An orthography is a set of conventions for writing a language. It includes norms of spelling, capitalization, word breaks and punctuation. Most transnational languages in the modern period have a system of writing, for most such languages a standard orthography has been developed based on a standard variety of the language, thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language. Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, as between American and British spelling in the case of English orthography. In some languages orthography is regulated by language academies, although for many languages there are no such authorities, orthography develops in a more natural way. In the latter languages, a significant amount of consensus arises although a maximum of consistency or standardization occurs only when prescriptively imposed according to style guides; the English word orthography dates from the 15th century. It comes from the French orthographie, from Latin orthographia, which derives from Greek ὀρθός orthós, "correct", γράφειν gráphein, "to write".
Orthography is concerned with matters of spelling, in particular the relationship between phonemes and graphemes in a language. Other elements that may be considered part of orthography include hyphenation, word breaks and punctuation. Orthography thus describes or defines the set of symbols used in writing a language, the rules regarding how to use those symbols. Most natural languages developed as oral languages, writing systems have been crafted or adapted as ways of representing the spoken language; the rules for doing this tend to become standardized for a given language, leading to the development of an orthography, considered "correct". In linguistics the term orthography is used to refer to any method of writing a language, without judgment as to right and wrong, with a scientific understanding that orthographic standardization exists on a spectrum of strength of convention; the original sense of the word, implies a dichotomy of correct and incorrect, the word is still most used to refer to a standardized, prescriptively correct, way of writing a language.
A distinction may be made here between etic and emic viewpoints: the purely descriptive approach, which considers any system, used—and the emic view, which takes account of language users' perceptions of correctness. Orthographic units, such as letters of an alphabet, are technically called graphemes; these are a type of abstraction, analogous to the phonemes of spoken languages. For example, different forms of the letter "b" are all considered to represent a single grapheme in the orthography of, English. Graphemes or sequences of them are sometimes placed between angle brackets, as in ⟨b⟩ or ⟨back⟩; this distinguishes them from phonemic transcription, placed between slashes, from phonetic transcription, placed between square brackets. The writing systems on which orthographies are based can be divided into a number of types, depending on what type of unit each symbol serves to represent; the principal types are logographic and alphabetic. Many writing systems combine features of more than one of these types, a number of detailed classifications have been proposed.
Japanese is an example of a writing system that can be written using a combination of logographic kanji characters and syllabic hiragana and katakana characters. Orthographies that use alphabets and syllabaries are based on the principle that the written symbols correspond to units of sound of the spoken language: phonemes in the former case, syllables in the latter. However, in all cases, this correspondence is not exact. Different languages' orthographies offer different degrees of correspondence between spelling and pronunciation. English orthography, French orthography and Danish orthography, for example, are irregular, whereas the orthographies of languages such as Russian and Spanish represent pronunciation much more faithfully, although the correspondence between letters and phonemes is still not exact. Finnish and Serbo-Croatian orthographies are remarkably consistent: approximation of the principle "one letter per sound". An orthography in which the correspondences between spelling and pronunciation are complex or inconsistent is called a deep orthography.
An orthography with simple and consistent correspondences is called shallow. One of the main reasons for which spelling and pronunciation deviate is that sound changes taking place in the spoken language are not always reflected in the orthography, hence spellings correspond to historical rather than present-day pronunciation. One consequence of this is that many spellings come to reflect a word's morphophonemic structure rather than its purely phonemic structure; this is discussed further at Phonemic orthography § Morphophonemic features. The syllabary systems of Japanese are examples of perfectly shallow orthographies—the ka
Marguerite Davis was an American biochemist, co-discoverer of vitamins A and B with Elmer Verner McCollum in 1913. In his 1964 autobiography, McCollum attributes his success in nutrition research to two people: Davis and Stephen Babcock, he says that Davis was physically handicapped by severe burns that she received at age ten while playing at a bonfire when her clothing caught fire. She earned a bachelor of science degree in home economics in 1910 at the University of California, Berkeley, she returned to the University of Wisconsin where she started but did not complete a master's degree. She moved to New Jersey, to work for the Squibb Pharmaceutical Company returning to the University of Wisconsin to teach and do research for a number of years. In 1913, Davis and McCollum identified what they termed fat-soluble A and water-soluble B, renamed vitamins A and B, after long research on rats. Davis founded the nutrition laboratory at the University of Wisconsin, she helped Rutgers University in New Jersey form a nutrition lab as part of its School of Pharmacy.
She pursued history and gardening after her retirement in 1940. Davis died in Racine three days after her eightieth birthday on September 19, 1967. House on the Hill - with short biography and photo of Marguerite Davis
The 2011–12 Chicago Bulls season was the 46th season of the franchise in the National Basketball Association. The Bulls finished the lockout-shortened season with a 50–16 record and ended as the number one seed in the Eastern Conference for a second consecutive season. Chicago started their playoff run on April 28, taking Game 1 of the first round against the Philadelphia 76ers at the United Center. However, that victory was marred with the season-ending injury of point guard and reigning MVP Derrick Rose, who tore his anterior cruciate ligament in the final minutes of the game. Chicago lost three games in a row and were without the services of starting center Joakim Noah for Games 4 and 5 of the series following an injury in his left ankle during Game 3 in Philadelphia; the Bulls won one more game at home before losing the series 2–4 in Philadelphia and became the fifth number one seed in league history to lose a playoffs series against a number eight seed, following the Seattle SuperSonics in 1994, the Miami Heat in 1999, the Dallas Mavericks in 2007, the San Antonio Spurs in 2011.
June 23: The 2011 NBA draft will take place at Prudential Center in Newark, New Jersey. November 1: Chicago Bulls first game of the season, against the Dallas Mavericks was scheduled, but was cancelled due to the lockout. December 25: Chicago Bulls first game of the season, against the Los Angeles Lakers; the Bulls won 88–87, in Los Angeles. March 24: Chicago secured a spot in the 2012 NBA Playoffs with a 102–101 victory against the Toronto Raptors. April 12: The Bulls clinch the Central Division title with a 96–86 win against the Miami Heat. A Statistics with the Chicago Bulls. On January 16, Derrick Rose was named Eastern Conference Player of the Week Coach Tom Thibodeau was named Coach of the Month for December–January. Coach Tom Thibodeau was named Eastern Conference Coach of the Month for March, 2012. Derrick Rose was voted as an All-Star for the 3rd consecutive time, 2nd consecutive time as a starter. Luol Deng was voted as an All-Star reserve for the 1st time. Coach Tom Thibodeau was selected as Head Coach of the Eastern Conference All-Stars.
Many players signed with teams from other leagues due to the 2011 NBA lockout. FIBA allows players under NBA contracts to sign and play for teams from other leagues if the contracts have opt-out clauses that allow the players to return to the NBA if the lockout ends; the Chinese Basketball Association, only allows its clubs to sign foreign free agents who could play for at least the entire season. 2011–12 NBA season