The Eurodistrict Strasbourg-Ortenau is a Franco-German eurodistrict, a cross-border administrative entity sharing common institutions, established on 17 October 2005 and functional since 4 February 2010. The district is formed by the Eurométropole de Strasbourg and 3 other urban communities in the Grand Est region on the French side of the Rhine and the Ortenau district in the Baden-Württemberg region on the German side; the population of the district was 915,000 in 2014. It covers an area of 2,368 km². Building on regional and Franco-German cooperation, it aims to develop bonds between citizens, public administrations, educational establishments and corporations, it is in the context of European integration, with the presence of European institutions in Strasbourg, has been compared to a European version of Washington D. C.. In addition to the array of European and Franco-German institutions, the district includes three ports, two airports and 10 universities; the Eurodistrict's Council is composed of 48 members, with 24 each representing either the French or the German side.
The idea of a eurodistrict Strasbourg-Kehl was launched on 22 January 2003, by then-French President Jacques Chirac and then-German Chancellor Gerhard Schröder during a meeting in the Élysée Palace. 22 January was furthermore declared "French-German day" A common resolution to create the Strasbourg-Ortenau Eurodistrict was signed on 24 May 2003 in Offenburg by Fabienne Keller, the mayor of Strasbourg, Robert Grossmann, the president of the Communauté urbaine de Strasbourg, the mayors of Kehl, Achern and Oberkirch as well as the President of the Ortenau district. The resolution's aim was to present a viable version of the project at the upcoming French-German summit on 10 June 2003. On 30 June 2003, the French minister for European Affairs, Noëlle Lenoir, her German colleague, Hans Martin Bury, signed the official document specifying the legal, economical, demographic etc. frameworks within which the Eurodistrict was to be called into existence. The document announced that further presentations of the project were to be made at the French-German summit in the following autumn, as well as during the crossborder flower festival on both banks of the Rhine held in Strasbourg and Kehl in the spring 2004.
Mayor of Strasbourg Roland Ries and after his election campaign in 2007, proposed the strengthening of the district in order to maintain the presence of the European Parliament in the city and making it more autonomous and akin to a European capital territory. However the Ortenaukreis communities have been less enthusiastic about the Eurodistrict project. In late January 2010 the German State greenlighted the entity and the inaugural session of the Eurodistrict's Council took place on 4 February 2010. Roland Ries was elected as the Council's first president; the Eurodistrict is served by several cross-border transportation companies: Ortenau S-Bahn, TER Alsace, Compagnie des Transports Strasbourgeois. Official website Strasbourg Region
Baden-Württemberg is a state in southwest Germany, east of the Rhine, which forms the border with France. It is Germany's third-largest state, with an area of 11 million inhabitants. Baden-Württemberg is a parliamentary republic and sovereign, federated state, formed in 1952 by a merger of the states of Württemberg-Baden, Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern; the largest city in Baden-Württemberg is the state capital of Stuttgart, followed by Karlsruhe and Mannheim. Other cities are Freiburg im Breisgau, Heilbronn, Pforzheim and Ulm; the sobriquet Ländle is sometimes used as a synonym for Baden-Württemberg. Baden-Württemberg is formed from the historical territories of Baden, Prussian Hohenzollern, Württemberg, parts of Swabia. In 100 AD, the Roman Empire invaded and occupied Württemberg, constructing a limes along its northern borders. Over the course of the third century AD, the Alemanni forced the Romans to retreat west beyond the Rhine and Danube rivers. In 496 AD the Alemanni were defeated by a Frankish invasion led by Clovis I.
The Holy Roman Empire was established. The majority of people in this region continued to be Roman Catholics after the Protestant Reformation influenced populations in northern Germany. In the late-nineteenth and early-twentieth centuries, numerous people emigrated from this rural area to the United States for economic reasons. After World War II, the Allies established three federal states in the territory of modern-day Baden-Württemberg: Württemberg-Hohenzollern, Württemberg-Baden. Baden and Württemberg-Hohenzollern were occupied by France, while Württemberg-Baden was occupied by the United States. In 1949, each state became a founding member of the Federal Republic of Germany, with Article 118 of the German constitution providing an accession procedure. On 16 December 1951, Württemberg-Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Baden voted via referendum in favor of a joint merger. Baden-Württemberg became a state in West Germany on 25 April 1952. Baden-Württemberg shares borders with the German states of Rhineland Palatinate and Bavaria, Switzerland.
Most of the major cities of Baden-Württemberg straddle the banks of the Neckar River, which runs downstream through the state past Tübingen, Heilbronn and Mannheim. The Rhine forms the western border as well as large portions of the southern border; the Black Forest, the main mountain range of the state, rises east of the Upper Rhine valley. The high plateau of the Swabian Alb, between the Neckar, the Black Forest, the Danube, is an important European watershed. Baden-Württemberg shares Lake Constance with Switzerland and Bavaria, the international borders within its waters not being defined, it shares the foothills of the Alps with Bavaria and the Austrian Vorarlberg, but Baden-Württemberg does not border Austria over land. The Danube River has its source in Baden-Württemberg near the town of Donaueschingen, in a place called Furtwangen in the Black Forest. Baden-Württemberg is divided into thirty-five districts and nine independent cities, both grouped into the four Administrative Districts of Freiburg, Stuttgart, Tübingen.
Map Baden-Württemberg contains nine additional independent cities not belonging to any district: The state parliament of Baden-Württemberg is the Landtag. The politics of Baden-Württemberg have traditionally been dominated by the conservative Christian Democratic Union of Germany, who until 2011 had led all but one government since the establishment of the state in 1952. In the Landtag elections held on 27 March 2011 voters replaced the Christian Democrats and centre-right Free Democrats coalition by a Greens-led alliance with the Social Democrats which secured a four-seat majority in the state parliament. From 1992 to 2001, the Republicans party held seats in the Landtag; the Baden-Württemberg General Auditing Office acts as an independent body to monitor the correct use of public funds by public offices. Although Baden-Württemberg has few natural resources compared to other regions of Germany, the state is among the most prosperous and wealthiest regions in Europe with a low unemployment rate historically.
A number of well-known enterprises are headquartered in the state, for example Daimler AG, Robert Bosch GmbH, Carl Zeiss AG, SAP SE and Heidelberger Druckmaschinen. In spite of this, Baden-Württemberg's economy is dominated by medium-sized enterprises. Although poor in workable natural resources and still rural in many areas, the region is industrialised. In 2003, there were 8,800 manufacturing enterprises with more than 20 employees, but only 384 with more than 500; the latter category accounts for 43% of the 1.2 million persons employed in industry. The Mittelstand or mid-sized company is the backbone of the Baden-Württemberg economy. Medium-sized businesses and a tradition of branching out into different industrial sectors have ensured specialization over a wide range. A fifth of the "old" Federal Republic's industrial gross value added is generated by Baden-Württemberg. Turnover for manufacturing in 2003 e
Offenburg is a city located in the state of Baden-Württemberg, Germany. With about 57,000 inhabitants, it is the largest city and the administrative capital of the Ortenaukreis. Offenburg is located 15 km east of the river Rhine between Karlsruhe and Freiburg; the French city of Strasbourg lies 20 km northwest across the Rhine. Offenburg is situated at the foot of the Black Forest; the Kinzig meets the Rhine near Kehl. In recent times the remains of Roman settlements have been found within the city's territory. Offenburg was first mentioned in historical documents dating back to 1148. Offenburg had been declared a Free Imperial City by 1240. In September 1689 the city - with the exception of two buildings - was destroyed by the French during the Nine Years War. Due to Napoleon's dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1803 and subsequent reorganization of the German states, Offenburg lost its status as a Free Imperial City and fell under the rule of the Grand Duchy of Baden. During the outbreak of the Revolutions of 1848, the "Offenburger Programm" which consisted of thirteen demands "in the name of the people of Baden", was put forward at the Salmen Inn on 12 September 1847.
This was the first known demand for democracy in Germany. Along with the Carlsbad Decrees, the Offenburger Program demanded basic and human rights as well as freedom of the press and a progressive income tax structure. On 19 March 1848 the demands were confirmed by the 20,000 member Offenburg Peoples' Assembly. During World War I Offenburg was one of the first cities to experience the effects of aerial bombardment, the operations against Offenburg railway sidings were flown by aircraft from the Independent Force from Ochey aerodrome, it is forgotten, that in the aftermath of World War I, during the Occupation of the Ruhr, French troops occupied Offenburg, because it fell within the perimeter of the Kehl bridgehead. The French occupation forces entered the town in February 1923 and remained until 1924, blocking all traffic on the Rhine Valley Railway between Offenburg and Appenweier. Following the rise to power of the NSDAP in the 1930s and in the pre-war era, Offenburg's Jewish population fell victim to acts of repression, that culminated in the vandalization of the local synagoge in November 1938.
After the war had begun, those members of the Jewish population that had not managed to emigrate were deported to Gurs concentration camp in October 1940 and from there to Auschwitz during 1942. In World War II, owing to its geographical proximity to the French border, Offenburg was either exposed to temporary evacuations during the Battle of France in 1940 or artillery fire towards the final stages of the conflict, it was only a primary target on one occasion during World War II on 27 November 1944, when a force of more than 300 USAAF B-17 and Liberator bombers attacked the marshalling yards. Many other tactical attacks were flown during 1945 against the railway installations. French Forces entered Offenburg on 15 April 1945 and from on Offenburg became part of the French Zone of Occupation until the creation of the Federal Republic of Germany in May 1949. Since the creation of the Federal Republic, Offenburg has continually developed in size and prosperity. Between 1971 and 1975 eleven adjacent villages were incorporated into the commune of Offenburg and are now an integral part of the city.
1801–1803: Leopold Witsch 1803–1832: Johann Nepomuk Lihl and Josef Sebastian Gottwald 1832–1840: Karl Josef Burger 1840–1845: Landolin Löffler 1845–1849: Gustav Rée 1849–1859: August Wiedemeyer 1860–1875: Bernhard Schaible 1875–1890: Franz Volk 1893–1921: Fritz Herrmann 1921–1934: Josef Holler 1934–1945: Wolfram Rombach 1945: Hermann Isenmann 1945–1946: Ludwig Heß, 1946–1947: Gustav Ernst 1947–1948: R. Moßbrugger 1949–1975: Karl Heitz 1975–1989: Martin Grüber 1989–2002: Wolfgang Bruder 2003-2018: Edith Schreiner since 3 December 2018: Marco Steffens Dr Wolfgang Schäuble has been representing the constituency of Offenburg as directly elected MP in the Lower House of the German Parliament since 1972. Since October 24, 2017, he has held the office as 13th President of the Bundestag. Offenburg is home to a number of well-known brands. Important manufacturing companies based at Offenburg include tesa-Werke Offenburg GmbH, Vivil, MEIKO Maschinenbau GmbH & Co. KG, Hansgrohe SE and HOBART GmbH. Besides, there are many other small and medium-sized companies that produce specialized top-of-the-line products in their appropriate sector of business.
The most important trading company in terms of employees is EDEKA Handelsgesellschaft Südwest mbH, the largest German supermarket corporation which has a large regional production and distribution centre in Offenburg. Printus GmbH with approx. 1,600 employees is a stationary wholesaling company. Several subsidiaries or affiliated companies of Markant AG are based in Offenburg with approx. 600 staff. Hubert Burda Media is one of Germany's largest publishing companies. Together with the affiliated Burda printing works it still employs 1,600 people in Offenburg. Although the prominent position with regard to the number of employees has diminished during the last decades with the emerging of further economic actors in town, the expansion of Franz Burda's printing business after World War II as well as the growth and success of his wife Aenne Burda's Burda Style (f
Saint George was a soldier of Cappadocian Greek origins, member of the Praetorian Guard for Roman emperor Diocletian, sentenced to death for refusing to recant his Christian faith. He became one of the most venerated saints and megalo-martyrs in Christianity, was venerated as a military saint since the Crusaders. In hagiography, as one of the Fourteen Holy Helpers and one of the most prominent military saints, he is immortalised in the legend of Saint George and the Dragon, his memorial, Saint George's Day, is traditionally celebrated on 23 April. England and several other nation states, universities and organisations all claim Saint George as their patron. Little is known about St George’s life, but it is thought he was a Roman officer of Greek descent from Cappadocia, martyred in one of the pre-Constantinian persecutions. Beyond this, early sources give conflicting information. There are two main versions of the legend, a Greek and a Latin version, which can both be traced to the 5th or 6th century.
The saint's veneration dates to the 5th century with some certainty, still to the 4th. The addition of the dragon legend dates to the 11th century; the earliest text preserving fragments of George's narrative is in a Greek hagiography identified by Hippolyte Delehaye of the scholarly Bollandists to be a palimpsest of the 5th century. An earlier work by Eusebius, Church history, written in the 4th century, contributed to the legend but did not name George or provide significant detail; the work of the Bollandists Daniel Papebroch, Jean Bolland, Godfrey Henschen in the 17th century was one of the first pieces of scholarly research to establish the saint's historicity via their publications in Bibliotheca Hagiographica Graeca. Pope Gelasius I stated that George was among those saints "whose names are justly reverenced among men, but whose actions are known only to God." A critical edition of a Syriac Acta of Saint George, accompanied by an annotated English translation, was published by E. W. Brooks in 1925.
The compiler of this Acta Sancti Georgii, according to Hippolyte Delehaye, "confused the martyr with his namesake, the celebrated George of Cappadocia, the Arian intruder into the see of Alexandria and enemy of St. Athanasius". In the Greek tradition, George was born in Cappadocia, his father died for the faith when George was fourteen, his mother returned with George to her homeland of Syria Palaestina. A few years George's mother died. George joins the Roman army. George is persecuted by one Dadianus. In versions of the Greek legend, this name is rationalized to Diocletian, George's martyrdom is placed in the Diocletian persecution of AD 303; the setting in Nicomedia is secondary, inconsistent with the earliest cultus of the saint being located in Diospolis. George was executed by decapitation before Nicomedia's city wall, on 23 April 303. A witness of his suffering convinced Empress Alexandra of Rome to become a Christian as well, so she joined George in martyrdom, his body was returned to Lydda for burial.
The Latin Acta Sancti Georgii follows the general course of the Greek legend, but Diocletian here becomes Dacian, Emperor of the Persians. George dies in Melitene in Cappadocia, his martyrdom is extended, to more than twenty separate tortures over the course of seven years. Over the course of his martyrdom, 40,900 pagans are converted to Christianity, including the empress Alexandra; when George dies, the wicked Dacian is carried away in a whirlwind of fire. In Latin versions, the persecutor is the Roman emperor Decius, or a Roman judge named Dacian serving under Diocletian. There is little information on the early life of Saint George. Herbert Thurston in The Catholic Encyclopedia states that based upon an ancient cultus, narratives of the early pilgrims, the early dedications of churches to Saint George, going back to the fourth century, "there seems, therefore, no ground for doubting the historical existence of St. George", although no faith can be placed in either the details of his history or his alleged exploits.
According to Donald Attwater, "No historical particulars of his life have survived... The widespread veneration for St George as a soldier saint from early times had its centre in Palestine at Diospolis, now Lydda. St George was martyred there, at the end of the third or the beginning of the fourth century, and that Saint George in all likelihood was martyred before the year 290. Although the Diocletianic Persecution of 303, associated with military saints because the persecution was aimed at Christians among the professional soldiers of the Roman army, is of undisputed historicity, the identity of Saint George as a historical individual had not been ascertained as of Edmund Spenser's day, Edward Gibbon argued that George, or at least the legend from which the above is distilled, is based on George of Cappadocia, a notorious Arian bishop
The Upper Rhine is the section of the Rhine in the Upper Rhine Plain between Basel in Switzerland and Bingen in Germany. The river is marked by Rhine-kilometres 170 to 529; the Upper Rhine is one of four sections of the river between the North Sea. The countries and states along the Upper Rhine are Switzerland and the German states of Baden-Württemberg, Rhineland-Palatinate and Hesse; the largest cities along the river are Basel, Strasbourg, Mannheim and Mainz. The Upper Rhine was straightened between 1817 and 1876 by Johann Gottfried Tulla and made navigable between 1928 and 1977; the Treaty of Versailles allows France to use the Upper Rhine for hydroelectricity in the Grand Canal d'Alsace. On the left bank are the French region of Alsace and the German state of Rhineland-Palatinate; the first few kilometres are in the Swiss city of Basel. Around 35 million years ago, a rift valley of about 300 kilometres long and 50 kilometres wide came into being between the present cities of Basel and Frankfurt.
This was due to tensile stresses in the Earth's crust and mantle, which resulted in lowering the earth's surface. The moat has been filled up again by sedimentation. On the edges we find mountain ridges, the so-called "rift flanks". On the eastern side, they are the Black Forest and Odenwald mountains, in the west the Vosges and Palatinate Forest. During the Tertiary, the High Rhine continued west from Basel and flowed via the Doubs and the Saône, into the Rhône; the rift diverted the Rhine into the newly formed Upper Rhine Valley. The Rhine knee at Basel marks the transition from the High Rhine to the Upper Rhine with a change of direction from West to North and a change of landscape from the small-chamber high-Rhine cuesta landscape to the wide rift zone of the Upper Rhine Rift Valley; the two largest tributaries come from the right: the Neckar in Mannheim, the Main across from Mainz. In the northwest corner of the Upper Rhine Valley, at Rhine-kilometre 529.1, near Bingen, where the Nahe flows into the Rhine, the Rhine flows into a gorge in the Rhenish Massif and thereby changes into the Middle Rhine.
In 1685, Louis XIV started a project to move the Upper Rhine, change its course and drain the floodplain, in order to gain land. By 1840, the river had been moved up to 1.5 kilometres to the east, taking territory away from Baden. Around 1790, large parts of the Rhine Valley were deforested, creating arable land and pasture to feed the population; the Upper Rhine was straightened between 1817 and 1876 by Johann Gottfried Tulla and changed from a sluggish meandering river with major and many smaller branches into a fast flowing stream flanked by embankments. The length of the Upper Rhine was reduced by 81 kilometres; some cut-off river arms and ox-bows remain. The Rhine between Basel and Iffezheim is entirely canalised. On a stretch of 180 kilometres, there are 10 dams, provided with hydropower locks. Between Basel and Breisach, the old river bed carries hardly any water. Only when there is a large supply of water the old river bed will receive more water than the canal. France gained the right to do this in the 1919 Treaty of Versailles.
The straightening and channeling reduced the water table by up to 16 metres and thus had a negative effect on flora and fauna. Gravel is missing from the river, due to the dams; this has caused erosion below the dam at Iffezheim. To counter this, 173,000 cubic metres per year of a mixture of sand and gravel with an average grain diameter of 20 millimetres has been dumped into the river, since 1978, using two motorized barges; the floodplains between Mainz and Bingen are important for nature conservation. In this section, the so-called Island Rhine, there are many nature reserves and bird sanctuaries; the Upper Rhine plays a key role in flood control on the Lower Rhine. As a result of the straightening of the Upper Rhine, floods from the Alps now reach the Middle Rhine much faster than in the past. Thus, the risk of such a peak coinciding with a flood peak of Neckar, Moselle or Main has increased. About 123 square kilometres of floodplain have been lost. Authorities in riparian states of France, Baden-Württemberg and Rhineland-Palatinate have launched the Integrated Rhine Programme, a framework for designating water retention areas.
To combat downstream flooding. A French-German treaty was concluded in 1982, in which the parties agreed to restore the retention capacity on the stretch below Iffezheim to the level it had before the area was developed; this means: For the stretch between Iffezheim and the mouth of the Neckar, attenuation of the apex of a 200-year flood of the Rhine to a discharge of 5,000 cubic metres per second at the Maxau gauge station, that is, a reduction from 5,700 cubic metres per second to 5,000 cubic metres per second. For the stretch below the mouth of the Neckar, attenuation of the apex of a 220-year flood to a discharge o
Oberkirch is a town in Western Baden-Württemberg, Germany about 12 km North-East of Offenburg and belongs to the Ortenaukreis district. Oberkirch is twinned with Haverfordwest, a town in Pembrokeshire, in the country of Wales in the United Kingdom, Oosterzele, a town in Oost-Vlaanderen, in Belgium. Michael Gerber, Roman catholic bishop Information about and images
Renchen is a small city in Baden-Württemberg, part of the district of Ortenau. Renchen is located in the foothills of the northern Black Forest at the entrance to the Rench valley at the edge of the Upper Rhine River Plains; the city shares borders with the following cities and towns, listed clock-wise from the north: Achern, Oberkirch and Rheinau. In addition to Renchen the city includes the boroughs of Ulm zu Renchen. Renchen was first in official documents in 1115. In 1326 it received a city charter but the city lost it again as well as all significance when it was destroyed during the Thirty Years' War. In 1838 the Grand Duke of Baden again granted a city charter to Renchen but it again lost the right to call itself a city as a result of the German district reform in 1935. Renchen received a city charter for the third time in 1950 in recognition of its historic importance. Renchen's borough of Ulm zu Renchen is known for its Ulmer Bier, a specialty beer brewed only at full moon; as of February 2006, Renchen's city council has the following composition: Elections in May 2014: FWV: 8 seats CDU: 6 seats SPD: 4 seats 1945: Albert Dietrich -1969: Franz Brandstetter 1969-1985: Erich Huber 1985–2000: Klaus Brodbeck since 2000: Bernd Siefermann The Grimmelshausen Prize is a literary prize of €10,000 awarded in odd-number years on September 15, in turn, by Renchen or the city of Gelnhausen.
In Renchen the Offenburger Tageblatt publishes a daily local edition as "Acher-Rench-Zeitung" and the Stattzeitung für Südbaden is an alternative magazine offered in the area. Amand Goegg, Baden freedom fighter, honorary citizen of the city Geneva, married the women's rightswoman Marie Goegg-Pouchoulin Martin Knosp, World Champion 1981, Norbert Dobeleit, medalists at the Seoul Summer Olympic Games 1988 Renchen likes to call itself the city of Grimmelshausen, as the poet Hans Jakob Christoffel von Grimmelshausen, author of Der Abenteuerliche Simplicissimus Teutsch, served from 1667 until his death in 1676 as the Bishop of Strasbourg's executor in Renchen. Www.stadt-renchen.de Stattzeitung für Südbaden, erscheint in Renchen