In writing and typography, a ligature occurs where two or more graphemes or letters are joined as a single glyph. An example is the character æ as used in English; the common ampersand developed from a ligature in which the handwritten Latin letters e and t were combined. The origin of typographical ligatures comes from the invention of writing with a stylus on fibrous material or clay. Businessmen who needed a way to speed up the process of written communication found that conjoining letters and abbreviating words for lay use was more convenient for record keeping and transaction than the bulky long forms; the earliest known script, Sumerian cuneiform, includes many cases of character combinations that, over time evolve from ligatures into separately recognizable characters. Ligatures figure prominently in many historical manuscripts, notably the Brahmic abugidas, or the bind rune of the Migration Period Germanic runic inscriptions; some ligatures can be seen in Egyptian papyri. Medieval scribes who wrote in Latin increased their writing speed by combining characters and by introducing notational abbreviations.
Others conjoined letters for aesthetic purposes. For example, in blackletter, letters with right-facing bowls and those with left-facing bowls were written with the facing edges of the bowls superimposed. In many script forms, characters such as h, m, n had their vertical strokes superimposed. Scribes used notational abbreviations to avoid having to write a whole character in one stroke. Manuscripts in the fourteenth century employed hundreds of such abbreviations. Modifications to script bodies like these originate from legal and monastic sources, with the emphasis shifting from business to monastic sources by around the 9th and 10th centuries. In hand writing, a ligature is made by joining two or more characters in atypical fashion by merging their parts, or by writing one above or inside the other. In printing, a ligature is a group of characters, typeset as a unit, so the characters do not have to be joined. For example, in some cases the fi ligature prints the letters f and i with a greater separation than when they are typeset as separate letters.
When printing with movable type was invented around 1450, typefaces included many ligatures and additional letters, as they were based on handwriting. Ligatures made printing with movable type easier because one block would replace frequent combinations of letters and allowed more complex and interesting character designs which would otherwise collide with one another. Ligatures began to fall out of use because of their complexity in the 20th century. Sans serif typefaces used for body text avoid ligatures, though notable exceptions include Gill Sans and Futura. Inexpensive phototypesetting machines in the 1970s generally avoid them. A few, became characters in their own right, see below the sections about German ß, various Latin accented letters, & et al.. The trend against digraph use was further strengthened by the desktop publishing revolution starting around 1977 with the production of the Apple II. Early computer software in particular had no way to allow for ligature substitution, while most new digital typefaces did not include ligatures.
As most of the early PC development was designed for the English language dependence on ligatures did not carry over to digital. Ligature use fell as the number of traditional hand compositors and hot metal typesetting machine operators dropped because of the mass production of the IBM Selectric brand of electric typewriter in 1961. A designer active in the period commented: "some of the world's greatest typefaces were becoming some of the world's worst fonts."Ligatures have grown in popularity over the last 20 years because of an increasing interest in creating typesetting systems that evoke arcane designs and classical scripts. One of the first computer typesetting programs to take advantage of computer-driven typesetting was Donald Knuth's TeX program. Now the standard method of mathematical typesetting, its default fonts are explicitly based on nineteenth-century styles. Many new fonts feature extensive ligature sets. Mrs Eaves by Zuzana Licko contains a large set to allow designers to create dramatic display text with a feel of antiquity.
A parallel use of ligatures is seen in the creation of script fonts that join letterforms to simulate handwriting effectively. This trend is caused in part by the increased support for other languages and alphabets in modern computing, many of which use ligatures somewhat extensively; this has caused the development of new digital typesetting techniques such as OpenType, the incorporation of ligature support into the text display systems of macOS, applications like Microsoft Office. An increasing modern trend is to use a "Th" ligature which reduces spacing between these letters to make it easier to read, a trait infrequent in metal type. Today, modern font programming divides ligatures into three groups, which can be activated separately: standard and historical. Standard ligatures are needed to allow the font to display without errors such as character collision. Designers sometimes find contextual and historic ligatures desirable for creating effects or to evoke an old-fashioned print look.
Many ligatures combine f with the following letter. A particularly
The Macleay Valley Bridge is a road bridge over the Macleay River and its floodplain near the settlement of Frederickton, New South Wales, Australia. The bridge is part of the Pacific Highway new alignment which bypasses Frederickton; the 3.2-kilometre-long bridge carries four lanes of traffic. This is the longest bridge in Australia; the bridge is constructed of 941 concrete beams supported by 93 piers. Installation of all support beams was completed in October 2012. On 24 February 2013 the bridge was opened to visitors for a preview walk and to traffic on 27 March 2013; the bridge was constructed by Abigroup as part of the A$618 million project funded by the Australian Government from the Building Australia Fund. Following bridge completion, local community has been invited by the Department of Roads and Maritime Services to suggest the name for the new bridge; the name Macleay River Bridge was to be selected. There were about 70 names suggested which recognised the history of the area, local people and the community.
In February 2013 the local indigenous Dangghati people requested to name the bridge Yapang gurraarrbang gayandugayigu, which translates in English to a long track to the other side. The group's submission received the support of the Macleay Coast Tourism Association and the Slim Dusty Centre; the bridge was named the'Macleay Valley Bridge' on 1 December 2015. List of longest bridges Category:Bridges in Australia Kempsey Upgrade at RTA website Kempsey Upgrade Map Bridge at Abigroup website It's the Macleay Valley Bridge
The Houston Academy for International Studies is a Houston Independent School District charter school in Midtown Houston, United States. It is located on the Houston Community College System's Central College campus, it opened in August 2006. The school focuses on preparing students for university and their roles in society as global citizens, it is a small high-school program, designed to serve up to 400 students in grades 9 through 12. It opened to 100 9th graders for the 2006-2007 school year and plans to add a new 9th-grade class of 100 students every year, as each previous class advances; the new campus for HAIS is located at the former J. Will Jones Elementary located in Midtown; the Academy is a partnership with the Houston Independent School District, the Houston Community College Central Campus, Houston A+ Challenge and the Asia Society’s Network of International Studies Schools. The school's principal, Melissa Jacobs-Thibaut, is a professional administrator and community-development specialist with 13 years of urban and international teaching, teacher training and leadership experience.
Between 1996 and 2001, she worked for the United States Peace Corps on assignment in Cape Verde and Mozambique. Since 2001, Jacobs-Thibaut was the Instructional Coordinator and Charter Manager at Cage Elementary School/Project Chrysalis Middle School in Houston. To be accepted at HAIS, potential students must submit completed applications along with supporting documentation, which are submitted to a general lottery drawing; as of the 2017 And 2018 school year there will be no uniform policy but the students will still have to follow the HISD school dress code. In preparation for university and possible careers in international business, students are required to complete two service-learning projects, four years of foreign language study, the curriculum required by the Texas Scholars program. To graduate, they must complete a 180-hour, internationally focused internship. Students in grades 11 and 12 will be able to earn both high-school and college credit by taking HCC classes; the Academy provides students with the opportunity to participate in international programs such as Model United Nations.
As of 2006, 95 % of the students were ethnic minorities. 75% of the school's ninth grade class were low income students. A METRORail Red Line stop, the Ensemble/HCC Station, is located nearby, as are several METRO bus routes. Houston A+ Challenge Houston Academy for International Studies Houston Academy for International Studies HISD Homepage Houston A+ Challenge International High School at J. W. Jones - Houston ISD Bond Information