San José, Costa Rica
San José is the capital and largest city of Costa Rica. Located in the mid-west of the Central Valley, San José is the seat of national government, the focal point of political and economic activity, the major transportation hub of this Central American nation; the population of San José Canton was 288,054 in 2011, San José’s municipal land area measures 44.2 square kilometers, an estimated 333,980 residents in 2015. The metropolitan area stretches beyond the canton limits and has an estimated population of over 2 million in 2017; the city is named in honor of Joseph of Nazareth. Though few people live in the city center, it is the most important working area of the country, which brings in more than a million people daily. According to studies on Latin America, San José is one of the safest and least violent cities in the region. In 2006, the city was appointed Ibero-American Capital of Culture. San José is the sixth-most important destination in Latin America, according to The MasterCard Global Destinations Cities Index 2012.
San José ranked 15th in the world’s fastest-growing destination cities by visitor cross-border spending. The population of San José grew during the eighteenth-century colonization planning, different from the traditional foundation plans of Spanish cities in the continent of Central America. Founded in 1736 by order of Cabildo de León, its objective was to concentrate the scattered inhabitants of the Aserrí Valley. De León thus ordered the construction of a chapel near the area known as La Boca del Monte, completed a year later; that year St. Joseph was chosen as parish patron, hence its current name; the chapel, modest, was erected with help from the church of Cartago. Unlike neighboring Cartago San José was not founded by formal decree and thus lacked a city government, it was not until the enactment of the Constitution of Cádiz in 1812 when San José had its first city government. On the 18th of October 1813, the area was first defined as a city by presbyter Florencio del Castillo, on behalf of the Spanish government, title, lost in 1814 when Ferdinand VII of Spain annulled the proceedings of the courts.
The municipal government was restored in 1820 along with the title of city and in 1823 San José became the capital of Costa Rica. This makes. Population and economic growth were spurred by improvements in access to water and the installment of the Tobacco Factory in 1782; the accumulation of capital brought by tobacco plantations allowed the city to economically surpass neighboring provinces. The first modern urban neighborhood carries the name of his founder, the French coffee entrepreneur Monsieur Amon, was created in the late 19th century, in line with Belle Époque contemporary architecture. Barrio Amon, as well as the National Theatre, remain symbols of the so-called Costa Rican coffee golden age. Today San José is a modern city with bustling commerce and brisk expressions of art and architecture. Spurred by the country's improved tourism industry, it is a significant destination and stopover for foreign visitors. San José exerts a strong influence because of its proximity to other cities and the country's demographic assemblage in the Central Valley.
Costa Rica has developed high education levels. As of 2011 97.6% of the population over 10 was literate, 96% of children aged 6-11 attend primary school and 71% of students of high-school age attend high-school. The country as a whole has the highest education levels in Central America and one of the best in Latin America; this is true for San José, the nation's educational hub home to a large number of public and private universities. University of Santo Tomas, the first university of Costa Rica was established here in 1843; that institution maintained close ties with the Roman Catholic Church and was closed in 1888 by the progressive and anti-clerical government of President Bernardo Soto Alfaro as part of a campaign to modernize public education. The schools of law, fine arts, pharmacy continued to operate independently, but Costa Rica had no university proper until 1940, when those four schools were re-united to establish the modern University of Costa Rica, during the reformist administration of President Rafael Ángel Calderón Guardia.
The city's public education system is composed of pre-schools and high schools, which are located in all of the city's districts and are under the supervision of the Ministry of Public Education. Private institutions do exist within the city; these educational institutions range from pre-schools to universities. Most tend to be bilingual, teaching subjects in either French or English and Spanish, among other languages, apart from just teaching a certain language. San José is one of Latin America's safer cities; as of 19 June 2012, both nation reduced their crime indices considerably. Nationwide, crime was reduced from 12.5 to 9.5 incidents per 100,000 inhabitants. In 2012, new police equipment was issued by the government, the security budget was increased. President Laura Chinchilla's government has donated vehicles and other equipment to the police department on at least two occasions; the city's greater metropolitan area serves as the headquarters of the Inter-American Court of Human Rights.
The capital is made up of 5 districts: Catedral, Hospital, Mata Redonda, Merced. And three districts partially: Pavas, Zapote. San José has several internal transportation networks that connect the city districts and metropolitan area.
Costa Rica the Republic of Costa Rica, is a country in Central America, bordered by Nicaragua to the north, the Caribbean Sea to the northeast, Panama to the southeast, the Pacific Ocean to the southwest, Ecuador to the south of Cocos Island. It has a population of around 5 million in a land area of 51,060 square kilometers. An estimated 333,980 people live in the capital and largest city, San José with around 2 million people in the surrounding metropolitan area; the sovereign state of Costa Rica is a unitary presidential constitutional republic. It is known for its long-standing and stable democracy, for its educated workforce, most of whom speak English; the country spends 6.9% of its budget on education, compared to a global average of 4.4%. Its economy, once dependent on agriculture, has diversified to include sectors such as finance, corporate services for foreign companies and ecotourism. Many foreign manufacturing and services companies operate in Costa Rica's Free Trade Zones where they benefit from investment and tax incentives.
Costa Rica was facing a market liquidity crisis in 2017 due to a growing budget deficit. By August 2017, the Treasury was having difficulty paying its obligations. Other challenges facing the country in its attempts to improve the economy by increasing foreign investment include a poor infrastructure and a need to improve public sector efficiency. Costa Rica was sparsely inhabited by indigenous peoples before coming under Spanish rule in the 16th century, it remained a peripheral colony of the empire until independence as part of the First Mexican Empire, followed by membership in the United Provinces of Central America, from which it formally declared independence in 1847. Since Costa Rica has remained among the most stable and progressive nations in Latin America. Following the brief Costa Rican Civil War, it permanently abolished its army in 1949, becoming one of only a few sovereign nations without a standing army; the country has performed favorably in the Human Development Index, placing 69th in the world as of 2015, among the highest of any Latin American nation.
It has been cited by the United Nations Development Programme as having attained much higher human development than other countries at the same income levels, with a better record on human development and inequality than the median of the region. Costa Rica has progressive environmental policies, it is the only country to meet all five UNDP criteria established to measure environmental sustainability. It was ranked 42nd in the world, third in the Americas, in the 2016 Environmental Performance Index, was twice ranked the best performing country in the New Economics Foundation's Happy Planet Index, which measures environmental sustainability, was identified by the NEF as the greenest country in the world in 2009. Costa Rica plans to become a carbon-neutral country by 2021. By 2016, 98.1% of its electricity was generated from green sources hydro, solar and biomass. Historians have classified the indigenous people of Costa Rica as belonging to the Intermediate Area, where the peripheries of the Mesoamerican and Andean native cultures overlapped.
More pre-Columbian Costa Rica has been described as part of the Isthmo-Colombian Area. Stone tools, the oldest evidence of human occupation in Costa Rica, are associated with the arrival of various groups of hunter-gatherers about 10,000 to 7,000 years BCE in the Turrialba Valley; the presence of Clovis culture type spearheads and arrows from South America opens the possibility that, in this area, two different cultures coexisted. Agriculture became evident in the populations, they grew tubers and roots. For the first and second millennia BCE there were settled farming communities; these were small and scattered, although the timing of the transition from hunting and gathering to agriculture as the main livelihood in the territory is still unknown. The earliest use of pottery appears around 2,000 to 3,000 BCE. Shards of pots, cylindrical vases, platters and other forms of vases decorated with grooves and some modelled after animals have been found; the impact of indigenous peoples on modern Costa Rican culture has been small compared to other nations, since the country lacked a strong native civilization to begin with.
Most of the native population was absorbed into the Spanish-speaking colonial society through inter-marriage, except for some small remnants, the most significant of which are the Bribri and Boruca tribes who still inhabit the mountains of the Cordillera de Talamanca, in the southeastern part of Costa Rica, near the frontier with Panama. The name la costa rica, meaning "rich coast" in the Spanish language, was in some accounts first applied by Christopher Columbus, who sailed to the eastern shores of Costa Rica during his final voyage in 1502, reported vast quantities of gold jewelry worn by natives; the name may have come from conquistador Gil González Dávila, who landed on the west coast in 1522, encountered natives, appropriated some of their gold. During most of the colonial period, Costa Rica was the southernmost province of the Captaincy General of Guatemala, nominally part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain. In practice, the captaincy general was a autonomous entity within the Spanish Empire.
Costa Rica's distance from the capital of the captaincy in Guatemala, its legal prohibition under Spanish law from trade with its southern neighbor Panama part of the Viceroyalty of New Granada, lack of r
Alajuela is the second largest city in Costa Rica. It is the capital of Alajuela Province; because of its location in the Costa Rican Central Valley, Alajuela is nowadays part of the conurbation of the Great Metropolitan Area. The city is the birthplace of Juan Santamaría, the national hero of Costa Rica and the figure who gives the name to the country's main international airport, south of Alajuela downtown; the limits of the city correspond formally to the canton's first district limits though the city's current population and urban area stretch beyond these limits. The district of Alajuela covers an area of 8.88 km², It lies at an elevation of 952 metres above sea level in the Central Valley, 19 kilometres northwest of San José. The climate is tropical, typical of the Central Valley, but warmer than San José. Temperatures are moderate, averaging 23–26 degrees Celsius with a low humidity level of 20% all year round. Alajuela and its surroundings are famed for having "the best weather in the world".
According to the 2000 Census, the urban area of the city had a population of 980,700. The population of the district in 2018 was 306,206 people. In pre-Columbian times the land where the canton of Alajuela is today was part of the Huetar Kingdom of the West, inhabited by native tribes, who at the time of the Spanish conquest were led by Chief Garabito; the first Spanish settlers established settlements in the region in about 1650. In a letter of obligation granted in 1864, the place is mentioned as La Lajuela in the Valley of Barva, near the Canoas river. In 1777, the dwellers of La Lajuela and Ciruelas, having been served with notice to move to Villa Vieja, requested the provisional construction of a public place of prayer in the house of Don Dionysius Oconitrillo, of Spanish origin, 30 metres north of where Alajuela's cathedral is today. After increases of population in the five existing quarters then: Targuaz, Puás, Ciruelas, La Lajuela and Rio Grande, the citizens faced difficulties to maintain their religious obligations, so they requested permission to establish a parish and a public place of prayer from the Bishop of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, Monsignor don Esteban Lorenzo de Tristán.
According to a motion issued in the Spanish Parliament of Cádiz on 19 May 1812, the first town hall of Alajuela was founded in 1813. On December 18 of the same year, the La Lajuela quarter obtained the title of town and it was renamed, it was first called "Villa Hermosa" it was called "San Juan Nepomuceno de Alajuela" and the title of city was granted on 20 November 1824 and with it the name "Alajuela" which remains today. Participation in important historical events by citizens of Alajuela has ensured the city's reputation as a storied place in Costa Rican history; the national hero Juan Santamaría, who died during the campaign in 1856 to remove invaders threatening Costa Rica's sovereignty, was born in Alajuela. This historical event is celebrated and remembered every year on 11 April and it is a national holiday; the area experiences earthquakes. The 2009 magnitude 6.1 earthquake caused several landslides. The main exports of the region are coffee, sugar-cane, beans, citrus fruits, tubers like cassava and ornamental plants.
Other commercial activities include poultry farming, pig farming and the dairy industry. More Alajuela has seen important investment in free zone parks and heavy industry companies. Alajuela is an important transport hub for the country, connecting the capital city with northwestern Costa Rica; as a part of the Greater Metropolitan Area, most of the inhabitants of Alajuela work in other cities or regions of the Central Valley, every day receives residents from other locations to work in local factories. Central America's second busiest airport, Juan Santamaría International Airport, is three kilometres south of the city centre. Liga Deportiva Alajuelense is the city's major football club, they play their home games at the Estadio Alejandro Morera Soto. They share the stadium with Carmelita. San Bartolomé de Tirajana, Spain Lahr, Germany Montegrotto Terme, Italy Bordano, Italy Downey, California, USA Dothan, Alabama, USA Guadalajara, Mexico Ibaraki Prefecture, Japan Hangzhou, China Gregorio Jose Ramirez Politician, Military Commander.
José María Alfaro Zamora Costa Rican Head of State Florentino Alfaro Zamora Politician Juan Alfaro Ruiz Politician Jose Maria Figueroa Artist. He recorded the early events of Costa Rican history in his Album de Figueroa Apolinar de Jesus Soto Vice-President of Costa Rica; the title was called Primer Designado Juan Santamaría Costa Rican national hero. Tomás Guardia Gutiérrez President of Costa Rica Born in Bagaces, Guardia married and lived in Alajuela most of his life Emilia Solórzano Alfaro Costa Rican First lady For her activism in favor of Education and Human Rights, she was declared Benemerita de la Patria in 1972. Leon Fernandez Bonilla Historian, Diplomat, Journalist. Declared Benemerito de la Patria in 1994. Bernardo Soto Alfaro President of Costa Rica Anastasio Alfaro Zoologist, Archeologist, Ethnologist. Creator of the Museo Nacional de Costa Rica. Ricardo Fernandez Guardia Historian, Diplomat. Declared Benemerito de la Patria in 1944. León Cortés Castro President of Costa Rica Otilio Ula
Alajuela is a province of Costa Rica. It is located in the north-central part of the country, it borders the provinces of Heredia to the east, San José to the south, Puntarenas to the southwest and Guanacaste to the west. As of 2011, the province had a population of 885,571. Alajuela is composed of 16 cantons, it covers an area of 9,757.53 square kilometers. The provincial cabecera is Alajuela. Other large cities include Quesada, Aguas Zarcas, Zarcero, Sarchí Norte, San Ramón, Grecia and Los Chiles. Costa Rica has been inhabited for nearly 10,000 years, but little is known of its pre-Columbian history. Alajuela was occupied by several indigenous groups just before the arrival of the Spanish. Despite being between two major civilizations, indigenous groups sparsely populated the area; the Hueteres lived in the south of the territory, while the Botos, Guatusos and Catapas lived in the north. In the 15th century, most of the region of modern Alajuela was under the control of Garabito, an indigenous leader of whom little is known.
Only the Botos, who lived in Alajuela's northern plains, resisted conquest until the early 1800s. Starting in the 16th century, Spanish conquistadors arrived in the Central Valley from Guanacaste; the natives who survived epidemics and conquest were placed in the encomienda system of labor, which exploited natives and funneled money to the Spanish crown. In 1574, the first reservation for natives was created at Santa Catalina, which today is the Canton of Mateo; because land holdings in Cartago, the colonial capital of the region, were controlled by large encomiendados, many settlers began moving west beginning in the mid-1600s. In 1657, Alajuela was mentioned for the first time in the writings of Juana de Vera y Sotomayor, a traveler who described an encomienda "on La Lajuela river." Before taking on the name of Alajuela, the area was known as Villahermosa. Esteban Lorenzo de Tristán, Bishop of Nicaragua and Costa Rica, tried organizing Catholic communities west of Heredia. In doing so, he inaugurated a small oratory to unite the scattered settlers.
The oratory was centered in the village of "La Lajuela," between the Alajuela rivers. Because of its creation, the city of Alajuela was founded on 12 October 1782. In 1790, the first official parish of Alajuela was established, led by the priest Manuel López del Corral; the creation of a parish brought more settlers to the region. Soon, they began moving further and further toward the edges of the Central Valley, founding Atenas in 1836, San Ramón in 1854, Grecia in 1856. Soon, the cities of Naranjo and Quesada were founded as well. In 1823, during the First Costa Rican Civil War, Costa Rica was divided into two groups: the Imperialists, who were loyal to the First Mexican Empire, the Republicans, who wanted independence. For the most part and San José fought against the coup staged by the Republicans in Heredia and Cartago; the Alajuelan side won, Costa Rica left the Mexican Empire shortly before it dissolved. While Costa Rica was a member of the Federal Republic of Central America in the 1830s, the city of Alajuela was the nation's capital.
In 1831, Alajuelan folk hero Juan Santamaría was born. Santamaría was a peasant boy who volunteered as a drummer during the Campaign of 1856-1857. On 11 April 1856, Santamaría sacrificed himself to burn filibuster William Walker's stronghold at Santa Rosa, asking only that his mother be taken care of. Settlement of the northern portion of Alajuela only began in earnest in the half of the 19th century, so did not reach great proportions until the second half of the 20th century, owing to the difficult access. Much of the original colonization came from Nicaragua since numerous navigable rivers flow north from their origins in the cordilleras and empty into either Lake Nicaragua or the San Juan River. By 1850, the province had a population of 15,540. On 16 February 1921, Pope Benedict XV issued a Papal bull that reorganized Alajuela into an Ecclesiastic Province run by the incumbents of new two new positions: the Archbishop of Alajuela, the Apostolic Vicar of Limón. A seminal event in Alajuela's history was the 1968 eruption of Volcán Arenal.
Residents referred to it as Mount Arenal. In the years before the eruption, residents reported rises in the temperature of ground water and small tremors. Beginning on 28 July 1969, residents of surrounding towns reported constant tremors; the eruptions began on 29 July, spewing ash into the neighboring provinces and launching boulders into the sky. The initial explosions were so strong; the cities of Tabacón, Pueblo Nuevo and San Luís were buried. Crops were destroyed and livestock were killed. In 1979, Lake Arenal was created as the result of the construction of a hydroelectric dam by the Instituto Costarricense de Electricidad, Costa Rica's national electric company; the old cities of Tabacón and Tonadora were submerged, residents moved to the new city of Tabacón at its current location, although the steeple of the church can still be seen. The dam produces 17% of the country's electricity; the province is located in the North Central Plains and borders Nicaragua to the north and the Costa Rican provinces of Heredia to the east, San José to the south, Guanacaste to the west.
Alajuela's San Carlos is larger than the provinces of Cartago. It is the largest canton in Costa Rica, taking up 34.32% of the provincial territory and 6.55% of the national territory. The Central Mountain Range passes throug