynasty from an enclave in Shewa that was settled by Amhara Christians. He claimed Solomonic forebears, direct descendants of the pre-Zagwe Axumite emperors and this claim is supported by the Kebra Nagast, a book written under one of the descendants of Yekuno Amlak, which mentions Shewa as part of the realm of Menelik I. Aksum and its predecessor Dmt were mostly limited to Northern Ethiopia, Shewa eventually became a part of the Amhara-Abyssinian empire upon the rise of the Amhara Solomonic dynasty as well as the Adal empire. In the 16th century, which was still an Islamic moiety, and the rest of Christian Abyssinia were conquered by the forces of Ahmed Al-Ghazi of Adal, and Shewa came under Muslim Adal rule. The region came under pressure from the Oromo expansion, who succeeded during the first decades of the century in settling the areas around Shewa. Presently, the Oromos of Wollo and Arsi in particular are predominantly Muslim, little is known about the details of the history of Shewa until almost 1800, Emperor Lebna Dengel and some of his sons used Shewa as their safe haven when threatened by invaders.
The Amhara Shewan ruling family was founded in the late 17th century by Negassie, thus the ruling family of Shewa were considered the junior branch of the Solomonic dynasty after the senior Gondar branch. Negassies son, Sebestyanos assumed the title of Meridazmach, which was unique to Shewa and his descendants continued to bear this title until Sahle Selassie of Shewa was declared king of Shewa in the 1830s. His grandson, Sahle Maryam, eventually would succeed as Emperor of all Ethiopia at the end of the century under name Menelik II, the title of King of Shewa was subsumed into the imperial title of Emperor of Ethiopia when Menelik became Emperor. Shewan kings spread their control towards the south and east, through lowland and desert, the kingdom of Shewa that Menelik II brought into the Ethiopian realm had been somewhat expanded, and thus added significantly to the total area of the empire. The northern migration of Oromos into Shewa since the 1500s changed its demography, having already influenced Gondar in the 1700s, Oromos in Shewa gained power in the 1800s, particularly the Tulama.
Ras Gobana was notable for forming alliances and militarily extending Shoan domain to the south, Ethiopia reached further frontiers through expansion to the east and south, resulting in the Shewan region as the physical center of the modern country
Adama, known as Nazret or Nazreth, is a city in central Ethiopia and the previous capital of the Oromia Region. Adama forms a Special Zone of Oromia and is surrounded by Misraq Shewa Zone and it is located at 8. 54°N39. 27°E /8.54,39.27 at an elevation of 1712 meters,99 km southeast of Addis Ababa. The city sits between the base of an escarpment to the west, and the Great Rift Valley to the east, Adama is a busy transportation center. The city is situated along the road that connects Addis Ababa with Dire Dawa, a large number of trucks use this same route to travel to and from the seaports of Djibouti and Asseb. Additionally, the new Addis Ababa-Djibouti Railway runs through Adama, Adama University is located in Adama. Adama Stadium is the home of Adama City FC, a member of the Ethiopian Football Federation league, the city name Adama may have been derived from the Oromo word adaamii, which means a cactus or a cactus-like tree. More specifically, adaamii means Euphorbia candelabrum, a tree of the spurge family, following World War II, Emperor Haile Selassie renamed the town after Biblical Nazareth, and this name was used for the remainder of the twentieth century.
In 2000, the city reverted to its original Oromo language name, Adama. In 2000, the government moved the capital of Oromia from Addis Ababa to Adama. Critics of the believed that the Ethiopian government wished to deemphasize Addis Ababas location within Oromia. On the other hand, the government maintained that Addis Ababa has been found inconvenient from the point of view of developing the language and history of the Oromo people. On June 10,2005, the Oromo Peoples Democratic Organization, part of the ruling EPRDF coalition, with an area of 29.86 square kilometers, Adama has a population density of 7,374.82, all are urban inhabitants. A total of 60,174 households were counted in this city, which results in an average of 3.66 persons to a household, and 59,431 housing units. The four largest ethnic groups reported in Adama were the Oromo, the Amhara, the Gurage and the Silte, all other ethnic groups made up 9. 45% of the population. Amharic was spoken as a first language by 59. 25%,26. 25% spoke Oromiffa and 6.
28% spoke Guragiegna, the remaining 8. 22% spoke all other primary languages reported. The 1994 national census reported this town had a population of 127,842 of whom 61,965 were males and 65,877 were females. Adama is twinned with, Turkey Aurora, United States Köppen-Geiger climate classification system classifies its climate as tropical wet, old Saybrook, Globe Pequot Press,1995. ISBN 1-56440-814-0 Adama Chamber of Commerce Media related to Adama at Wikimedia Commons Adama travel guide from Wikivoyage
South Sudan, officially the Republic of South Sudan, is a landlocked country in northeastern Africa that gained its independence from Sudan in 2011. Its current capital is Juba, which is its largest city and it was planned that the capital city would be changed to the more centrally located Ramciel in the future before civil war broke out. It includes the vast swamp region of the Sudd, formed by the White Nile, following the First Sudanese Civil War, the Southern Sudan Autonomous Region was formed in 1972 and lasted until 1983. A second Sudanese civil war soon developed and ended with the Comprehensive Peace Agreement of 2005, that year, southern autonomy was restored when an Autonomous Government of Southern Sudan was formed. South Sudan became an independent state on 9 July 2011, following a referendum passed with 98. 83% of the vote. It is a United Nations member state, a state of the African Union, of the East African Community. In July 2012, South Sudan signed the Geneva Conventions, South Sudan has suffered ethnic violence and has been in a civil war since 2013, as of 2016 it has the second highest score on the Fragile States Index.
The Nilotic people of South Sudan—the Acholi, Bari, Nuer, Kaligi, the Azande, Mundu and Baka, who entered South Sudan in the 16th century—established the regions largest state of Equatoria Region. The Dinka are the largest, Nuer the second largest and Azande are the third-largest ethnic group in South Sudan while the Bari are fourth-largest. They are found in the Maridi and Tombura districts in the tropical rainforest belt of Western Equatoria, in the 18th century, the Avungara sib rose to power over the rest of Azande society and this domination continued into the 20th century. The major reasons include the history of British policy preference toward developing the Arab north. After Sudans first independent elections in 1958, the ignoring of the south by Khartoum led to uprisings, revolt. As of 2012, peoples include Acholi, Azande, Balanda Bviri, Boya, Dinka, Kaligi, Lotuka, Murie, Nuer, Shilluk and Zande. Slavery had been an institution of Sudanese life throughout history, the slave trade in the south intensified in the 19th century and continued after the British had suppressed slavery in much of sub-Saharan Africa.
Annual Sudanese slave raids into non-Muslim territories resulted in the capture of thousands of southern Sudanese. In the 19th century, the Azande fought the French, the Belgians, under the rule of Khedive Ismail Pasha, first attempted to control the region in the 1870s, establishing the province of Equatoria in the southern portion. Egypts first governor was Samuel Baker, commissioned in 1869, followed by Charles George Gordon in 1874, the Mahdist Revolt of the 1880s destabilized the nascent province, and Equatoria ceased to exist as an Egyptian outpost in 1889. Important settlements in Equatoria included Lado, Gondokoro and Wadelai, european colonial maneuverings in the region came to a head in 1898, when the Fashoda Incident occurred at present-day Kodok and France almost went to war over the region
The Oromo people are an ethnic group inhabiting Ethiopia, who are found in northern Kenya and Somalia. They are the largest ethnic group in Ethiopia and the wider Horn of Africa, at approximately 34. 5% of Ethiopias population according to the 2007 census, with an estimated total Ethiopian population of over 102 million, the number of Oromo people exceed 35 million in Ethiopia alone. Oromos speak the Oromo language as a tongue, which is part of the Cushitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family. They were referred to as Galla through much of the history, the word Oromo appeared for the first time in 1893, slowly became common in the second half of the 20th century. The Oromo people subscribed to their Traditional Religion, had the system of governance in their medieval history which consisted of elections of their leaders. An elected leader by gadaa system stays on power only for 8 years, from 15 to 17 century Oromos were the dominant players in Northern Ethiopian Zemene Mesafinit era politics. The Oromo people became Christians or Muslims over the centuries, while some retained their traditional beliefs and they have been one of the parties to historic migrations, and wars particularly with northern Christians and with southern and eastern Muslims, in the Horn of Africa.
Older and subsequent colonial era documents mention Oromo people as Galla and historians such as Herbert S. Lewis consider these indirect literature as full of distortions and misunderstandings. Historical linguistics and comparative ethnology studies suggest that the Oromo people likely originated around the lakes Shamo and they are Cushitic people who have inhabited the East and Northeast Africa from at least the early 1st millennium. The first verifiable record mentioning the Oromo people by a European cartographer is in the map of Italian Fra Mauro in 1460, the map was likely drawn after consultations with Ethiopian monks who visited Italy in 1441. It is a term for a river and a forest, as well as for the people established in the highlands of southern Ethiopia. This historical information, according to Mohammed Hassen, is consistent with the written, Fra Mauros term Galla is the most used term, through early 20th century. The earliest primary account of Oromo ethnography, and often cited, is the 16th-century History of Galla by Christian monk Bahrey who comes from the Sidama country of Gammo and he begins his treatise on the Oromo by introducing them with prejudicial terms.
According to an 1861 book by DAbbadie, a French explorer who traveled up to Kaffa by 1843, he was told that the word Galla was derived from a war cry and used by the Gallas themselves. A journal published by International African Institute suggests it is an Oromo word for there is a word galla wandering in their language, the first known use of the word Oromo to refer to this ethnic group is traceable to 1893. The historic term for them has been Galla and this term, stated Juxon Barton in 1924, was in use for these people by Abyssinians and Arabs. The word Galla has been interpreted, such as it means to go home. In Afar language, states Morin, Galli means crowd and carries derogatory connotation ordinary, other societies such as the Anuak people refer all the migrant highlanders consisting of largely Amharas as Galla people while the Tigreans, in the past, refer Amharas as half Galla
Jimma, spelled Jima, is the largest city in south-western Ethiopia. It is a zone of the Oromia Region and is surrounded by Jimma Zone. It has a latitude and longitude of 7°40′N 36°50′E, the town was the capital of Kaffa Province until the province was dissolved. Prior to the 2007 census, Jimma was reorganized administratively as a special Zone, herbert S. Lewis states that in the early 1960s it was the greatest market in all of south-western Ethiopia. On a good day in the dry season it attracts up to thirty thousand people, what is now Jimmas northern suburb of Jiren was the capital of a large Oromo kingdom until the late 19th century. The present town was developed on the Awetu River by the Italian colonial regime in the 1930s. At that time, with the goal of weakening the native Ethiopian Church, the Italians intended to make Jimma an important center of Islamic learning, and founded an academy to teach fiqh. In the East African fighting of World War II after their main force was defeated, in the end,24 students were killed, more arrested, and the local zemacha camps closed.
Days before the end of the Ethiopian Civil War in May 1991, the loan would cover 64% of the 1270.97 million Birr budgeted for this project. Jimma has a tropical rainforest climate under the Köppen climate classification and it features a long annual wet season from March to October. Temperatures at Jimma are in a range, with the daily mean staying between 20 °C and 25 °C year-round. Based on the 2007 Census conducted by the Central Statistical Agency of Ethiopia, with an area of 50.52 square kilometers, Jimma has a population density of 2,394.30 all are urban inhabitants. A total of 32,191 households were counted in this Zone, which results in an average of 3.76 persons to a household, and 30,016 housing units. The three largest ethnic groups reported in Jimma were the Oromo, the Amhara and the Dawro, amharic was spoken as a first language by 41. 58% and 39. 96% spoke Afan Oromo, the remaining 18. 46% spoke all other primary languages reported. The national 1994 census reported this town had a population of 88,867.
Some buildings survive from the time of the Jimma Kingdom, including the Palace of Abba Jifar, the city is home to a museum, Jimma University, several markets, and an airport. Also of note is the Jimma Research Center, founded in 1968, the Center specializes in agricultural research, including serving as the national center for research to improve the yield of coffee and spices. King Abba Jifar I King Abba Jifar II Cities of Ethiopia, Jimma by John Graham Jimma University Jimma Times
Tigray Region is the northernmost of the nine regions of Ethiopia. Tigray is the homeland of the Tigray and Kunama people, Tigray is known as Region 1 according to the federal constitution. Tigray is bordered by Eritrea to the north, Sudan to the west, the Afar Region to the east, and the Amhara Region to the south and southwest. Besides Mekele, major cities include Hawzen, Abiy Addi, Mekoni, Adwa, Humera, Maychew, Shire, there is the historically significant town of Yeha. For the history of the Tigray area prior to 1991, see Tigray Province, at the same time, a growing urban middle class of traders and government officials emerged which was both suspicious and distant from the victorious EPRDF. In 1998, war erupted between Eritrea and Ethiopia over a portion of territory that had been administered at part of Tigray, with an estimated area of 41,409.95 square kilometers, this region has an estimated density of 100 people per square kilometer. In the previous census, conducted in 1994, the Regions population was 3,136,267, of whom 1,542,165 were men and 1,594,102 women, urban inhabitants numbered 621,210 or 14% of the population.
According to the CSA, as of 2004,53. 99% of the population had access to safe drinking water. At 96. 55% of the population, the region is predominantly inhabited by the Tigrinya speaking Tigray people. The Tigrinya language is classified as belonging to the Semitic branch of the Afro-Asiatic family of languages, most other residents hail from other Afro-Asiatic speaking communities, including the Amhara, Afar and Oromo. There are a minority of Nilo-Saharan-speaking Kunama Nilotes, the working language is Tigrinya, although most urban people are able to speak Amharic, which was taught in schools. A distinctive feature of Tigray are its rock-hewn churches, similar in design to those of Lalibela in the Amhara Region, these churches are found in four or five clusters – Gheralta, Teka-Tesfay and Tembien – with Wukro sometimes included. Some of the churches are considered earlier than those of Lalibela, mostly monolithic, with designs partly inspired by classical architecture, they are often located at the top of cliffs or steep hills, for security.
For example, Tigrays ancient Debre Damo monastery is only by climbing a rope 25 meters up a sheer cliff. Looting has become an issue in the Tigray Region, as archaeological sites have become sources for construction materials. The area is famous for a single rock sculptured 23 meter long obelisk in Axum as well as for other fallen obelisks, the Axum treasure site of ancient Tigrayan history is a major landmark. Yeha is another important local landmark that is little-known outside the region
Ethiopia, officially the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia, is a country located in the Horn of Africa. It shares borders with Eritrea to the north and northeast and Somalia to the east and South Sudan to the west, and Kenya to the south. With nearly 100 million inhabitants, Ethiopia is the most populous landlocked country in the world and it occupies a total area of 1,100,000 square kilometres, and its capital and largest city is Addis Ababa. Some of the oldest evidence for modern humans has been found in Ethiopia. It is widely considered as the region from modern humans first set out for the Middle East. According to linguists, the first Afroasiatic-speaking populations settled in the Horn region during the ensuing Neolithic era, tracing its roots to the 2nd millennium BC, Ethiopia was a monarchy for most of its history. During the first centuries AD, the Kingdom of Aksum maintained a unified civilization in the region, many African nations adopted the colors of Ethiopias flag following their independence.
It was the first independent African member of the 20th-century League of Nations, Ethiopias ancient Geez script, known as Ethiopic, is one of the oldest alphabets still in use in the world. The Ethiopian calendar, which is seven years and three months behind the Gregorian calendar, co-exists alongside the Borana calendar. A slight majority of the population adheres to Christianity, while around a third follows Islam, the country is the site of the Migration to Abyssinia and the oldest Muslim settlement in Africa at Negash. A substantial population of Ethiopian Jews, known as Bete Israel, resided in Ethiopia until the 1980s, Ethiopia is a multilingual nation with around 80 ethnolinguistic groups, the four largest of which are the Oromiffa, Amhara and Tigrayans. Most people in the country speak Afroasiatic languages of the Cushitic or Semitic branches, Omotic languages are spoken by ethnic minority groups inhabiting the southern regions. Nilo-Saharan languages are spoken by the nations Nilotic ethnic minorities.
Ethiopia is the place of origin for the coffee bean which originated from the place called Kefa and it is a land of natural contrasts, with its vast fertile West and numerous rivers, and the worlds hottest settlement of Dallol in its north. The Ethiopian Highlands are Africas largest continuous mountain ranges, and Sof Omar Caves contain Africas largest cave, Ethiopia has the most UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Africa. Ethiopia is one of the members of the UN, the Group of 24, the Non-Aligned Movement, G-77. In the 1970s and 1980s, Ethiopia suffered from civil wars, the country has begun to recover recently however, and now has the largest economy in East Africa and Central Africa. According to Global Fire Power, Ethiopia has the 42nd most powerful military in the world, the origin of the word Ethiopia is uncertain
Ambo is a spa town and separate woreda in central Ethiopia. Located in the West Shewa Zone of the Oromia Region, west of Addis Ababa, this town has a latitude and longitude of 8°59′N 37°51′E, Ambo is known for its mineral water, which is bottled outside of town, it is reportedly the most popular brand in Ethiopia. Nearby attractions include Mount Wenchi to the south with its lake. Ambo is the location of a station of the Ethiopian Institute of Agricultural Research, initiated in 1977. The towns market day is Saturday, after Lij Iyasu was captured, he was held for a while at Ambo, before being transferred to house arrest at Fiche. In the early 1930s, Mahtama Selassie Walda Mesqal, who had studied agriculture in France and Spain, by 1938, the Guida described improvements to Ambo which included a post office, telephone service, a clinic for outpatients, and a hotel under construction. Two Italian forts were constructed, and in a cave the Italians had erected a monument for casualties of the Pusteria Division, the approach to Ambo was still over an old bridge, and below it a natural bridge used by caravans.
When the Allies reached Ambo with a South African armored car patrol in early 1941, the British operated an improvised camp for prisoners-of-war at Ambo until 1942. At least as early as 1955, there was a 170 kW hydro-electric power station in the town, by 1965 the installed capacity was 210 kVA. In 1958 Ambo was one of 27 places in Ethiopia ranked as First Class Township and that same year, the Ambo Agricultural School and Ambo Forestry School had 150 students. A light earth tremor was felt in the evening of 23 January 1968, its epicenter was somewhere near Ambo but no damage occurred. In the last weeks of the Ethiopian Civil War, military units of the Ethiopian Peoples Revolutionary Democratic Front captured Ambo on 25 April 1991 from the units of the Derg. This was part of their strategy to avoid an assault on the capital, Addis Ababa. Upon learning in 1994 that a group of Amhara had formed a group called Oromo killers, the local people voiced their objection to this group. When their pleas fell on deaf ears, the people had to take the action in self-defense.
Then a prominent Oromo businessman, Daraaraa Kafani, was murdered in front of his home and his funeral was attended by thousands of Oromos in Ambo, police arrested more than 37 people, stating that they were supporters of the Oromo Liberation Front on 3 September. In the following February, 70-year-old Oromo elder Dandana Gurmu was arrested on the accusation that he was a supporter of the OLF. On 24 April 2003, a Tigrayan student was shot and killed, the killing was believed to be retaliation for the severe beating of an Oromo student in Mekele in December 2002
Bishoftu is a town and separate woreda of Ethiopia, lying south east of Addis Ababa. It was formerly known as Debre Zeyit however since the late 1990s it has been known by the Oromo name, Bishoftu. The town is located in the Misraq Shewa Zone of the Oromia Region, Bishoftu is located 47.9 kilometres southeast of Addis Ababa along its route 4 highway. Nearby points of interest include Mount Yerer, Green Crater Lake and Lake Hora Kiloli and it is a resort town, known for five crater lakes, Lake Bishoftu, Lake Hora, Lake Bishoftu Guda, Lake Koriftu and the seasonal Lake Cheleklaka. Bishoftu is home to the Ethiopian Air Force and the Harar Meda Airport and it has had telephone service since 1954. The Gafat Armament Engineering Complex is located here, in 2007 Bishoftu became the new home of Meserete Kristos College, a Christian college owned by the Meserete Kristos Church. Bishoftu, as an entity, did not come into existence until after the Second World War. Accounts of earlier travelers call the region Adda, although one Swedish memoir from 1935 mentions a village named Bishoftu, the first foundation stone for the houses was laid 9 December 1937, but only 21 dwellings were ready by May 1938.
Various administrative and service buildings were built, the history of the Ethiopian airforce is tightly woven with the history of Bishoftu. In 1946, the beginnings of what would become the Ethiopian Air Force was moved from Lideta airport in Addis Ababa, which was needed by Ethiopian Airlines, to Bishoftu. The initial group of 19 Swedes under Count Carl Gustaf von Rosen, both Ethiopian cadets and the Swedish instructors took part in constructing the first buildings on the base. Bishoftu Technical High School was established in 1958 with a 5-year course for boys 12–15 years of age, an Evangelical College had been founded two years before, which was a joint undertaking of Swedish and German Evangelical missions. The Evangelical Colleges first headmaster was Sven Rubenson, the Animal Health Assistants Training School was established in Bishoftu in 1963, with financial support by the United Nations Special Fund. The artist Lemma Tesefa Kesime was born in Bishoftu and he studied at the Art School 1972-1974 and received his M. A.
from the Soviet Union in 1983. Returning to Ethiopia, Lemma Tesefa became a teacher at the art school in Addis Ababa. Bishoftu was the weekend retreat of Emperor Haile Selassie. The airbase was used to detain several dozen senior military officers after the capture of the capital. A bomb exploded in the town at the beginning of May 2004 and it killed one person while injuring many more