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Orthopnea or orthopnoea is shortness of breath that occurs when lying flat, causing the person to have to sleep propped up in bed or sitting in a chair. It is seen as a late manifestation of heart failure, resulting from fluid redistribution into the central circulation, causing an increase in pulmonary capillary pressure, it is seen in cases of abdominal obesity or pulmonary disease. Orthopnea is the opposite of platypnea, shortness of breath that worsens when sitting or standing up. Orthopnea is a symptom of left ventricular heart failure and/or pulmonary edema, it can occur in those with asthma and chronic bronchitis, as well as those with sleep apnea or panic disorder. It is associated with polycystic liver disease. From a neuromuscular perspective, orthopnea is a sign of severe diaphragmatic weakness. Under such circumstances, patients may describe shortness of breath when they bend over.. Orthopnea is due to increased distribution of blood to the pulmonary circulation when a person lies flat or closer to a horizontal position.

Lying flat decreases the inhibitory effect that the gravity has on the blood, coming back to the heart from the lower extremities of the body. This increases. In a normal person, this redistribution of blood has little effect on respiratory function as the left ventricle has the adequate capacity to increase its stroke volume. In a person with heart failure, the left ventricle has an inadequate capacity to respond to increased arrival of blood from the pulmonary circulation; this leads to the pooling up of blood in the pulmonary circulation. The increased intra-parenchymal pulmonary intravascular pressure can result in hydrostatic pressure related fluid exudation into the alveoli, thus causing pulmonary edema and further worsening shortness of breath. Thus, shortness of breath is experienced after a reasonably short time lying near to flat for a person with left ventricular failure; this is different from the dyspnea experienced by someone with lung parenchymal pathology when lying down, sudden and instead related to an acute change in diaphragmatic/accessory respiratory muscle mechanical advantage lost when moving the body into a more horizontal position.

Diagnosis is based on the clinical features. Treating the underlying cause will serve the purpose; the word orthopnea uses combining forms of ortho- + -pnea, from Greek ortho, regular, + pnoia, breath. See pronunciation information at dyspnea. Paroxysmal nocturnal dyspnoea Trepopnea

Mary Poppins (soundtrack)

Mary Poppins: Original Cast Soundtrack is the soundtrack album of the 1964 film Mary Poppins, with music and lyrics written by songwriters Richard M. Sherman and Robert B. Sherman, adapted and conducted by Irwin Kostal; the original 1964 album release features seventeen tracks, consisting of sixteen songs and one overture track of film score. The soundtrack album was released by Buena Vista Records the same year as the film on LP and reel-to-reel tape. Due to time constraints, some songs were edited, while songs featured introductory passages or completed endings; the film's music received critical acclaim, winning two Academy Awards for Best Original Score and Best Original Song and two Grammy Awards for Best Original Score Written for a Motion Picture and Best Recording for Children. Walt Disney Records reissued the soundtrack in 1997, including a 16-minute track of unreleased songs and demo versions. In 2004, as part of the film's 40th anniversary, a 28-track disc was released. In 2014, the soundtrack was released in a 3-CD edition as part of the Walt Disney Records The Legacy Collection series.

All tracks are written by Richard M. Sherman and Robert B. Sherman, with music adapted and conducted by Irwin Kostal; the Shermans wrote additional songs, unused, readapted into existing ones, or cut from the final film. The majority of this music was subsequently released in editions of the soundtrack album. A number of other songs were written for the film by the Sherman Brothers and either rejected or cut for time. Richard Sherman, on the 2004 DVD release, indicated that more than 30 songs were written at various stages of the film's development. No cast recordings of any of these songs have been released to the public, only demos or performances done by the songwriters — with the exception of the rooftop reprise of "Chim Chim Cher-ee" and the "smoke staircase yodel" mentioned below. "The Chimpanzoo", was to follow "I Love to Laugh" during the Uncle Albert "ceiling tea party" sequence, but it was dropped from the soundtrack just before Julie Andrews and company were to record it. The fast-paced number was not unveiled to the public until Richard Sherman, aided by uncovered storyboards, performed it on the 2004 DVD edition.

The re-creation suggests. "Practically Perfect" was intended to introduce Mary but instead the melody of the piece was used for "Sister Suffragette". A different song with the same name was written for the stage musical. "The Eyes of Love", a romantic ballad intended for Bert and Mary, but according to Richard Sherman, Andrews suggested to Disney that this song was unsuitable. In response, "A Spoonful of Sugar" was written. "Mary Poppins Melody" was to be performed. Elements of the song became part of "Stay Awake"; the melody was the basis for a couple of other songs that were cut from the film. "A Name's a Name". Heard on a recording taken of a meeting between the Sherman Brothers and Travers, this song was intended for the nursery scene that became "A Spoonful of Sugar"; the melody was reused for "Mary Poppins Melody". "You Think, You Blink" was a short piece that Bert was to sing just before entering the chalk painting. In the film, Dick Van Dyke recites the lyric instead of singing it. "West Wind" was a short ballad to be sung by Mary.

The song was retitled "Mon Amour Perdu" and used in the Disney film, Big Red. "The Right Side" was to be sung by Mary to Michael. It was recycled for the Disney Channel television series Welcome to Pooh Corner as Winnie the Pooh's personal theme song. "Measure Up" was to accompany the scene in which Mary takes the tape measure to Michael. "Admiral Boom" was to be the theme song for the cannon-firing neighbor of the Banks Residence, but it was cut by Walt Disney as being unnecessary. The melody of the song remains in the film, the bombastic theme is heard whenever Boom appears onscreen. One line from this song is spoken by Bert early in the film. "Sticks and Strings" was an early version of "Let's Go Fly a Kite." "Lead the Righteous Life", an intentionally poorly written hymn, was to have been sung by Katie Nanna along with Jane and Michael prior to Mary Poppins' arrival. The melody was reused for a similar song in The Happiest Millionaire "The Pearly Song" was not deleted per se but was instead incorporated into "Supercalifragilisticexpialidocious".

The Compass Sequence, a precursor to "Jolly Holiday", was to be a multiple-song sequence. A number of possible musical components have been identified: "South Sea Island Symphony" "Chinese Festival Song" "Tim-Buc-Too" – elements of this were reused for "The Chimpanzoo", cut "Tiki Town" – the melody was reused for "The Chimpanzoo" "North Pole Polka" "Land of Sand" – rewritten as "Trust in Me" for the animated version of The Jungle Book "The Beautiful Briny" – used in Bedknobs and Broomsticks "East is East" – another variation on the unused "Mary Poppins Melody"; the "Step in Time" sequence ends with the chimney sweeps being scattered by an onslaught of fireworks fired from Admiral Boom

Starving artist

A starving artist is an artist who sacrifices material well-being in order to focus on their artwork. They live on minimum expenses, either for a lack of business or because all their disposable income goes toward art projects. Related terms include starving musician; some starving artists desire mainstream success but have difficulty due to high barriers to entry in fields such as the visual arts, the film industry, theatre. These artists take temporary positions such as waitering or other service industry jobs while they focus their attention on "breaking through" in their preferred field; the Starving Artists Project describes these artists as those who have not yet broken into their careers. Other artists may find enough satisfaction in living as artists to choose voluntary poverty regardless of their prospects for future financial reward or broad recognition. Virginia Nicholson writes in Among the Bohemians: Experiments in Living 1900–1939: Fifty years on we may judge that Dylan Thomas's poverty was noble, while Nina Hamnett's was senseless.

But a minor artist with no money goes as hungry as a genius. What drove them to do it? I believe that such people were not only choosing art, they were choosing the life of the artist. Art offered them a different way of living, one that they believed more than compensated for the loss of comfort and respectability; the starving artist is a typical figure of Romanticism in the late 18th and early 19th centuries, seen in many paintings and works of literature. In 1851, Henri Murger wrote about four starving artists in Scènes de la Vie de Bohème, the basis for the operas La bohème by Puccini and Leoncavallo by Leoncavallo. In 1890, Knut Hamsun's novel, depicted a period of a starving artist's life. In 1924, Franz Kafka wrote a short story called A Hunger Artist about a man, world-famous for his public performances of fasting. Bohemianism Bohemian style Community arts The Starving Artists Project


A sneeze, or sternutation, is a semi-autonomous, convulsive expulsion of air from the lungs through the nose and mouth caused by foreign particles irritating the nasal mucosa. A sneeze expels air forcibly from the mouth and nose in an explosive, spasmodic involuntary action resulting chiefly from irritation of the nasal mucous membrane; this action allows for mucus to escape through the nasal cavity. Sneezing is linked to sudden exposure to bright light, sudden change in temperature, breeze of cold air, a full stomach, or viral infection, can lead to the spread of disease. Chronic sneezing can follow the use of local anaesthetic to the sinuses such as following optical or dental surgery, as the return of sensation to the lining of the sinuses gets mistaken by the brain as particulate matter; the function of sneezing is to expel mucus containing foreign particles or irritants and cleanse the nasal cavity. During a sneeze, the soft palate and palatine uvula depress while the back of the tongue elevates to close the passage to the mouth so that air ejected from the lungs may be expelled through the nose.

Because the closing of the mouth is partial, a considerable amount of this air is also expelled from the mouth. The force and extent of the expulsion of the air through the nose varies. Sneezing cannot occur during sleep due to REM atonia – a bodily state where motor neurons are not stimulated and reflex signals are not relayed to the brain. Sufficient external stimulants, may cause a person to wake from sleep to sneeze, but any sneezing occurring afterwards would take place with a awake status at minimum. Sneezing occurs when foreign particles or sufficient external stimulants pass through the nasal hairs to reach the nasal mucosa; this triggers the release of histamines, which irritate the nerve cells in the nose, resulting in signals being sent to the brain to initiate the sneeze through the trigeminal nerve network. The brain relates this initial signal, activates the pharyngeal and tracheal muscles and creates a large opening of the nasal and oral cavities, resulting in a powerful release of air and bioparticles.

The powerful nature of a sneeze is attributed to its involvement of numerous organs of the upper body – it is a reflexive response involving the face and chest muscles. Sneezing is triggered by sinus nerve stimulation caused by nasal congestion and allergies; the neural regions involved in the sneeze reflex are located in the brainstem along the ventromedial part of the spinal trigeminal nucleus and the adjacent pontine-medullary lateral reticular formation. This region appears to control the epipharyngeal, intrinsic laryngeal and respiratory muscles, the combined activity of these muscles serve as the basis for the generation of a sneeze; the sneeze reflex involves contraction of a number of different muscles and muscle groups throughout the body including the eyelids. The common suggestion that it is impossible to sneeze with one's eyes open is, inaccurate. Other than irritating foreign particles, allergies or possible illness, another stimulus is sudden exposure to bright light – a condition known as photic sneeze reflex.

Walking out of a dark building into sunshine may trigger PSR, or the ACHOO syndrome as it's called. The tendency to sneeze upon exposure to bright light is an autosomal dominant trait and affects 18-35% of the human population. A rarer trigger, observed in some individuals, is the fullness of the stomach after a large meal; this is known as snatiation and is regarded as a medical disorder passed along genetically as an autosomal dominant trait. While harmless in healthy individuals, sneezes spread disease through the infectious aerosol droplets ranging from 0.5 to 5 µm. A sneeze can produce 40,000 droplets. To reduce the possibility of thus spreading disease, one holds the forearm, the inside of the elbow, a tissue or a handkerchief in front of one's mouth and nose when sneezing. Using one's hand for that purpose has fallen into disuse as it is considered inappropriate, since it promotes spreading germs through human contact or by touched objects. Examples of preventive techniques are: the deep exhalation of the air in the lungs that would otherwise be used in the act of sneezing, holding the breath in while counting to ten or pinching the bridge of the nose for several seconds.

Tilting the head backwards can stop a sneeze. Proven methods to reduce sneezing advocate reducing interaction with irritants, such as keeping pets out of the house to avoid animal dander; some people, find sneezes to be pleasurable and would not want to prevent them. In Ancient Greece, sneezes were believed to be prophetic signs from the gods. In 401 BC, for instance, the Athenian general Xenophon gave a speech exhorting his fellow soldiers to fight against the Persians. A soldier underscored his conclusion with a sneeze. Thinking that this sneeze was a favorable sign from the gods, the soldiers were impressed. Another divine moment of sneezing for the Greeks occurs in the story of Odysseus, his waiting wife Penelope, hearing Odysseus may be alive, says that he and his son would take revenge on the suitors if he were to return. At that moment, their son sneezes loudly and Penelope laughs with joy, reassured that it is a sign from the gods, it may be because th

Aurore Gagnon

Marie-Aurore-Lucienne Gagnon known as Aurore Gagnon, was a Canadian girl, a victim of child abuse. She died of exhaustion and blood poisoning from some 52 wounds inflicted by her stepmother, Marie-Anne Houde, her father, Télesphore Gagnon; the story of l'enfant martyre received great attention in the media and Gagnon became an icon of Quebec sociological and popular culture. Gagnon was born into and raised in a Roman Catholic family, the second of five children of farmer Télesphore Gagnon and his first wife Marie-Anne Caron, whom he married in September 1906, they lived in Fortierville, Quebec, a small village on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, a hundred kilometers southwest of Quebec City; the Gagnons' first child Marie-Jeanne was born in August 1907. Aurore's birth was followed by that of Lucina Georges in 1910 and Joseph in 1915. In 1916, not long after Joseph's birth, Marie-Anne Caron was hospitalized for tuberculosis. Marie-Anne Houde, the widow of a cousin of Télesphore, soon moved into the Gagnon home, saying she wanted to "take care of the house and children."

She was a 30-something-year-old mother of two sons and Henri-Georges. She was born in a neighbouring municipality of Fortierville, Quebec. On November 6, 1917, 2-year-old Joseph was found dead in his bed. A coroner's inquest revealed. On 23 January 1918, Marie-Anne Caron died of tuberculosis at the Beauport Asylum; the following week, Télesphore married Marie-Anne Houde. Although villagers were suspicious after two children subsequently died, there was no investigation. Meanwhile, Télesphore was beating Aurore with an axe handle. At age 10 in September 1919, she was hospitalized for more than a month at the Hôtel-Dieu de Québec with a severe leg infection caused by a beating. Upon her release, the beatings resumed; when Aurore died on February 12, 1920, the cause was listed as poisoning. It was not known if she had been poisoned deliberately or if she had succumbed to an infection from her many wounds. Télesphore Gagnon and Marie-Anne Houde were arrested as they tried to leave the church after her funeral on February 16, 1920.

Marie-Anne Houde was sentenced to be hanged for murder, but her sentence was commuted to life imprisonment. After serving 15 years she was paroled for health reasons, she died of cancer in May 1936. Télesphore Gagnon was convicted of manslaughter and sentenced to life imprisonment, but he was released from prison in 1925 for good behavior after serving five years, he returned to his hometown and his previous life, where he wrote several letters to Marie-Anne Houde, still in prison. After Houde's death, Télesphore remarried, he died peacefully in 1961. Aurore Gagnon remains a popular cultural icon in Quebec, with mythical status. Numerous books have been published detailing her life. In 1920, the first dramatic production was written by Louis Petitjean, it would become his most famous play. Télesphore Gagnon tried unsuccessfully to block the release of the 1952 film. La petite Aurore: l'enfant martyre Aurore Cinderella effect Child murder Biography at the Dictionary of Canadian Biography Online Aurore!

The Mystery of the Martyred Child – Great Unsolved Mysteries in Canadian History Genealogy of Aurore Gagnon Aurore Gagnon at Find a Grave

Ace of Diamond

Ace of Diamond is a Japanese shōnen baseball manga series written and illustrated by Yuji Terajima and published by Kodansha. It has been serialized by Weekly Shōnen Magazine from 2006 to 2015. A sequel titled Ace of Diamond Act II started in 2015. An anime adaptation ran from 6 October 2013 to 28 March 2016. Two original animation DVDs were bundled with the fourth and fifth volumes of the Ace of Diamond Act II manga. An anime adaptation of Ace of Diamond Act II premiered on 2 April 2019. In 2008, Ace of Diamond received the Shogakukan Manga Awards for the shōnen category. In 2010, it won the Kodansha Manga Award for best shōnen manga; the series follows one Eijun Sawamura, a baseball pitcher with a unusual changeup pitch that has occurred naturally. Sawamura plans to go with his friends to a local high school and play baseball to the best of their abilities. However, one scout from the prestigious Seidou High approaches him and offers him a scholarship and a chance to make it to the nationals. Sawamura decides to pay a visit to the school, it changes his entire outlook on the future.

The first season follows Seidou and their main rivals as they attempt to help the upperclassmen make it to nationals during the summer tournament. Once the summer tournament ends, the upperclassmen will be forced to retire, but how far can Sawamura help them go when he doesn't have any control? The second season continues to follow Sawamura, Furuya and Miyuki as they lead a new team, along with a few returning faces, through the fall tournament, their overly ambitious goal is to go to nationals during the fall tournament and convince Coach Kataoka that he doesn't have to resign. Ace of Diamond is a shōnen baseball manga illustrated by Yuji Terajima, it has been serialized by Kodansha's weekly manga magazine Weekly Shōnen Magazine from May 15, 2006 to January 14, 2015. Kodansha collected chapters in tankōbon; the first volume was published on 15 September 2006 and as of 17 August 2015, 47 volumes were published. Kodansha USA has licensed the series for a digital release in English under the title Ace of the Diamond, has been publishing the volumes since March 7, 2017.

A sequel manga, titled Ace of Diamond Act II started in the same magazine on August 19, 2015. As of October 2019, nineteen volumes have been released in Japan; the TV series was produced by Madhouse and Production I. G and began airing on October 6, 2013, on TX Network stations and on AT-X; the episodes were simulcast in the US, Canada, UK, Australia, New Zealand, South Africa, Finland, the Netherlands, Sweden and South America, Spain and Portugal by Crunchyroll with English and German subtitles. The series was planned to be 52 episodes but was extended and ended in March 2015. A second season started airing soon after on April 6, 2015 on TX Network stations and on AT-X. Like its predecessor the episodes were simulcast in the aforementioned countries by Crunchyroll with English and German subtitles. An anime adaptation of Ace of Diamond Act II has been announced, it premiered on April 2, 2019; the cast and staff will reprise their roles from the previous series, with Madhouse returning for animation production.

The series is listed for 52 episodes. Ace of Diamond was the 25th best selling manga in 2011, with 1,711,607 copies sold. Nikkei Entertainment magazine published a list of top 50 manga creators by sales since January 2010, in its September 2011 issue, it was the 27th best selling manga in 2012, with 1,685,194 copies sold. In 2013 Ace of Diamond became the 23rd best selling manga, with 2,010,045 copies sold; as of March 2015, the first 45 volumes of the series have sold over 22 million copies. As of November 2015, the manga had 25 million copies in print. In 2008, Ace of Diamond received the Shogakukan Manga Awards for the shōnen category. In 2010, it won the Kodansha Manga Award for best shōnen manga. Official anime website Ace of Diamond at Anime News Network's encyclopedia