Gino Severini was an Italian painter and a leading member of the Futurist movement. For much of his life he divided his time between Rome, he was associated with neo-classicism and the "return to order" in the decade after the First World War. During his career he worked including mosaic and fresco, he showed his work at major exhibitions, including the Rome Quadrennial, won art prizes from major institutions. Severini was born into a poor family in Italy, his father was his mother a dressmaker. He studied at the Scuola Tecnica in Cortona until the age of fifteen, when he was expelled from the entire Italian school system for the theft of exam papers. For a while he worked with his father, it was there that he first showed a serious interest in art, painting in his spare time while working as a shipping clerk. With the help of a patron of Cortonese origins he attended art classes, enrolling in the free school for nude studies and a private academy, his formal art education ended after two years when his patron stopped his allowance, declaring, "I do not understand your lack of order."
In 1900 he met the painter Umberto Boccioni. Together they visited the studio of Giacomo Balla, where they were introduced to the technique of Divisionism, painting with adjacent rather than mixed colors and breaking the painted surface into a field of stippled dots and stripes; the ideas of Divisionism had a great influence on Severini's early work and on Futurist painting from 1910 to 1911. Severini settled in Paris in November 1906; the move was momentous for him. He said "The cities to which I feel most bound are Cortona and Paris: I was born physically in the first and spiritually in the second." He dedicated himself to painting. There he met most of the rising artists of the period, befriending Amedeo Modigliani and occupying a studio next to those of Raoul Dufy, Georges Braque and Suzanne Valadon, he knew most of the Parisian avant-garde, including Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Juan Gris, Pablo Picasso, Lugné-Poe and his theatrical circle, the poets Guillaume Apollinaire, Paul Fort, Max Jacob, author Jules Romains.
The sale of his work did not provide enough to live on and he depended on the generosity of patrons. He was invited by Filippo Tommaso Marinetti and Boccioni to join the Futurist movement and was a co-signatory, with Balla, Carlo Carrà, Luigi Russolo, of the Manifesto of the Futurist Painters in February 1910 and the Technical Manifesto of Futurist Painting in April the same year, he was an important link between artists in France and Italy and came into contact with Cubism before his Futurist colleagues. Following a visit to Paris in 1911, the Italian Futurists adopted a sort of Cubism, which gave them a means of analysing energy in paintings and expressing dynamism. Severini helped to organize the first Futurist exhibition outside Italy at Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, Paris, in February 1912 and participated in subsequent Futurist shows in Europe and the United States. In 1913, he had solo exhibitions at the Marlborough Gallery and Der Sturm, Berlin. In his autobiography, written many years he records that the Futurists were pleased with the response to the exhibition at Galerie Bernheim-Jeune, but that influential critics, notably Apollinaire, mocked them for their pretensions, their ignorance of the main currents of modern art and their provincialism.
Severini came to agree with Apollinaire. Severini was less attracted to the subject of the machine than his fellow Futurists and chose the form of the dancer to express Futurist theories of dynamism in art, he was adept at rendering lively urban scenes, for example in Dynamic Hieroglyph of the Bal Tabarin and The Boulevard. During the First World War he produced some of the finest Futurist war art, notably his Italian Lancers at a Gallop and Armoured Train. In 1916 Severini departed from Futurism and painted several works in a naturalistic style inspired by his interest in early Renaissance art. After the First World War, Severini abandoned the Futurist style and painted in a synthetic Crystal Cubist style until 1920. By 1920 he was applying theories of classical balance based on the Golden Section to still lifes and figurative subjects from the traditional commedia dell'arte, he became part of the "return to order" in the arts in the post-war era. Works such as The Two Pulchinellas exemplify Severini's turn toward a more conservative, analytic type of painting, which nonetheless suggests metaphysical overtones.
After 1920, Severini divided his time between Rome. In 1921 he published Du cubisme au classicisme: Esthétique du compas et du nombre, a book summarizing his research into mathematical theories of harmony and proportion. In 1923 and 1925 he took part in the Rome Biennale, he exhibited in Milan with artists of the Novecento Italiano group in 1926 and 1929 and in their Geneva exhibition of 1929. From 1928 he began to incorporate elements of Rome's classical landscape in his work. In 1930 he took part in the Venice Biennale, exhibited in the Rome Quadrennials of 1931 and 1935, in 1935 won the first prize for painting, with an entire room devoted to his work, he contributed a cycle of works to the Paris Exhibition. He explored fresco and mosaic techniques and executed murals in various media in Switzerland and Italy. In the 1940s Severini's style became semi-abstract. In the 1950s he returned to his Futurist subjects: dancers and movement, he executed commissions for the church of Saint-Pierre in Freiburg and inaugurated the Conségna dell
Henri-Robert-Marcel Duchamp was a French-American painter, chess player, writer whose work is associated with Cubism and conceptual art. He was not directly associated with Dada groups. Duchamp is regarded, along with Pablo Picasso and Henri Matisse, as one of the three artists who helped to define the revolutionary developments in the plastic arts in the opening decades of the 20th century, responsible for significant developments in painting and sculpture. Duchamp has had an immense impact on twentieth-century and twenty first-century art, he had a seminal influence on the development of conceptual art. By World War I, he had rejected the work of many of his fellow artists as "retinal" art, intended only to please the eye. Instead, Duchamp wanted to use art to serve the mind. Marcel Duchamp was born at Blainville-Crevon in Normandy and grew up in a family that enjoyed cultural activities; the art of painter and engraver Émile Frédéric Nicolle, his maternal grandfather, filled the house, the family liked to play chess, read books and make music together.
Of Eugene and Lucie Duchamp's seven children, one died as an infant and four became successful artists. Marcel Duchamp was the brother of: Jacques Villon, printmaker Raymond Duchamp-Villon, sculptor Suzanne Duchamp-Crotti, painter; as a child, with his two elder brothers away from home at school in Rouen, Duchamp was closer to his sister Suzanne, a willing accomplice in games and activities conjured by his fertile imagination. At eight years old, Duchamp followed in his brothers' footsteps when he left home and began schooling at the Lycée Pierre-Corneille, in Rouen. Two other students in his class became well-known artists and lasting friends: Robert Antoine Pinchon and Pierre Dumont. For the next eight years, he was locked into an educational regime which focused on intellectual development. Though he was not an outstanding student, his best subject was mathematics and he won two mathematics prizes at the school, he won a prize for drawing in 1903, at his commencement in 1904 he won a coveted first prize, validating his recent decision to become an artist.
He learned academic drawing from a teacher who unsuccessfully attempted to "protect" his students from Impressionism, Post-Impressionism, other avant-garde influences. However, Duchamp's true artistic mentor at the time was his brother Jacques Villon, whose fluid and incisive style he sought to imitate. At 14, his first serious art attempts were drawings and watercolors depicting his sister Suzanne in various poses and activities; that summer he painted landscapes in an Impressionist style using oils. Duchamp's early art works align with Post-Impressionist styles, he experimented with classical subjects. When he was asked about what had influenced him at the time, Duchamp cited the work of Symbolist painter Odilon Redon, whose approach to art was not outwardly anti-academic, but individual, he studied art at the Académie Julian from 1904 to 1905, but preferred playing billiards to attending classes. During this time Duchamp sold cartoons which reflected his ribald humor. Many of the drawings use visual puns, or both.
Such play with words and symbols engaged his imagination for the rest of his life. In 1905, he began his compulsory military service with the 39th Infantry Regiment, working for a printer in Rouen. There he learned typography and printing processes—skills he would use in his work. Owing to his eldest brother Jacques' membership in the prestigious Académie royale de peinture et de sculpture Duchamp's work was exhibited in the 1908 Salon d'Automne, the following year in the Salon des Indépendants. Fauves and Paul Cézanne's proto-Cubism influenced his paintings, although the critic Guillaume Apollinaire—who was to become a friend—criticized what he called "Duchamp's ugly nudes". Duchamp became lifelong friends with exuberant artist Francis Picabia after meeting him at the 1911 Salon d'Automne, Picabia proceeded to introduce him to a lifestyle of fast cars and "high" living. In 1911, at Jacques' home in Puteaux, the brothers hosted a regular discussion group with Cubist artists including Picabia, Robert Delaunay, Fernand Léger, Roger de La Fresnaye, Albert Gleizes, Jean Metzinger, Juan Gris, Alexander Archipenko.
Poets and writers participated. The group came to be known as the Section d'Or. Uninterested in the Cubists' seriousness, or in their focus on visual matters, Duchamp did not join in discussions of Cubist theory and gained a reputation of being shy. However, that same year he painted in a Cubist style and added an impression of motion by using repetitive imagery. During this period Duchamp's fascination with transition, change and distance became manifest, as many artists of the time, he was intrigued with the concept of depicting the fourth dimension in art, his painting Sad Young Man on a Train embodies this concern: First, there's the idea of the movement of the train, that of the sad young man, in a corridor and, moving about. There is the distortion of the young man—I had called this elementary parallelism, it was a formal decomposition. The object is stretched out, as if elastic; the lines follow each other in parallels, while changing subtly to form the movement, or the form of the young man in question
The Czech Republic known by its short-form name, Czechia, is a landlocked country in Central Europe bordered by Germany to the west, Austria to the south, Slovakia to the east and Poland to the northeast. The Czech Republic covers an area of 78,866 square kilometres with a temperate continental climate and oceanic climate, it is a unitary parliamentary republic, with 10.6 million inhabitants. Other major cities are Brno, Ostrava and Pilsen; the Czech Republic is a member of the European Union, NATO, the OECD, the United Nations, the OSCE, the Council of Europe. It is a developed country with an advanced, high income export-oriented social market economy based in services and innovation; the UNDP ranks the country 14th in inequality-adjusted human development. The Czech Republic is a welfare state with a "continental" European social model, a universal health care system, tuition-free university education and is ranked 14th in the Human Capital Index, it ranks as the 6th safest or most peaceful country and is one of the most non-religious countries in the world, while achieving strong performance in democratic governance.
The Czech Republic includes the historical territories of Bohemia and Czech Silesia. The Czech state was formed in the late 9th century as the Duchy of Bohemia under the Great Moravian Empire. After the fall of the Empire in 907, the centre of power transferred from Moravia to Bohemia under the Přemyslid dynasty. In 1002, the duchy was formally recognized as an Imperial State of the Holy Roman Empire along with the Kingdom of Germany, the Kingdom of Burgundy, the Kingdom of Italy, numerous other territories, becoming the Kingdom of Bohemia in 1198 and reaching its greatest territorial extent in the 14th century. Beside Bohemia itself, the King of Bohemia ruled the lands of the Bohemian Crown, holding a vote in the election of the Holy Roman Emperor. In the Hussite Wars of the 15th century driven by the Protestant Bohemian Reformation, the kingdom faced economic embargoes and defeated five consecutive crusades proclaimed by the leaders of the Catholic Church. Following the Battle of Mohács in 1526, the whole Crown of Bohemia was integrated into the Habsburg Monarchy alongside the Archduchy of Austria and the Kingdom of Hungary.
The Protestant Bohemian Revolt against the Catholic Habsburgs led to the Thirty Years' War. After the Battle of the White Mountain, the Habsburgs consolidated their rule, eradicated Protestantism and reimposed Catholicism, adopted a policy of gradual Germanization; this contributed to the anti-Habsburg sentiment. A long history of resentment of the Catholic Church followed and still continues. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the Bohemian Kingdom became part of the German Confederation 1815-1866 as part of Austrian Empire and the Czech language experienced a revival as a consequence of widespread romantic nationalism. In the 19th century, the Czech lands became the industrial powerhouse of the monarchy and were subsequently the core of the Republic of Czechoslovakia, formed in 1918 following the collapse of the Austro-Hungarian Empire after World War I. Czechoslovakia remained the only democracy in this part of Europe in the interwar period. However, the Czech part of Czechoslovakia was occupied by Germany in World War II, while the Slovak region became the Slovak Republic.
Most of the three millions of the German-speaking minority were expelled following the war. The Communist Party of Czechoslovakia won the 1946 elections and after the 1948 coup d'état, Czechoslovakia became a one-party communist state under Soviet influence. In 1968, increasing dissatisfaction with the regime culminated in a reform movement known as the Prague Spring, which ended in a Soviet-led invasion. Czechoslovakia remained occupied until the 1989 Velvet Revolution, when the communist regime collapsed and market economy was reintroduced. On 1 January 1993, Czechoslovakia peacefully dissolved, with its constituent states becoming the independent states of the Czech Republic and Slovakia; the Czech Republic joined NATO in 1999 and the EU in 2004. The traditional English name "Bohemia" derives from Latin "Boiohaemum", which means "home of the Boii"; the current English name comes from the Polish ethnonym associated with the area, which comes from the Czech word Čech. The name comes from the Slavic tribe and, according to legend, their leader Čech, who brought them to Bohemia, to settle on Říp Mountain.
The etymology of the word Čech can be traced back to the Proto-Slavic root *čel-, meaning "member of the people. The country has been traditionally divided into three lands, namely Bohemia in the west, Moravia in the east, Czech Silesia in the northeast. Known as the lands of the Bohemian Crown since the 14th century, a number of other names for the country have been used, including Czech/Bohemian lands, Bohemian Crown and the lands of the Crown of Saint Wenceslas; when the country regained its independence after the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian empire in 1918, the new name of Czechoslovakia was coined to reflect the union of the Czech and Slovak nations within the one country. After Czechoslovakia dissolved in 1992, the Czech part lac
Camille Pissarro was a Danish-French Impressionist and Neo-Impressionist painter born on the island of St Thomas. His importance resides in his contributions to both Post-Impressionism. Pissarro studied including Gustave Courbet and Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, he studied and worked alongside Georges Seurat and Paul Signac when he took on the Neo-Impressionist style at the age of 54. In 1873 he helped establish a collective society of fifteen aspiring artists, becoming the "pivotal" figure in holding the group together and encouraging the other members. Art historian John Rewald called Pissarro the "dean of the Impressionist painters", not only because he was the oldest of the group, but "by virtue of his wisdom and his balanced and warmhearted personality". Paul Cézanne said "he was a father for me. A man to consult and a little like the good Lord," and he was one of Paul Gauguin's masters. Pierre-Auguste Renoir referred to his work as "revolutionary", through his artistic portrayals of the "common man", as Pissarro insisted on painting individuals in natural settings without "artifice or grandeur".
Pissarro is the only artist to have shown his work at all eight Paris Impressionist exhibitions, from 1874 to 1886. He "acted as a father figure not only to the Impressionists" but to all four of the major Post-Impressionists, Georges Seurat, Paul Cézanne, Vincent van Gogh, Paul Gauguin. Jacob Abraham Camille Pissarro was born on 10 July 1830 on the island of St. Thomas to Frederick and Rachel Manzano de Pissarro, his father held French nationality. His mother was from a French-Jewish family from the island of St. Thomas, his father was a merchant who came to the island from France to deal with the hardware store of a deceased uncle, Isaac Petit, married his widow. The marriage caused a stir within St. Thomas' small Jewish community because she was married to Frederick's uncle and according to Jewish law a man is forbidden from marrying his aunt. In subsequent years his four children attended the all-black primary school. Upon his death, his will specified that his estate be split between the synagogue and St. Thomas' Protestant church.
When Camille was twelve his father sent him to boarding school in France. He studied at the Savary Academy in Passy near Paris. While a young student, he developed an early appreciation of the French art masters. Monsieur Savary himself gave him a strong grounding in drawing and painting and suggested he draw from nature when he returned to St. Thomas, which he did when he was seventeen. However, his father preferred, he took every opportunity during those next five years at the job to practise drawing during breaks and after work. When Pissarro turned twenty-one, Danish artist Fritz Melbye living on St. Thomas, inspired him to take on painting as a full-time profession, becoming his teacher and friend. Pissarro chose to leave his family and job and live in Venezuela, where he and Melbye spent the next two years working as artists in Caracas and La Guaira, he drew everything he could, including landscapes, village scenes, numerous sketches, enough to fill up multiple sketchbooks. In 1855 he moved back to Paris where he began working as assistant to Anton Melbye, Fritz Melbye's brother.
In Paris he worked as assistant to Danish painter Anton Melbye. He studied paintings by other artists whose style impressed him: Courbet, Charles-François Daubigny, Jean-François Millet, Corot, he enrolled in various classes taught by masters, at schools such as École des Beaux-Arts and Académie Suisse. But Pissarro found their teaching methods "stifling," states art historian John Rewald; this prompted him to search for alternative instruction, which he received from Corot. His initial paintings were in accord with the standards at the time to be displayed at the Paris Salon, the official body whose academic traditions dictated the kind of art, acceptable; the Salon's annual exhibition was the only marketplace for young artists to gain exposure. As a result, Pissarro worked in the traditional and prescribed manner to satisfy the tastes of its official committee. In 1859 his first painting was exhibited, his other paintings during that period were influenced by Camille Corot. He and Corot both shared a love of rural scenes painted from nature.
It was by Corot that Pissarro was inspired to paint outdoors called "plein air" painting. Pissarro found Corot, along with the work of Gustave Courbet, to be "statements of pictorial truth," writes Rewald, he discussed their work often. Jean-François Millet was another whose work he admired his "sentimental renditions of rural life". During this period Pissarro began to understand and appreciate the importance of expressing on canvas the beauties of nature without adulteration. After a year in Paris, he therefore began to leave the city and paint scenes in the countryside to capture the daily reality of village life, he found the French countryside to be "picturesque," and worthy of being painted. It was still agricultural and sometimes called the "golden age of the peasantry". Pissarro explained the technique of painting outdoors to a student: "Work at the same time upon sky, branches, keeping everything going on an equal basis and unceasingly rework until you have got it. Paint generously and unhesitatingly, for it is best not to lose the first impression."Corot, would complete his own scenic paintings back in his studio where they would be revised to his precon
Der Sturm was a German art and literary magazine covering Expressionism, Cubism and Surrealism, among other artistic movements. It was published between 1910 and 1932. Der Sturm was established in Berlin in 1910 by Herwarth Walden, it ran weekly from 1910 to 1914, monthly from 1914 to 1924, quarterly until it ceased publication 1932. From 1916 to 1928 it was edited by the artist and Bauhaus teacher Lothar SchreyerThe magazine was modelled on the Italian literary magazine La Voce, published in Florence from 1908 to 1916. Among the literary contributors were Peter Altenberg, Max Brod, Paul Leppin, Richard Dehmel, Alfred Döblin, Anatole France, Knut Hamsun, Arno Holz, Karl Kraus, Selma Lagerlöf, Adolf Loos, Heinrich Mann, Paul Scheerbart, René Schickele. Der Sturm consisted of pieces such as expressionistic dramas, artistic portfolios, essays from artists, theoretical writings on art from Herwarth Walden; the most well-known publications resulting from the magazine were the Sturmbücher. Postcards were created featuring the expressionistic and abstract art of Franz Marc, Wassily Kandinsky, Oskar Kokoschka, August Macke, Gabriele Münter, Georg Schrimpf, Maria Uhden, Rudolf Bauer and others.
The term Sturm was branded by Walden to represent the way in which modern art was penetrating Germany at the time. In the time before outbreak of the World War I, Der Sturm played a crucial role in the French-German exchange of expressionist artists, which led to a special relationship between Berlin and Paris. Poems and other texts of French and/or French-speaking expressionists were published; this relationship was renewed after the war despite the hostilities between the two countries caused by the fighting. The magazine fostered the Galerie Der Sturm, started by Walden to celebrate its 100th edition, in 1912; the gallery became the focus for Berlin's modern art scene for a decade. Starting with an exhibition of Fauves and Der Blaue Reiter, followed by the introduction in Germany of the Italian Futurists and Orphists, the gallery was to exhibit Edvard Munch, Georges Braque, Pablo Picasso, Jean Metzinger, Albert Gleizes, Robert Delaunay, Gino Severini, Jean Arp, Paul Klee, Wassily Kandinsky, Serge Charchoune and Kurt Schwitters.
After the war, Walden expanded Der Sturm into Sturmabende and discussions on modern art, Die Sturmbühne, an expressionist theatre, as well as publishing books and portfolios by leading artists such as Oskar Kokoschka. Despite this, the gallery declined in importance after the war and closed in 1924, leaving the magazine to carry on as a quarterly until it too closed in 1932. However, concerning the exact closing date of the Der Sturm Art Gallery as Maurice Godé, wrote in his book "Der Sturm of Herwarth Walden or the utopia of an autonomous art", the author wanted to promote the German "avant-garde" arts by means of both resident and touring exhibitions. Accordingly, Walden organized, until 1932, more than 200 exhibitions in its premises in Berlin plus multiple other touring exhibitions in Germany and in most other major European cities. List of magazines in Germany Die Aktion Proto-Cubism Cubism Orphism Media related to Der Sturm at Wikimedia Commons
L'Oiseau bleu (Metzinger)
L'Oiseau bleu is a large oil painting created in 1912–1913 by the French artist and theorist Jean Metzinger. L'Oiseau bleu, one of Metzinger's most recognizable and referenced works, was first exhibited in Paris at the Salon des Indépendants in the spring of 1913, several months after the publication of the first Cubist manifesto, Du «Cubisme», written by Jean Metzinger and Albert Gleizes, it was subsequently exhibited at the 1913 Erster Deutscher Herbstsalon in Berlin. Apollinaire described L'Oiseau bleu as a'very brilliant painting' and'his most important work to date'. L'Oiseau bleu, acquired by the City of Paris in 1937, forms part of the permanent collection at the Musée d'Art Moderne de la Ville de Paris. L'Oiseau bleu is an oil painting on canvas with dimensions 230 x 196 cm; the work represents three nude women in a scene. L'Oiseau bleu, writes Joann Moser, uses a wealth of anecdotal detail "which comprises a compendium of motifs found in earlier and paintings by Metzinger: bathers, mirror, necklace, a boat with water, foliage and an urban scene.
It is a mélange of interior and exterior elements integrated into one of Metzinger's most intriguing and successful compositions."The central standing'foreground' figure is shown affectionately holding in both hands a blue bird. The reclining figure wearing a necklace shown in the lower center of the canvas is placed next to a pedestal fruit bowl and another bird with the unmistakable coloration of the rare Scarlet ibis, a rich symbol for both exoticism and fashion. Costume designers for Parisian cabarets such as Le Lido, Folies Bergère, the Moulin Rouge and haute couture houses in Paris during the 1910s used the feathers of the scarlet Ibis in their shows and collections; the Ibis is a bird to which the ancient Egyptians paid religious worship and attributed to it a'virgin purity'. A mysterious pyramidal shape is seen as if through a porthole to the right of the reclining figure's head, though it remains a matter of speculation whether there exists any relation to the ibis or pyramids of ancient Egypt.
In front of the pyramid appears a shape that resembles a sundial meant as the element of time, or'duration', as the clock placed in the upper right hand corner of his Nu à la cheminée of 1910. Two other birds, in addition to the blue bird and scarlet ibis can be seen in the composition, one of which resembles a green heron. A large steamship can be seen bellowing gaseous vapor from its funnel in the distant sea or ocean, a smaller boat is visible below. On the left half of Metzinger's L'Oiseau Bleu, holding in her right hand a yellow fan is a sitting nude who in her left hand holds a mirror into which she gazes. In the rest of the scene, various items and divers elements are placed, including in the upper center the Sacré-Cœur Basilica, located at the summit of the butte Montmartre, the highest point of the city; this popular monument is just up the hill from where Metzinger lived and worked prior to his move to Meudon around 1912. It is a short distance from Le Bateau-Lavoir known as the birthplace of Cubism.
Edward F. Fry writes in Cubism: "Three female nudes are in various postures, the blue bird is held by the uppermost figure. Noticeably, the'striped canopy' to which Fry refers has the same color pattern as the American flag. Recall that L'Oiseau bleu was painted as the International Exhibition of Modern Art in New York was beginning to materialize. Davies and Walt Kuhn came to Paris in the fall of 1912 to select works for the Armory Show, with the help of Walter Pach; the paintings of Metzinger, did not appear at the exhibition. In a note to Kuhn, Picasso's handwritten list of artists recommended for the Armory Show include Gris, Gleizes, Léger, Delaunay, Le Fauconnier, Laurencin, La Fresnaye and Braque, he did however exhibit at the Exhibition of Cubist and Futurist Pictures, Boggs & Buhl Department Store, July 1913. His Portrait of an American Smoking, 1911–12 was reproduced on the front cover of the catalogue, it is likely, since Walter Pach knew all the artists in the exhibition, that he had something to do with the organization of the show.
Sponsored by the Gimbel Brothers department store from May through the summer of 1913 the Cubist and Futurist show toured Milwaukee, Pittsburgh and New York. Metzinger had been interviewed, circa 1908, by Gelett Burgess for his Wild Men of Paris article, published in The Architectural Record, May 1910. In 1915 Metzinger exhibited at the Third Exhibition of Contemporary French Art—Carstairs Gallery, New York—with Pach, Picasso, de la Fresnaye, Van Gogh, Derain, Duchamp-Villon and Villon. Metzinger would soon exhibit six works in New York at the Montross Gallery, 550 Fifth Avenue with Gleizes, Duchamp