Race and ethnicity in the United States Census
Race and ethnicity in the United States Census, defined by the federal Office of Management and Budget and the United States Census Bureau, are self-identification data items in which residents choose the race or races with which they most identify, indicate whether or not they are of Hispanic or Latino origin. The racial categories represent a social-political construct for the race or races that respondents consider themselves to be and, "generally reflect a social definition of race recognized in this country." OMB defines the concept of race as outlined for the US Census as not "scientific or anthropological" and takes into account "social and cultural characteristics as well as ancestry", using "appropriate scientific methodologies" that are not "primarily biological or genetic in reference." The race categories include both national-origin groups. Race and ethnicity are considered separate and distinct identities, with Hispanic or Latino origin asked as a separate question. Thus, in addition to their race or races, all respondents are categorized by membership in one of two ethnic categories, which are "Hispanic or Latino" and "Not Hispanic or Latino".
However, the practice of separating "race" and "ethnicity" as different categories has been criticized both by the American Anthropological Association and members of US Commission on Civil Rights. In 1997, OMB issued a Federal Register notice regarding revisions to the standards for the classification of federal data on race and ethnicity. OMB developed race and ethnic standards in order to provide "consistent data on race and ethnicity throughout the Federal Government; the development of the data standards stem in large measure from new responsibilities to enforce civil rights laws." Among the changes, OMB issued the instruction to "mark one or more races" after noting evidence of increasing numbers of interracial children and wanting to capture the diversity in a measurable way and having received requests by people who wanted to be able to acknowledge their or their children's full ancestry rather than identifying with only one group. Prior to this decision, the Census and other government data collections asked people to report only one race.
The OMB states, "many federal programs are put into effect based on the race data obtained from the decennial census. Race data are critical for the basic research behind many policy decisions. States require these data to meet legislative redistricting requirements; the data are needed to monitor compliance with the Voting Rights Act by local jurisdictions". "Data on ethnic groups are important for putting into effect a number of federal statutes. Data on Ethnic Groups are needed by local governments to run programs and meet legislative requirements." The 1790 United States Census was the first census in the history of the United States. The population of the United States was recorded as 3,929,214 as of Census Day, August 2, 1790, as mandated by Article I, Section 2 of the United States Constitution and applicable laws."The law required that every household be visited, that completed census schedules be posted in'two of the most public places within, there to remain for the inspection of all concerned...' and that'the aggregate amount of each description of persons' for every district be transmitted to the president."
This law along with U. S. marshals were responsible for governing the census. One third of the original census data has been lost or destroyed since documentation; the data was lost in 1790–1830 time period and included data from: Connecticut, Maryland, New Hampshire, New York, North Carolina, Rhode Island, South Carolina, Delaware, New Jersey, Virginia. Census data included the name of the head of the family and categorized inhabitants as follows: free white males at least 16 years of age, free white males under 16 years of age, free white females, all other free persons, slaves. Thomas Jefferson the Secretary of State, directed marshals to collect data from all thirteen states, from the Southwest Territory; the census was not conducted in Vermont until 1791, after that state's admission to the Union as the 14th state on March 4 of that year. There was some doubt surrounding the numbers, President George Washington and Thomas Jefferson maintained the population was undercounted; the potential reasons Washington and Jefferson may have thought this could be refusal to participate, poor public transportation and roads, spread out population, restraints of current technology.
No microdata from the 1790 population census is available, but aggregate data for small areas and their compatible cartographic boundary files, can be downloaded from the National Historical Geographic Information System. In 1800 and 1810, the age question regarding free white males was more detailed; the 1820
Butte County, California
Butte County is a county in the U. S. state of California. As of the 2010 census, the population was 220,000; the county seat is Oroville. Butte County comprises CA Metropolitan Statistical Area, it is in the California Central Valley, north of the state capital of Sacramento. Butte County is known as the "Land of Natural Wealth and Beauty."Butte County is watered by the Feather River and the Sacramento River. Butte Creek and Big Chico Creek are both tributary to the Sacramento; the county is the home of Chico and of Butte College. There are four major hospitals and the State of California defines Butte County as being inside Health Service Area 1. A special district, the Butte County Air Quality Management District, regulates airborne pollutant emissions in the county, it does this following regional regulations and federal laws. For example, in recent years, the agency changed rules that once allowed residents to burn household trash outdoors. Butte County was incorporated as one of California's 19 original counties on 18 February 1850.
The county went across the present limits of the Tehama, Plumas and Sutter counties. The first sheriff was Joseph Q. Wilbur. On November 8, 2018, a major wildfire, the "Camp Fire", destroyed most of the town of Paradise, the adjacent community of Concow, many square miles of rural, hilly country east of Chico. More than eighty people were killed, fifty thousand were displaced, 200,000 acres were burned, twenty thousand buildings were destroyed; the Camp Fire is California's most deadliest fire. According to the U. S. Census Bureau, the county has a total area of 1,677 square miles, of which 1,636 square miles is land and 41 square miles is water; the county is drained by the Feather Butte Creek. Part of the county's western border is formed by the Sacramento River; the county lies along the western slope of the Sierra Nevada, the steep slopes making it prime territory for the siting of hydroelectric power plants. About a half dozen of these plants are located in the county, one of which, serves the Oroville Dam which became stressed by overflow water in 2017, which remains a concern today.
Butte Sink National Wildlife Refuge Lassen National Forest Plumas National Forest Sacramento River National Wildlife Refuge Sutter County, California - south Colusa County, California - southwest Glenn County, California - west Tehama County, California - northwest Plumas County, California - northeast Yuba County, California - southeast The 2010 United States Census reported that Butte County had a population of 220,000. The racial makeup of Butte County was 180,096 White, 3,415 African American, 4,395 Native American, 9,057 Asian, 452 Pacific Islander, 12,141 from other races, 10,444 from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 31,116 persons; as of the census of 2000, there were 203,171 people, 79,566 households, 49,410 families residing in the county. The population density was 124 people per square mile. There were 85,523 housing units at an average density of 52 per square mile; the racial makeup of the county was 84.5% White, 1.4% Black or African American, 1.9% Native American, 3.3% Asian, 0.2% Pacific Islander, 4.8% from other races, 3.9% from two or more races.
10.5% of the population were Hispanic or Latino of any race. 14.2% were of German, 11.1% English, 10.2% Irish, 7.8% American and 5.6% Italian ancestry according to Census 2000. 87.9% spoke English, 7.8% Spanish and 1.4% Hmong as their first language. There were 79,566 households out of which 28.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 46.7% were married couples living together, 11.2% had a female householder with no husband present, 37.9% were non-families. 27.2% of all households were made up of individuals and 11.1% had someone living alone, 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.48 and the average family size was 3.02. In the county, the population was spread out with 24.0% under the age of 18, 13.6% from 18 to 24, 24.8% from 25 to 44, 21.8% from 45 to 64, 15.8% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females there were 96.1 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 92.6 males. The median income for a household in the county was $31,924, the median income for a family was $41,010.
Males had a median income of $34,137 versus $25,393 for females. The per capita income for the county was $17,517. About 12.2% of families and 19.8% of the population were below the poverty line, including 23.8% of those under age 18 and 7.3% of those age 65 or over. The following table includes the number of incidents reported and the rate per 1,000 persons for each type of offense; the citizens of the county of Butte are represented by the five member Butte County Board of Supervisors. The Berry Creek Rancheria of Tyme Maidu Indians of California is headquartered in Oroville; the Berry Creek Rancheria operates Gold Country Casino. The Mooretown Rancheria of Maidu Indians of California is headquartered in Oroville; the Mooretown Rancheria operates Feather Falls Casino. The governmental headquarters of the Mechoopda Indian Tribe of Chico Rancheria is located in Chico. Butte County is split between the 1st and 3rd Assembly districts, represented by Republican Brian Dahle and Republican James Gallagher, respectively.
The county is in the 4th Senate District, represented by Republican Jim Nielsen. On November 4, 2008 Butte County voted 56.7% for Proposition 8 which amended the California Constitution to ban same-sex marriages. Butte County is in California's 1st congressional district, represented by Republic
A census is the procedure of systematically acquiring and recording information about the members of a given population. The term is used in connection with national population and housing censuses; the United Nations defines the essential features of population and housing censuses as "individual enumeration, universality within a defined territory and defined periodicity", recommends that population censuses be taken at least every 10 years. United Nations recommendations cover census topics to be collected, official definitions and other useful information to co-ordinate international practice; the word is of Latin origin: during the Roman Republic, the census was a list that kept track of all adult males fit for military service. The modern census is essential to international comparisons of any kind of statistics, censuses collect data on many attributes of a population, not just how many people there are. Censuses began as the only method of collecting national demographic data, are now part of a larger system of different surveys.
Although population estimates remain an important function of a census, including the geographic distribution of the population, statistics can be produced about combinations of attributes e.g. education by age and sex in different regions. Current administrative data systems allow for other approaches to enumeration with the same level of detail but raise concerns about privacy and the possibility of biasing estimates. A census can be contrasted with sampling in which information is obtained only from a subset of a population. Modern census data are used for research, business marketing, planning, as a baseline for designing sample surveys by providing a sampling frame such as an address register. Census counts are necessary to adjust samples to be representative of a population by weighting them as is common in opinion polling. Stratification requires knowledge of the relative sizes of different population strata which can be derived from census enumerations. In some countries, the census provides the official counts used to apportion the number of elected representatives to regions.
In many cases, a chosen random sample can provide more accurate information than attempts to get a population census. A census is construed as the opposite of a sample as its intent is to count everyone in a population rather than a fraction. However, population censuses rely on a sampling frame to count the population; this is the only way to be sure that everyone has been included as otherwise those not responding would not be followed up on and individuals could be missed. The fundamental premise of a census is that the population is not known and a new estimate is to be made by the analysis of primary data; the use of a sampling frame is counterintuitive as it suggests that the population size is known. However, a census is used to collect attribute data on the individuals in the nation; this process of sampling marks the difference between historical census, a house to house process or the product of an imperial decree, the modern statistical project. The sampling frame used by census is always an address register.
Thus it is not known how many people there are in each household. Depending on the mode of enumeration, a form is sent to the householder, an enumerator calls, or administrative records for the dwelling are accessed; as a preliminary to the dispatch of forms, census workers will check any address problems on the ground. While it may seem straightforward to use the postal service file for this purpose, this can be out of date and some dwellings may contain a number of independent households. A particular problem is what are termed'communal establishments' which category includes student residences, religious orders, homes for the elderly, people in prisons etc; as these are not enumerated by a single householder, they are treated differently and visited by special teams of census workers to ensure they are classified appropriately. Individuals are counted within households and information is collected about the household structure and the housing. For this reason international documents refer to censuses of housing.
The census response is made by a household, indicating details of individuals resident there. An important aspect of census enumerations is determining which individuals can be counted from which cannot be counted. Broadly, three definitions can be used: de facto residence; this is important to consider individuals who have temporary addresses. Every person should be identified uniquely as resident in one place but where they happen to be on Census Day, their de facto residence, may not be the best place to count them. Where an individual uses services may be more useful and this is at their usual, or de jure, residence. An individual may be represented at a permanent address a family home for students or long term migrants, it is necessary to have a precise definition of residence to decide whether visitors to a country should be included in the population count. This is becoming more important as students travel abroad for education for a period of several years. Other groups causing problems of enumeration are new born babies, people away on holiday, people moving home around census day, people without a fixed address.
People having second homes because of working in another part of the country or retaining a holiday cottage are dif
Population density is a measurement of population per unit area or unit volume. It is applied to living organisms, most of the time to humans, it is a key geographical term. In simple terms population density refers to the number of people living in an area per kilometer square. Population density is population divided by total land water volume, as appropriate. Low densities may lead to further reduced fertility; this is called the Allee effect after the scientist. Examples of the causes in low population densities include: Increased problems with locating sexual mates Increased inbreeding For humans, population density is the number of people per unit of area quoted per square kilometer or square mile; this may be calculated for a county, country, another territory or the entire world. The world's population is around 7,500,000,000 and Earth's total area is 510,000,000 square kilometers. Therefore, the worldwide human population density is around 7,500,000,000 ÷ 510,000,000 = 14.7 per km2. If only the Earth's land area of 150,000,000 km2 is taken into account human population density is 50 per km2.
This includes all continental and island land area, including Antarctica. If Antarctica is excluded population density rises to over 55 people per km2. However, over half of the Earth's land mass consists of areas inhospitable to human habitation, such as deserts and high mountains, population tends to cluster around seaports and fresh-water sources. Thus, this number by itself does not give any helpful measurement of human population density. Several of the most densely populated territories in the world are city-states and dependencies; these territories have a small area and a high urbanization level, with an economically specialized city population drawing on rural resources outside the area, illustrating the difference between high population density and overpopulation The potential to maintain the agricultural aspects of deserts is limited as there is not enough precipitation to support a sustainable land. The population in these areas are low. Therefore, cities in the Middle East, such as Dubai, have been increasing in population and infrastructure growth at a fast pace.
Cities with high population densities are, by some, considered to be overpopulated, though this will depend on factors like quality of housing and infrastructure and access to resources. Most of the most densely populated cities are in Southeast Asia, though Cairo and Lagos in Africa fall into this category. City population and area are, however dependent on the definition of "urban area" used: densities are invariably higher for the central city area than when suburban settlements and the intervening rural areas are included, as in the areas of agglomeration or metropolitan area, the latter sometimes including neighboring cities. For instance, Milwaukee has a greater population density when just the inner city is measured, the surrounding suburbs excluded. In comparison, based on a world population of seven billion, the world's inhabitants, as a loose crowd taking up ten square feet per person, would occupy a space a little larger than Delaware's land area; the Gaza Strip has a population density of 5,046 pop/km.
Although arithmetic density is the most common way of measuring population density, several other methods have been developed to provide a more accurate measure of population density over a specific area. Arithmetic density: The total number of people / area of land Physiological density: The total population / area of arable land Agricultural density: The total rural population / area of arable land Residential density: The number of people living in an urban area / area of residential land Urban density: The number of people inhabiting an urban area / total area of urban land Ecological optimum: The density of population that can be supported by the natural resources Demography Human geography Idealized population Optimum population Population genetics Population health Population momentum Population pyramid Rural transport problem Small population size Distance sampling List of population concern organizations List of countries by population density List of cities by population density List of city districts by population density List of English districts by population density List of European cities proper by population density List of United States cities by population density List of islands by population density List of U.
S. states by population density List of Australian suburbs by population density Selected Current and Historic City, Ward & Neighborhood Density Duncan Smith / UCL Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis. "World Population Density". Exploratory map shows data from the Global Human Settlement Layer produced by the European Commission JRC and the CIESIN Columbia University
James Wiley Nielsen is an American politician from California serving in the California State Senate representing the 4th district. He is a Republican. Nielsen served on the Yolo County Republican Committee before first winning election to the California State Senate in 1978 and served until 1990. Nielsen served in the California State Assembly from 2009-2012 and returned to the Senate in 2013. On August 31, 1944, Nielsen was born in California. Nielsen earned a bachelors degree in Agricultural Business from Fresno. Nielsen was first elected to the Senate in 1978 by defeating 4th district incumbent John Dunlap, a freshman Democrat. Nielsen went on to win easy reelections in 1982 and 1986. Nielsen served as Republican Leader in the Senate from 1983 until 1987. Nielsen established himself as a traditional tough-on-crime conservative who championed the cause for lower taxes, controlled government spending and gun rights for law-abiding citizens, he authored legislation to promote welfare reform and reduce welfare fraud, including the acclaimed GAIN program, he authored and coauthored bills to promote agricultural exports.
Nielsen was unseated by Democrat Mike Thompson, an aide to Assemblywoman Jackie Speier. Thompson benefited from ethics issues and verbal gaffes made by the incumbent, as well changing demographics in the district, he defeated Nielsen by less than 1 percent. After leaving the legislature, Nielsen served on the Agriculture Labor Relations Board. In 1992, he was appointed to the Board of Parole and Prison Terms and served as its chairman from 1993 until 2000. A question of residency eligibility arose during his bid for the Assembly in 2008, because Nielsen owns 2 homes, one in the district he represents and one near the capitol, the custom of most legislators. Nielsen won the case and received a judgment for court costs in the amount of $7,400 against Plaintiff Don Bird. Plaintiff appealed to the Secretary of State who deferred to the State Attorney General. After reviewing the case, the Attorney General issued a letter on December 22, 2008, stating there was no evidence to warrant further investigation and the matter was closed.
The Attorney General was a Democrat and former Governor of California. Nielsen was the largest taxpayer-funded gas card spender in the state legislature for 2010 costing $10,410.68 Nielsen's wife is Marilyn. They have five children. Vassar, Alex. "Jim Nielsen, Republican". JoinCalifornia.com. Retrieved on October 3, 2008 California Journal Vol. XXI, No. 10 "Wilson vs. Feinstein". StateNet Publications, October 1990. California Journal Vol. XXVI, No. 12 "Complete District By District Analysis". StateNet Publications, December 1990. Official website Nielsen's Campaign website JoinCalifornia, Election History for the State of California
Las Plumas High School
Las Plumas High School is located in the north valley in Oroville, United States, about 70 miles north of Sacramento. The school was established in the autumn of 1961; the class of 1965 was the first class to go from freshmen to seniors at the school. Its main sports rival is Oroville High School; the school is situated north of the small farming community of Palermo, located just south of Oroville. Both Table Mountain and the Sutter Buttes can be seen from the school, as well as the foothills of the Sierra Nevada Mountains; the school has a large, spread-out campus, dominated by open fields in the southern part. In the center of the campus is the quad, where most of the school's activity takes place; the quad is decorated by several clubs, is maintained by many student organizations, most notably the FFA, who planted many of the quad's flower beds and maintain the new saplings. The 2014–2015 student population was broken down as follows: 4% American Indian, 10% Asian, 24% Hispanic, 1% Black.1% Filipino, 53% White.
The ratio of males/females was 51%/49%, the graduation rate was 89.96%. For that school year the school had 80 classroom teachers, the ratio of teachers to students was 24:1. Thirty-six clubs are listed at the school's official website, including the following: Academic Decathlon, Anime Club, Art Club, ASB, Asian Club, Auto Club, AVID, BSU, California Scholarship Federation, Conflict Manager, Diversified Occupations, Diversity Club, Environmental Club, FBLA, FFA, FHA-HERO, Freshman Class, Friday Night Live, GATE, Gay-Straight Alliance, Gamerz Club, Key Club, Interact Club, Junior Class, Legend Yearbook, Link Crew, MECHA, MESA, Native American Club, NJROTC, Senior Class, Snowboard/Ski Club, Sophomore Class. Las Plumas High has maintained a mock trial team since 1993, has competed at the state level for 14 years. Two students have been recognized by the Constitution Rights Foundation with outstanding achievement awards at the state level - Benjamin Rodgers for outstanding pretrial in 2005, Gary Ferdinand for outstanding prosecution witness in 2010.
The school's journalism class maintains a school newspaper, the Las Plumas Times, distributed to the school, as well as several businesses around Oroville and Marysville, including the Marysville Charter Academy for the Arts. The Las Plumas/Oroville Alliance Marching Band is the biggest source of prestige for the Oroville Unified High School District, having placed among the top ten bands in California while under the direction of director Jeff Stratton. In the fall of 2008, the LPO band won nine sweepstakes awards breaking the record for the school. In the same school year, the band room's renovation was completed, allowing room for the hundreds of trophies and plaques accumulated over the years; some of LPO's biggest consistent rivals include Fairfield High School, Golden Valley, Franklin. In the fall of 2009, the Las Plumas/Oroville Alliance marching band was named the third-best in the state by the California Band Directors Association; the band is judged by members of the Northern California Band Association.
In 1988 the Las Plumas High School Marching Band and Auxiliary represented the United States of America at the World's Fair in Brisbane, Australia under the direction of Glenn and Carolyn Dawson. The band and auxiliary toured for ten days on the eastern coast of Australia presenting student leadership and marching techniques before performing at the world's fair. In 1990 the Las Plumas High School and Auxiliary toured the island of O'ahu performing at several schools demonstrating student leadership and music techniques under the direction of Glenn and Carolyn Dawson. Within two years Glenn combined the Oroville High School music program with the Las Plumas High School music program to promote music education that included all students in the greater Oroville area. Butte College offers comprehensive programs in many fields as well as a college connection program for current seniors. California State University Chico, a four-year university that offers a full spectrum of curricula, is about a 25-minute drive from the city of Oroville.
Oroville is about three hours from the cultural centers of San Francisco and the Bay Area and about two hours from Reno and Sacramento. Las Plumas offers sports, including football, girls' volleyball, boys' basketball, girls' basketball, girls' softball, boys' soccer, girls' soccer, boys' and girls' track and field and girls' cross country, girls' tennis, boys' tennis, golf; the school's premiere sports are football and baseball. The Link Crew program connects upperclassmen with freshmen students. Link Leaders help freshmen improve beneficial academic habits. Activities including tailgate parties and movie nights help freshmen to become more involved in high school life; the Safe School Ambassadors are students trained to identify potential problems on campus dealing with bullying and mistreatment. Conflict Managers are students who have been trained to act as neutral third parties to help settle disputes between other students. On Respect Days, up to 100 students are taken out of class for the day and placed together in groups of mixed races and social affiliations to promote respect for others who are different.
Las Plumas High School did not observe Respect Days in the 2009–2010 school year, but may hold more in the future. The Las Plumas Fight song was written by art teacher Al Walsh in the Fall of 1961. About this same time, Steve Green and George Kerth, two members of the class of'65, designed the multi-colored Thunderbird, used as the school's symbol during its early years; this symbol was used in other areas. Th
Marriage called matrimony or wedlock, is a or ritually recognised union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between those spouses, as well as between them and any resulting biological or adopted children and affinity. The definition of marriage varies around the world not only between cultures and between religions, but throughout the history of any given culture and religion, evolving to both expand and constrict in who and what is encompassed, but it is principally an institution in which interpersonal relationships sexual, are acknowledged or sanctioned. In some cultures, marriage is recommended or considered to be compulsory before pursuing any sexual activity; when defined broadly, marriage is considered a cultural universal. A marriage ceremony is known as a wedding. Individuals may marry for several reasons, including legal, libidinal, financial and religious purposes. Whom they marry may be influenced by gender determined rules of incest, prescriptive marriage rules, parental choice and individual desire.
In some areas of the world, arranged marriage, child marriage and sometimes forced marriage, may be practiced as a cultural tradition. Conversely, such practices may be outlawed and penalized in parts of the world out of concerns of the infringement of women's rights, or the infringement of children's rights, because of international law. Around the world in developed democracies, there has been a general trend towards ensuring equal rights within marriage for women and recognizing the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; these trends coincide with the broader human rights movement. Marriage can be recognized by a state, an organization, a religious authority, a tribal group, a local community, or peers, it is viewed as a contract. When a marriage is performed and carried out by a government institution in accordance with the marriage laws of the jurisdiction, without religious content, it is a civil marriage. Civil marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before the state.
When a marriage is performed with religious content under the auspices of a religious institution it is a religious marriage. Religious marriage recognizes and creates the rights and obligations intrinsic to matrimony before that religion. Religious marriage is known variously as sacramental marriage in Catholicism, nikah in Islam, nissuin in Judaism, various other names in other faith traditions, each with their own constraints as to what constitutes, who can enter into, a valid religious marriage; some countries do not recognize locally performed religious marriage on its own, require a separate civil marriage for official purposes. Conversely, civil marriage does not exist in some countries governed by a religious legal system, such as Saudi Arabia, where marriages contracted abroad might not be recognized if they were contracted contrary to Saudi interpretations of Islamic religious law. In countries governed by a mixed secular-religious legal system, such as in Lebanon and Israel, locally performed civil marriage does not exist within the country, preventing interfaith and various other marriages contradicting religious laws from being entered into in the country, civil marriages performed abroad are recognized by the state if they conflict with religious laws.
The act of marriage creates normative or legal obligations between the individuals involved, any offspring they may produce or adopt. In terms of legal recognition, most sovereign states and other jurisdictions limit marriage to opposite-sex couples and a diminishing number of these permit polygyny, child marriages, forced marriages. In modern times, a growing number of countries developed democracies, have lifted bans on and have established legal recognition for the marriages of interfaith and same-sex couples; some cultures allow the dissolution of marriage through annulment. In some areas, child marriages and polygamy may occur in spite of national laws against the practice. Since the late twentieth century, major social changes in Western countries have led to changes in the demographics of marriage, with the age of first marriage increasing, fewer people marrying, more couples choosing to cohabit rather than marry. For example, the number of marriages in Europe decreased by 30% from 1975 to 2005.
In most cultures, married women had few rights of their own, being considered, along with the family's children, the property of the husband. In Europe, the United States, other places in the developed world, beginning in the late 19th century and lasting through the 21st century, marriage has undergone gradual legal changes, aimed at improving the rights of the wife; these changes included giving wives legal identities of their own, abolishing the right of husbands to physically discipline their wives, giving wives property rights, liberalizing divorce laws, providing wives with reproductive rights of their own, requiring a wife's consent when sexual relations occur. These changes have occurred in Western countries. In the 21st century, there continue to be controversies regarding the legal status of married women, legal acceptance of or leniency towards violence within marriage, traditional marriage customs such as dowry and bride price, for