Orosi is a town in the Cartago Province in Costa Rica, about 35 kilometers south of the capital San José. Orosi is situated on the Reventazón River in the Orosi Valley, a deep valley with a humid climate, surrounded by hills and lush vegetation; the cultivation of coffee is the leading industry in the area. Orosi has a population of 4,600 and claims to have the oldest Catholic church still in use in Costa Rica; the church, Iglesia de San Jose de Orosi, built in 1743 during the colonial era. With its rain forests, volcanoes and valleys lined with rows upon rows of coffee plants and sugar cane, the Orosi region offers some of the richest scenery to be found in Costa Rica, but the region is rich in history and contains a number of monuments to the past, including a colonial capital founded in 1563 and archeological excavations that date back to 1000 B. C. Although this area was one of the first in the country to be settled, it has been one of the last to be developed for tourism. A few kilometers away, at the southern end of the valley, the road ends and the Parque Nacional Tapantí Macizo Cerro de la Muerte begins.

This park covers about 600 km² and forms the northernmost section of a massive collection of nature parks that extends into Panamá. As a result, wildlife abounds. However, access is difficult and restricted apart from a few kilometers of easy trails; the abundance of birds makes it a popular place for ornithology studies. Part of the reason for the abundant growth is the heavy rainfall, which ranges up to 7000 mm in the mountains, it is the drinkable water source. Lago de Cachi lies to the northeast. Orosi is one of the oldest communities in Costa Rica; the village of Orosí was chosen, together with Ujarrás, by the Spanish conquerors to establish their first settlement in Costa Rica due to its water wealth and fertile land. Before the arrival of the Spanish in the sixteenth century, the Orosi Valley was inhabited by the indigenous Huetare and Viceita tribes. From capital city of San José, the Florencio del Castillo highway reaches city of Cartago where the Basilica of the Angels is located. Going further southeasterly, to road passes Paraiso from whence the road to Orosi Valley reaches the Reventazón River is located.

Orosi Valley Info about the Orosi Valley

SUNY Poly College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering

The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering is the college of nanotechnology at the SUNY Polytechnic Institute campus in Albany, New York. Founded in 2004 and a component of the University at Albany, SUNY, the college underwent rapid expansion in the late-2000s and early-2010s before merging with the SUNY Institute of Technology in 2014; as one of five colleges within SUNY Poly, it was the first college in the United States devoted to nanotechnology. The College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering was established as the School of Nanosciences and Nanoengineering at the University at Albany in 2001. CNSE was accredited as the College of Nanoscale Science and Engineering of the University at Albany in 2004, in December of that year, awarded its first Ph. D. degrees in nanoscience. In July 2013, SUNY's Board of Trustees approved a memorandum that led to the separation of CNSE from the University at Albany and included the creation of a new degree-granting structure for the NanoCollege; this was followed by the merger of the SUNY Institute of Technology with CNSE in September 2014 to create SUNY Polytechnic Institute.

In January 2015, Dr. Alain Kaloyeros was appointed by the SUNY Board of Trustees as the President of SUNY Poly. In September 2016, Kaloyeros was charged with felony bid rigging and removed as the Institute's President. In 2016, Dr. Bahgat Sammakia was appointed SUNY Poly Interim President by SUNY Trustees. In June 2018, Dr. Grace Wang was named Interim President of SUNY Polytechnic Institute by the SUNY Board of Trustees. CNSE offers degree programs leading to the Bachelor of Science degree in Nanoscale Engineering and Nanoscale Science, the Master of Science degree in either Nanoscale Science or Nanoscale Engineering, the Doctor of Philosophy degree in either Nanoscale Science or Nanoscale Engineering. SUNY Poly offers graduate degrees in nanobioscience. In 2010, CNSE became the first college in the U. S. to launch a comprehensive baccalaureate program in Nanoscale Science. The Albany campus is located near Fuller Road, west of the University at Albany; the campus location has a number of research and development facilities, including wafer fabrication cleanrooms with different classifications for cleanroom suitability.

NanoFab 200, an earlier part of the campus, was completed in 1997. This 70,000-square-foot, $16.5 million facility includes 4,000 square feet of cleanroom space, a metrology lab, office space for programs. NanoFab South, completed March 2004, is a 150,000-square-foot, facility including 32,000 square feet of 300 mm wafer, class 10,000-capable cleanroom space. Completed December 2005, NanoFab North is a 228,000-square-foot, facility including 35,000 square feet of cleanroom space with Class 100-capable 300mm wafer production. In March 2009, another $150 million expansion project included NanoFab East, a 250,000-square-foot office and multipurpose room building, in addition to NanoFab Central, a separate 100,000-square-foot building that houses 15,000 square feet of 300mm wafer, class 100-capable cleanroom space. NanoFab Xtension, completed in 2013, is a 500,000 square feet facility with 50,000 square feet of 300mm wafer cleanrooms; the Zero Energy Nanotechnology building, completed in 2015, is a 356,000 square feet facility.

The Albany location is the home of numerous pioneering nanotechnology programs funded by a variety of public and private sources. CNSE is able to accelerate the commercialization of technologies by providing technology deployment, market development, economic outreach and business assistance under a variety of centers and programs; the Materials Engineering Technology Center is a hub for groundbreaking materials research, with $600 million in investments in the campus by Applied Materials with a $250 million capital grant for the SUNY Research Foundation to purchase and install tools at the facility. In 2019, Gov. Andrew Cuomo announced a $2 billion commitment by IBM to create a global research hub to develop next-generation artificial intelligence hardware at the Albany campus; the Center for Semiconductor Research is a multi-phase cooperative program on computer chip technology nodes. The New York State Center for Advanced Technology in Nanomaterials and Nanoelectronics objective is to drive systematic progression in technology transitions, market adoption, skills attainment & entrepreneurial growth by supporting each phase in the research, development, & deployment continuum.

The Center leverages SUNY Poly’s infrastructure and ecosystem of faculty and student researchers, facility engineering and process development teams, industry cooperation deployment partners to support technology commercialization, industry alignment, entrepreneurial growth, workforce education, regional cluster formation. The CATN2 operates the Advanced Manufacturing Performance Center dedicated to the advanced manufacturing supply chain technology innovation and workforce development needs; the New York State Center of Excellence in Nanoelectronics and Nanotechnology, established at CNSE, is a integrated technology deployment, product prototyping, manufacturing support, workforce training resource for emerging generations of integrated circuitry. Its targeted portfolio of nanoelectronics-based products ranges from emerging microprocessor and memory computer chips with higher functionality and complexity, to the evolving areas of micro- and nanosystem based "systems-on-a-chip" technologies, including biochips and photonics devices, nanosensors for

Rubey Mosley Hulen

Rubey Mosley Hulen was a United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri. In July 1950, Hulen issued an injunction requiring the City of St. Louis, Missouri to open its fairgrounds and Marquette swimming pools to swimmers of all races. Born in Hallsville, Hulen graduated from Kansas City School of Law in 1914, he was in private practice in Centralia, Missouri from 1915 to 1917. He was in the United States Army as Lieutenant Commander from 1917 to 1918, he was prosecuting attorney of Boone County, Missouri from 1920 to 1924. He was in private practice in St. Louis, Missouri from 1919 to 1943. Hulen was nominated by President Franklin D. Roosevelt on July 8, 1943, to a seat on the United States District Court for the Eastern District of Missouri vacated by Judge Charles B. Davis, he was confirmed by the United States Senate on July 8, 1943, received his commission on July 14, 1943. Hulen served in that capacity until his death on July 7, 1956. Concurrent with his judicial service, Hulen was a lecturer at Washington University Law School.

On June 19, 1950, three African Americans attempted to enter the Fairgrounds Park Pool in St. Louis, Missouri, in contravention of the city's segregation policy, re-instituted following one day of integration in 1949, which culminated in Fairground Park riot. A pool attendant told the three African Americans attempting access that they needed permits to enter the pool; the St. Louis chapter of the NAACP sued in United States District Court, seeking a court order requiring desegregation of the city's swimming pools. In the St. Louis case, in the course of an exchange with the city's attorney, Hulen asked rhetorically: "Does the viewpoint of the community set aside the Constitution? Is the Constitution to be shelved for an hour, or set aside, because one part of the community happens to have an antipathy towards it?"In his ruling, Hulen "suggested that racial exclusion from any municipal pool if another equal pool were provided, might still violate the Constitution." Hulen observed that a comparable pool "may mitigate discrimination but would not validate it as to other sections of the city."Author Jeff Wiltse remarks that "Hulen seemed to be saying that a black swimmer who had to walk past a whites-only pool to get to a equal Jim Crow pool would not be receiving equal treatment under the law, as mandated by the Fourteenth Amendment."This is the essence of the Brown v. Board of Education ruling, that a black student should not have to travel to a more distant segregated school.

In that case, the plaintiff's daughter, Linda, a third grader, had to walk six blocks to her school bus stop to ride to Monroe Elementary, her segregated black school one mile away, while Sumner Elementary, a white school, was only seven blocks from her house. Rubey M. Hulen Memorial Honor Scholarships are awarded each year to outstanding entering University of Missouri - Kansas City law students from a fund provided by the will of Anna Hulen, widow of Rubey M. Hulen, a distinguished alumnus of the University of Missouri - Kansas City. Rubey Mosley Hulen at the Biographical Directory of Federal Judges, a public domain publication of the Federal Judicial Center. National Public Radio Interview