Glasgow is the most populous city in Scotland, the third most populous city in the United Kingdom, as of the 2017 estimated city population of 621,020. Part of Lanarkshire, the city now forms the Glasgow City council area, one of the 32 council areas of Scotland. Glasgow is situated on the River Clyde in the country's West Central Lowlands. Inhabitants of the city are referred to as "Glaswegians" or "Weegies", it is the fourth most visited city in the UK. Glasgow is known for the Glasgow patter, a distinct dialect of the Scots language, noted for being difficult to understand by those from outside the city. Glasgow grew from a small rural settlement on the River Clyde to become the largest seaport in Scotland, tenth largest by tonnage in Britain. Expanding from the medieval bishopric and royal burgh, the establishment of the University of Glasgow in the fifteenth century, it became a major centre of the Scottish Enlightenment in the eighteenth century. From the eighteenth century onwards, the city grew as one of Great Britain's main hubs of transatlantic trade with North America and the West Indies.
With the onset of the Industrial Revolution, the population and economy of Glasgow and the surrounding region expanded to become one of the world's pre-eminent centres of chemicals and engineering. Glasgow was the "Second City of the British Empire" for much of the Victorian era and Edwardian period, although many cities argue the title was theirs. In the late 19th and early 20th centuries, Glasgow's population grew reaching a peak of 1,127,825 people in 1938. Comprehensive urban renewal projects in the 1960s, resulting in large-scale relocation of people to designated new towns; the wider metropolitan area is home to over 1,800,000 people, equating to around 33% of Scotland's population. The city has one of the highest densities of any locality in Scotland at 4,023/km2. Glasgow hosted the 2014 Commonwealth Games and the first European Championships in 2018; the origin of the name'Glasgow' is disputed. It is common to derive the toponym from the older Cumbric glas cau or a Middle Gaelic cognate, which would have meant green basin or green valley.
The settlement had an earlier Cumbric name, Cathures. It is recorded that the King of Strathclyde, Rhydderch Hael, welcomed Saint Kentigern, procured his consecration as bishop about 540. For some thirteen years Kentigern laboured in the region, building his church at the Molendinar Burn where Glasgow Cathedral now stands, making many converts. A large community became known as Glasgu; the area around Glasgow has hosted communities for millennia, with the River Clyde providing a natural location for fishing. The Romans built outposts in the area and, to keep Roman Britannia separate from the Celtic and Pictish Caledonia, constructed the Antonine Wall. Items from the wall like altars from Roman forts like Balmuildy can be found at the Hunterian Museum today. Glasgow itself was reputed to have been founded by the Christian missionary Saint Mungo in the 6th century, he established a church on the Molendinar Burn, where the present Glasgow Cathedral stands, in the following years Glasgow became a religious centre.
Glasgow grew over the following centuries. The Glasgow Fair began in the year 1190; the first bridge over the River Clyde at Glasgow was recorded from around 1285, giving its name to the Briggait area of the city, forming the main North-South route over the river via Glasgow Cross. The founding of the University of Glasgow in 1451 and elevation of the bishopric to become the Archdiocese of Glasgow in 1492 increased the town's religious and educational status and landed wealth, its early trade was in agriculture and fishing, with cured salmon and herring being exported to Europe and the Mediterranean. Following the European Protestant Reformation and with the encouragement of the Convention of Royal Burghs, the 14 incorporated trade crafts federated as the Trades House in 1605 to match the power and influence in the town council of the earlier Merchants' Guilds who established their Merchants House in the same year. Glasgow was subsequently raised to the status of Royal Burgh in 1611. Glasgow's substantial fortunes came from international trade and invention, starting in the 17th century with sugar, followed by tobacco, cotton and linen, products of the Atlantic triangular slave trade.
Daniel Defoe visited the city in the early 18th century and famously opined in his book A tour thro' the whole island of Great Britain, that Glasgow was "the cleanest and beautifullest, best built city in Britain, London excepted". At that time the city's population was about 12,000, the city was yet to undergo the massive expansionary changes to its economy and urban fabric, brought about by the Scottish Enlightenment and Industrial Revolution. After the Acts of Union in 1707, Scotland gained further access to the vast markets of the new British Empire, Glasgow became p
Killearn – is a small village of 1700 people in the Stirling council area of Scotland. The village is located 15 miles north of Glasgow, 7 miles east of Loch Lomond, sits on the northwest flank of the Campsie Fells, most predominantly in the shadow of the volcanic plug of Dumgoyne, overlooking the confluence of the Endrick Water and Blane Water; the Glengoyne whisky distillery, Loch Lomond and the Trossachs National Park and West Highland Way long-distance walking route are situated close to the village. The residential special school of Ballikinrain is located in Killearn Parish, caters for boys with special needs from throughout Scotland.. The Church of Scotland congregation at Killearn Kirk falls under the Presbytery of Stirling, within the Synod of Forth. Within the Roman Catholic Church, Killearn falls under the Parish of Saint Anthony within the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Saint Andrews and Edinburgh. Killearn was the birthplace of the historian and humanist scholar George Buchanan. Buchanan belonged to the Monarchomach movement.
Born at The Moss, Killearn, a monument, at the centre of the village is dedicated to Buchanan. Killearn on the Web Killearn Community Council Glengoyne Distillery
Stirlingshire or the County of Stirling is a historic county and registration county of Scotland. Its county town is Stirling, it borders Perthshire to the north and West Lothian to the east, Lanarkshire to the south, Dunbartonshire to the south-west. The County Council of Stirling was granted a coat of arms by Lord Lyon King of Arms on 29 September 1890; the design of the arms commemorated the Scottish victory at the Battle of Bannockburn in the county. On the silver saltire on blue of St Andrew was placed the rampant red lion from the royal arms of Scotland. Around this were placed two caltraps and two spur-rowels recalling the use of the weapons against the English cavalry. On the abolition of the Local Government council in 1975, the arms were regranted to the Local Government Stirling District Council, they were regranted a second time in 1996 to the present Local Government Stirling Council, with the addition of supporters. In 1130, one of the principal royal strongholds of the Kingdom of Scotland, was created a Royal burgh by King David I.
On 11 September 1297, the forces of Andrew Moray and William Wallace defeated the combined English forces of John de Warenne, 6th Earl of Surrey, Hugh de Cressingham near Stirling, on the River Forth, at the Battle of Stirling Bridge during the First War of Scottish Independence. On 22 July 1298 the Battle of Falkirk saw the defeat of William Wallace by King Edward I of England. On 24 June 1314 the Battle of Bannockburn at Bannockburn, was a significant Scottish victory in the Wars of Scottish Independence, it was one of the decisive battles of the First War of Scottish Independence. On 11 June 1488 the Battle of Sauchieburn was fought at the side of Sauchie Burn, a stream about two miles south of Stirling, Scotland; the battle was fought between the followers of King James III of Scotland and a large group of rebellious Scottish nobles including Alexander Home, 1st Lord Home, nominally led by the king's 15-year-old son, Prince James, Duke of Rothesay. In 1645 the Covenanter army under General William Baillie formed near Banton for their engagement with the Royalist forces under the command of Montrose at the Battle of Kilsyth, Kilsyth, on August 15, 1645.
The Battle of Falkirk Muir on 17 January 1746 saw the Jacobites under Charles Edward Stuart defeat a government army commanded by Lieutenant General Henry Hawley. In 2001, according to the website of the General Register Office for Scotland, there were 871 civil parishes. List of civil parishes in Scotland Civil parishes are still used for some statistical purposes, separate census figures are published for them; as their areas have been unchanged since the 19th century this allows for comparison of population figures over an extended period of time. Following the boundary changes caused by the Local Government Act 1889, Stirlingshire contained the following civil parishes: The Royal Burgh of Stirling The Burgh of Bridge of Allan The Burgh of Denny and Dunipace The Burgh of Falkirk The Burgh of Grangemouth The Burgh of Kilsyth In 1930 Falkirk and Stirling became large burghs, taking over some of the duties of the county council; the remaining four burghs became "small burghs", with limited powers.
Some Stirlingshire towns listed in the Registers of Land Register Counties. Until the 1890s the county had two small exclaves: part of the parish of Logie, surrounded by Perthshire, the parish of Alva, locally in Clackmannanshire; the Perthshire part of Logie was added to Stirlingshire. In 1894 parish Local Government councils were established for the civil parishes, replacing the previous parochial boards; the Local Government parish councils were in turn superseded by Local Government district councils in 1930. In 1930 the parishes ceased to be used for local government purposes, the landward area of the county was divided into eight Local Government districts; these Local Government districts were abolished in 1975. County of Stirling Central No.1 County of Stirling Central No.2 County of Stirling Eastern No.1 County of Stirling Eastern No.2 County of Stirling Eastern No.3 County of Stirling Western No.1 County of Stirling Western No.2 County of Stirling Western No.3 In 1975 most of Stirlingshire was included in the Local Government Central Region, with Kilsyth and surrounding area becoming part of the Local Government Strathclyde Region.
Since 1996 the area has been part of the Local Government council areas of: Stirling East Dunbartonshire Falkirk North Lanarkshire Following the Act of Union, Stirlingshire returned members to the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1708. The Royal Burgh of Stirling formed part of the Stirling burghs constituency along with burghs in Fife and Perthshire; the Burgh of Falkirk formed part of Falkirk Burghs, along with burghs in Lanarkshire and Linlithgowshire. The remainder of the county returned a single member as the parliamentary county of Stirlingshire; the detached parish of Alva was annexed to the constituency of Clackmannanshire and Kinross by the Representation of the People Act 1832. In 1918 seats in the House of Commons were redistribu
James Innes-Ker, 7th Duke of Roxburghe
James Henry Robert Innes-Ker, 7th Duke of Roxburghe, became Duke of Roxburghe on the death of his father, James Henry Robert Innes-Ker, 6th Duke of Roxburghe. He was born on 5 September 1839 to James Henry Robert Innes-Ker, 6th Duke of Roxburghe and Susanna Dalbiac, Duchess of Roxburghe, only child of Sir Charles Dalbiac, his mother was one of Queen Victoria's staff until she died in 1895. His elder sister was Lady Susan Harriet Innes-Ker, his younger siblings were Lord Charles John Innes-Ker. He served as a Member of Parliament for Roxburghshire from 1870 to 1874. On 11 June 1874 he married Anne Emily Spencer-Churchill, daughter of the 7th Duke of Marlborough and they had the following children: Lady Margaret Frances Susan Innes-Ker, who married on 25 July 1898 to James Alexander Orr-Ewing Henry John Innes-Ker, 8th Duke of Roxburghe, from whose only son all current Innes-Ker males are descended. Lady Victoria Alexandrina Innes-Ker, who married on 17 August 1901 in London to Charles Hyde Villiers, had issue.
Lady Isabel Innes-Ker Lady Isabel Wilson, who married on 23 June 1904 to Hon. Guy Greville Wilson Lord Alastair Robert Innes-Ker, who married London 10 October 1907 Anne Breese, an American heiress, had issue 2 sons and 1 daughter. Lady Evelyn Anne Innes-Ker Lady Evelyn Collins, who married on 23 November 1907 in London to William Fellowes Collins, a grandson of Lord de Ramsey, had issue. Lord Robert Edward Innes-Ker, who married first on 27 October 1920 at the Registry Office in London to Charlotte Josephine Cooney, otherwise the musical comedy actress Jose Collins, as her first husband; the couple divorced in 1935. He married secondly in London on 28 July 1939 to Eleanor Marie Woodhead. Duke of Roxburghe Notes SourcesPaul Theroff. An Online Gotha: Roxburghe. Retrieved 18 March 2009 Hansard 1803–2005: contributions in Parliament by James Innes-Ker, 7th Duke of Roxburghe
Ayr Burghs (UK Parliament constituency)
Ayr Burghs was a district of burghs constituency of the House of Commons of the Parliament of Great Britain from 1708 to 1800 and of the House of Commons of the Parliament of the United Kingdom from 1801 to 1950. It elected one Member of Parliament; the British parliamentary constituency was created in 1708 following the Acts of Union, 1707 and replaced the former Parliament of Scotland burgh constituencies of Ayr, Inveraray and Rothesay. The list of parliamentary burghs represented by the constituency changed in 1832 and again in 1918: 1708 to 1832: the Ayrshire burghs of Ayr and Irvine, the Argyllshire burghs of Campbeltown and Inveraray and the Buteshire burgh of Rothesay 1832 to 1918: the Ayrshire burghs of Ayr and Irvine and the Argyllshire burghs of Campbeltown and Oban 1918 to 1950: the Ayrshire burghs of Ardrossan, Irvine, Prestwick and TroonWhen the Ayr Burghs constituency was abolished in 1950, the Ayr and Prestwick burghs were merged into the county constituency of Ayr. Ardrossan and Saltcoats were merged into Bute and Northern Ayrshire and Irvine and Troon were merged into Central Ayrshire.
Sir Thomas was elected, in 1950, as the first MP for the new constituency of Ayr Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Campbell's death caused a by-election. Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Elections Back to Top List of former Parliamentary constituencies in the United Kingdom
Conservative Party (UK)
The Conservative Party the Conservative and Unionist Party, is a centre-right political party in the United Kingdom. The governing party since 2010, it is the largest in the House of Commons, with 313 Members of Parliament, has 249 members of the House of Lords, 18 members of the European Parliament, 31 Members of the Scottish Parliament, 12 members of the Welsh Assembly, eight members of the London Assembly and 8,916 local councillors; the Conservative Party was founded in 1834 from the Tory Party—the Conservatives' colloquial name is "Tories"—and was one of two dominant political parties in the nineteenth century, along with the Liberal Party. Under Benjamin Disraeli it played a preeminent role in politics at the height of the British Empire. In 1912, the Liberal Unionist Party merged with the party to form the Conservative and Unionist Party. In the 1920s, the Labour Party surpassed the Liberals as the Conservatives' main rivals. Conservative Prime Ministers — notably Winston Churchill and Margaret Thatcher — led governments for 57 years of the twentieth century.
Positioned on the centre-right of British politics, the Conservative Party is ideologically conservative. Different factions have dominated the party at different times, including One Nation Conservatives and liberal conservatives, while its views and policies have changed throughout its history; the party has adopted liberal economic policies—favouring free market economics, limiting state regulation, pursuing privatisation—although in the past has supported protectionism. The party is British unionist, opposing both Irish reunification and Welsh and Scottish independence, supported the maintenance of the British Empire; the party includes those with differing views on the European Union, with Eurosceptic and pro-European wings. In foreign policy, it is for a strong national defence; the Conservatives are a member of the International Democrat Union and the Alliance of Conservatives and Reformists in Europe and sit with the European Conservatives and Reformists parliamentary group. The Scottish, Northern Irish and Gibraltan branches of the party are semi-autonomous.
Its support base consists of middle-class voters in rural areas of England, its domination of British politics throughout the twentieth century has led to it being referred to as one of the most successful political parties in the Western world. The Conservative Party was founded in the 1830s. However, some writers trace its origins to the reign of Charles II in the 1670s Exclusion Crisis. Other historians point to a faction, rooted in the 18th century Whig Party, that coalesced around William Pitt the Younger in the 1780s, they were known as "Independent Whigs", "Friends of Mr Pitt", or "Pittites" and never used terms such as "Tory" or "Conservative". Pitt died in 1806. From about 1812 on the name "Tory" was used for a new party that, according to historian Robert Blake, "are the ancestors of Conservatism". Blake adds that Pitt's successors after 1812 "were not in any sense standard-bearer's of true Toryism"; the term "Conservative" was suggested as a title for the party by a magazine article by J. Wilson Croker in the Quarterly Review in 1830.
The name caught on and was adopted under the aegis of Sir Robert Peel around 1834. Peel is acknowledged as the founder of the Conservative Party, which he created with the announcement of the Tamworth Manifesto; the term "Conservative Party" rather than Tory was the dominant usage by 1845. The widening of the electoral franchise in the nineteenth century forced the Conservative Party to popularise its approach under Edward Smith-Stanley, 14th Earl of Derby and Benjamin Disraeli, who carried through their own expansion of the franchise with the Reform Act of 1867. In 1886, the party formed an alliance with Spencer Compton Cavendish, Lord Hartington and Joseph Chamberlain's new Liberal Unionist Party and, under the statesmen Robert Gascoyne-Cecil, Lord Salisbury and Arthur Balfour, held power for all but three of the following twenty years before suffering a heavy defeat in 1906 when it split over the issue of free trade. Young Winston Churchill denounced Chamberlain's attack on free trade, helped organize the opposition inside the Unionist/Conservative Party.
Balfour, as party leader, followed Chamberlain's policy introduced protectionist legislation. The high tariff element called itself "Tariff Reformers" and in a major speech in Manchester on May 13, 1904, Churchill warned their takeover of the Unionist/Conservative party would permanently brand it as: A party of great vested interests, banded together in a formidable confederation. Two weeks Churchill crossed the floor and formally joined the Liberal Party. )He rejoined the Conservatives in 1925.) In December, Balfour lost control of his party, as the defections multiplied. He was replaced by Liberal Prime Minister Henry Campbell-Bannerman who called an election in January 1906, which produced a massive Liberal victory with a gain of 214 seats. Liberal Prime Minister H. H. Asquith enacted a great deal of reform legislation, but the Unionists worked hard at grassroots organizing. Two general elections were held in one in January and one in December; the two main parties were now dead equal in seats.
The Unionists had more popular votes but the Liberals kept control with a coalition with the Irish Parliamentary Party. In 1912, the Liberal Unionis
Brigadier general or Brigade general is a senior rank in the armed forces. It is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries sitting between the ranks of colonel and major general; when appointed to a field command, a brigadier general is in command of a brigade consisting of around 4,000 troops. In some countries a brigadier general is informally designated as a one-star general. In some countries, this rank is given the name of brigadier, equivalent to brigadier general in the armies of nations that use the rank, although the rank is not regarded as a general officer; the rank can be traced back to the militaries of Europe where a brigadier general, or a brigadier, would command a brigade in the field. The rank name général de brigade, was first used in the French revolutionary armies. In the first quarter of the 20th century and Commonwealth armies used the rank of brigadier general as a temporary appointment, or as an honorary appointment on retirement; some armies, such as Taiwan and Japan, use major general as the equivalent of brigadier general.
Some of these armies use the rank of colonel general to make four general-officer ranks. Mexico uses the ranks of General de brigada; this gallery displays Air Force brigadier general insignia if they are different from the Army brigadier general insignia. Note that in many Commonwealth countries, the equivalent air force rank is Air Commodore; the rank of brigadier general is used in the Argentine Air Force. Unlike other armed forces of the World, the rank of brigadier general is the highest rank in the Air Force; this is due to the use of the rank of brigadier and its derivatives to designate all general officers in the Air Force: brigadier. The rank of brigadier general is reserved for the Chief General Staff of the Air Force, as well as the Chief of the Joint General Staff if he should be an Air Force officer; the Argentine Army does not use the rank of brigadier-general, instead using brigade general which in turn is the lowest general officer before Divisional General and Lieutenant General.
In the Australian Imperial Force during World War I, the rank of brigadier general was always temporary and held only while the officer was posted to a particular task the command of a brigade. When posted elsewhere, the rank would be relinquished and the former rank resumed; this policy prevented an accumulation of high-ranking general officers brought about by the high turnover of brigade commanders. Brigadier general was used as an honorary rank on retirement; the rank insignia was like that of the current major general, but without the star/pip - example. As in the United Kingdom, the rank was replaced by brigadier. Hence, prior to 1922, a "brigadier general" was a "general officer". Prior to 2001, the Bangladesh Army rank was known as brigadier, in conformity with the rank structure of the Commonwealth Nations. In 2001 the Bangladesh Army introduced the rank of brigadier general, however "the grade stayed equivalent to brigadier", although classified as a "one-star rank", a brigadier general is not considered to be a general officer – the lowest ranking general officer is Major General.
Brigadier general is equivalent to commodore of the Bangladesh Navy and air commodore of the Bangladesh Air Force. It is still more popularly called brigadier; the Belgian Army uses the rank of général de brigadegeneraal. However, in this small military there are no permanent promotions to this rank, it is only awarded as a temporary promotion to a full colonel who assumes a post requiring the rank, notably in an international context. General de brigada is the lowest rank amongst general officers of the Brazilian Army – i.e. like in most British Commonwealth counties, the lowest general officer rank is a two-star rank, a General de Brigada wears a two-star insignia. Hence, it is equivalent to the major general rank of many counties. In the Brazilian Air Force, all of the senior ranks include "Brigadeiro" – the two-star rank is Brigadeiro, the three-star rank is Major-Brigadeiro and the four-star rank is Tenente-Brigadeiro-do-Ar; the rank of brigadier general is known in Burma as bo hmu gyoke and is the deputy commander of one of Burma's Regional Military Commands, commander of the light infantry division or Military Operation Commands.
In civil service, a brigadier general holds the office of deputy minister or director general of certain ministries. In the Canadian Forces, the rank of brigadier-general is a rank for members who wear army or air force uniform, equal to a commodore for those in navy uniform. A brigadier-general is the lowest rank of general officer. A brigadier-general is senior to a colonel or naval captain, junior to a major-general or rear admiral; the rank title brigadier-general is still used notwithstanding that brigades in the army are now commanded by colonels. Until the late