Rice is the seed of the grass species Oryza sativa or Oryza glaberrima. As a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a part of the worlds human population. It is the agricultural commodity with the third-highest worldwide production, after sugarcane and maize, wild rice, from which the crop was developed, may have its native range in Australia. Chinese legends attribute the domestication of rice to Shennong, the emperor of China. Genetic evidence has shown that rice originates from a single domestication 8, archaeological evidence had suggested that rice was domesticated in the Yangtze River valley region in China. From East Asia, rice was spread to Southeast and South Asia, Rice was introduced to Europe through Western Asia, and to the Americas through European colonization. There are many varieties of rice and culinary preferences tend to vary regionally, in some areas such as the Far East or Spain, there is a preference for softer and stickier varieties. Rice, a monocot, is grown as an annual plant, although in tropical areas it can survive as a perennial.
The rice plant can grow to 1–1.8 m tall, occasionally more depending on the variety and it has long, slender leaves 50–100 cm long and 2–2.5 cm broad. The small wind-pollinated flowers are produced in a branched arching to pendulous inflorescence 30–50 cm long, the edible seed is a grain 5–12 mm long and 2–3 mm thick. Rice cultivation is well-suited to countries and regions with low costs and high rainfall, as it is labor-intensive to cultivate. However, rice can be grown practically anywhere, even on a hill or mountain area with the use of water-controlling terrace systems. Although its parent species are native to Asia and certain parts of Africa, centuries of trade, the traditional method for cultivating rice is flooding the fields while, or after, setting the young seedlings. The name wild rice is used for species of the genera Zizania and Porteresia. The Greek word is the source of all European words, the origin of the Greek word is unclear. It is sometimes held to be from the Tamil word அரிசி, Krishnamurti disagrees with the notion that Old Tamil arici is the source of the Greek term, and proposes that it was borrowed from descendants of Proto-Dravidian *wariñci instead.
The varieties of rice are typically classified as long-, medium-, the grains of long-grain rice tend to remain intact after cooking, medium-grain rice becomes more sticky. Medium-grain rice is used for dishes, for risotto in Italy
A botanical garden or botanic garden is a garden dedicated to the collection and display of a wide range of plants labelled with their botanical names. Visitor services at a botanical garden might include tours, educational displays, art exhibitions, book rooms, open-air theatrical and musical performances, over the years, botanical gardens, as cultural and scientific organisations, have responded to the interests of botany and horticulture. The role of major botanical gardens worldwide has been considered so similar as to fall within textbook definitions. The following definition was produced by staff of the Liberty Hyde Bailey Hortorium of Cornell University in 1976, each botanical garden naturally develops its own special fields of interests depending on its personnel, extent, available funds, and the terms of its charter. It may include greenhouses, test grounds, an herbarium, an arboretum and it maintains a scientific as well as a plant-growing staff, and publication is one of its major modes of expression.
This broad outline is expanded, The botanic garden may be an independent institution, if a department of an educational institution, it may be related to a teaching program. In any case, it exists for scientific ends and is not to be restricted or diverted by other demands. It is not merely a landscaped or ornamental garden, although it may be artistic, the essential element is the intention of the enterprise, which is the acquisition and dissemination of botanical knowledge. Worldwide, there are now about 1800 botanical gardens and arboreta in about 150 countries of which about 550 are in Europe,200 in North America, and an increasing number in East Asia. These gardens attract about 150 million visitors a year, so it is surprising that many people gained their first exciting introduction to the wonders of the plant world in a botanical garden. Historically, botanical gardens exchanged plants through the publication of seed lists and this was a means of transferring both plants and information between botanical gardens.
This system continues today, although the possibility of genetic piracy, the International Association of Botanic Gardens was formed in 1954 as a worldwide organisation affiliated to the International Union of Biological Sciences. In the United States, there is the American Public Gardens Association, the history of botanical gardens is closely linked to the history of botany itself. Then, in the 19th and 20th centuries, the trend was towards a combination of specialist, the idea of scientific gardens used specifically for the study of plants dates back to antiquity. In about 2800 BCE, the Chinese Emperor Shen Nung sent collectors to distant regions searching for plants with economic or medicinal value. Early medieval gardens in Islamic Spain resembled botanic gardens of the future and this was taken over by garden chronicler Ibn Bassal until the Christian conquest in 1085 CE. Ibn Bassal founded a garden in Seville, most of its plants being collected on an expedition that included Morocco, Sicily.
The medical school of Montpelier was founded by Spanish Arab physicians, and by 1250 CE, it included a physic garden, but the site was not given botanic garden status until 1593
Arabidopsis thaliana is a small flowering plant native to Eurasia. A. thaliana is considered a weed, it is found by roadsides, a winter annual with a relatively short life cycle, A. thaliana is a popular model organism in plant biology and genetics. For a complex multicellular eukaryote, A. thaliana has a small genome of approximately 135 megabase pairs. It was the first plant to have its genome sequenced, and is a tool for understanding the molecular biology of many plant traits, including flower development. Arabidopsis thaliana is a plant, usually growing to 20–25 cm tall. The leaves form a rosette at the base of the plant, leaves are covered with small, unicellular hairs. The flowers are 3 mm in diameter, arranged in a corymb, the fruit is a siliqua 5–20 mm long, containing 20–30 seeds. Roots are simple in structure, with a primary root that grows vertically downward. These roots form interactions with rhizosphere bacteria such as Bacillus megaterium, a. thaliana can complete its entire lifecycle in six weeks.
The central stem produces flowers grows after about three weeks, and the flowers naturally self-pollinate. In the lab, A. thaliana may be grown in Petri plates, pots, or hydroponics, the plant was first described in 1577 in the Harz Mountains by Johannes Thal, a physician from Nordhausen, Thüringen, who called it Pilosella siliquosa. In 1753, Carl Linnaeus renamed the plant Arabis thaliana in honor of Thal, in 1842, the German botanist Gustav Heynhold erected the new genus Arabidopsis and placed the plant in that genus. The genus name, comes from Greek, meaning resembling Arabis, thousands of natural inbred accessions of A. thaliana have been collected from throughout its natural and introduced range. These accessions exhibit considerable genetic and phenotypic variation which can be used to study the adaptation of species to different environments. A. thaliana is native to Europe and northwestern Africa and it appears to be native in tropical afroalpine ecosystems. It has been introduced and naturalized worldwide, a. thaliana readily grows and often pioneers rocky and calcareous soils.
It is generally considered a weed, due to its distribution in agricultural fields, railway lines, waste ground. Like most Brassicaceae species, A. thaliana is edible by humans as a salad or cooked, the first mutant in A. thaliana was documented in 1873 by Alexander Braun, describing a double flower phenotype
Civic Aquarium of Milan
The Civic Aquarium of Milan is an aquarium in Milan and the third oldest aquarium in Europe. Built in 1905 on the occasion of the Milan Worlds fair, the facade of the aquarium includes a Neptune statue, the Roman god of water and the sea, created by sculptor Oreste Labò. The aquarium library, which is open to the public, has one of Italy’s most prestigious collection of marine biology publications, media related to Civic Aquarium of Milan at Wikimedia Commons
San Marco, Milan
San Marco is a church in Milan, northern Italy. According to tradition, the church was dedicated to St. Mark, patron of Venice, the first mention of the church dates from 1254 when the Augustinians built a Gothic style edifice with a nave and two aisles re-using pre-existing constructions. The structure was modified in the Baroque style during the 17th century. In the lunette is a mosaic representing the Madonna between Saints, a copy of the original by Angelo Inganni, the campanile dates from the 14th century. It was restored and completed in 1885, the interior, in the Baroque style, has a nave and two aisles. In the first chapel on the right are frescoes by Gian Paolo Lomazzo, in the right transept is a fresco by the Fiammenghini with Alexander IV Instituting the Order of the Augustinians, under which a 14th-century Crucifixion was discovered in 1956. The author of the latter has been identified by Anovelo da Imbonate, the right arms of the transept houses several sarcophagi from the mid-14th century, including the tomb of Lanfranco Settalo, counsellor of Archbishop Giovanni Visconti, by Giovanni di Balduccio.
Near the rear exit is a 16th-century tombstone portraying the Angel of the Resurrection, on the side walls of the presbytery are the Dispute of St. Ambrose and St. Augustine by Camillo Procaccini and the Baptism of St. Augustine by Giovanni Battista Crespi. La chiesa di San Marco a Milano
Basilica of San Simpliciano
The Basilica of San Simpliciano is a church in the centre of Milan, Italy northern, the second oldest in the form of a Latin cross, first erected by Saint Ambrose. It is dedicated to Saint Simplician, bishop of Milan, the site of the present church was occupied in the 3rd century AD by a pagan cemetery. There St. Ambrose began the construction of the Basilica Virginum, which was finished by his successor Simplicianus, a brick with the mark of the Lombard King Agilulf shows that repairs were made between 590 and 615 AD. In the ninth century the Cluniac Benedictines took possession of the church, when the building was modified between the 12th and the 13th centuries, giving it the present Romanesque appearance, the original walls were preserved to a height of 22 meters. On the night of 6–7 April 1252 the body of Peter of Verona lay in state after his assassination, a great multitude came to watch vigil, and the origins of Peters cult began, as people started to report miraculous occurrences. In 1517 it was acquired by the Benedictines of Montecassino, who remained here until 1798, in the 16th century the Spanish governor Ferrante Gonzaga had the bell tower lowered by 25 meters.
The dome and the wings were modified in 1582. Other interventions were carried out in the 19th century, with poor results, in 1927 stained-glass windows portraying episodes of the battle of Legnano were added. On the façade, the arcades that surmount the portals indicate the presence of an ancient portico, the upper part, the most modified in the 19th century, has two mullioned windows in the centre, an upper triple mullioned window and decorative arches. Late Renaissance mullioned windows decorate the bell tower. The interior is on the Latin cross plan, with a four-bay nave, the transept is divided into two aisles. The side chapels have decorations from various eras, from Renaissance to Baroque, Rococo, in the right transept is a painting by Alessandro Varotari portraying the Defeat of the Cammolesi. Next to the entrance are saints frescoed by Aurelio Luini. The apse vault is decorated by what is considered Ambrogio da Fossanos masterwork, the western wall of the transept has a Marriage of the Virgin by Camillo Procaccini
Basilica of Sant'Eustorgio
The Basilica of SantEustorgio is a church in Milan in northern Italy, which is in the Basilicas Park city park. It was for years an important stop for pilgrims on their journey to Rome or to the Holy Land. In 1764, when an ancient pillar was removed, a Christian burial was discovered, housing coins of emperor Constans, the church was rebuilt in Romanesque style. In the 12th century, when Milan was sacked by Frederick Barbarossa and it was only in 1903/4 that fragments of the bones and garments were sent back to SantEustorgios. Nowadays they are in the Three Kings altar nearby the empty Three Kings sarcophagus, still today, in memory of the Three Kings, the bell tower is surmounted by a star instead of the traditional cross. From the 13th century the church was the main Milanese seat of the Dominican Order, the current façade is a 19th-century reconstruction. The interior has a nave and two aisles, covered with groin vaults, of the Romanesque church only parts of the apse remain, while of the original Early Christian building, remains have been excavated under the apse.
To the right side of the nave, the church has chapels commissioned from the 14th century onwards by the families of the city. The first from the entrance is of the 15th century and has a Renaissance sepulchre, the three others are more ancient, having frescoes of the Giotto school and tombs of members of the Visconti family. The high altar is a marble polyptych of the early 15th century, while a similar work is in the right transept. Also noteworthy are a Crucifixion on a table by a Venetian artist of the 13th century, behind the apse is the most striking feature of the church, the Portinari Chapel, one of the most celebrated examples of Renaissance art in Lombardy. It has frescoes by Vincenzo Foppa and a marble sepulchre by Giovanni di Balduccio, the Chapel houses an important Dominican monument, the Ark of Saint Peter of Verona, which is replete with marble bass-relief images by the sculptor, Giovanni di Balduccio. Stefano Visconti Bonacossa Borri Matteo I Visconti Official website
Basilica of Sant'Ambrogio
The Basilica of SantAmbrogio is a church in Milan, northern Italy. One of the most ancient churches in Milan, it was built by St. Ambrose in 379–386, the first name of the church was in fact Basilica Martyrum. When St. Ambrose arrived in Milan, the churches were in conflict with each other over the conflict between Arianism and the Nicene Creed as well as numerous local issues. He was firmly in support of the Nicene side of the conflict and he did this through both preaching and construction. He built three or four churches surrounding the city, Basilica Apostolorum, Basilica Virginum, and Basilica Martyrum, a fourth church, Basilica Salvatoris is attributed to him as well, but may not actually be from the 4th century. These churches were dedicated with anti-Arian language and as symbols of the wealth, the basilica was outside the city of Milan, but over the following centuries, the city grew up around it. It became a center of life and a community of canons developed in the church. In 789, a monastery was established within the basilica grounds, the canons, retained their own community and identity instead of fading away.
Two, distinct religious communities shared the basilica, in the 11th century, the canons adopted orders and became Canons Regular. There were now two separate monastic orders following different rules living in the basilica, the canons were in the northern building, the cloister of the canons, while the monks were in the two southern buildings. The two towers symbolize the division in the basilica, the 9th century Torre dei Monaci tower was used by the monks to call the faithful to the monks mass. The monks supported themselves, from the offerings given after mass, the canons did not have a bell tower and were not allowed to ring bells until they finished their own tower in the 12th Century. The monastery and church became a landholder in northern Italy. On 4 August 1528 it was the so-called Peace of St. Ambrose, in 1492 the Benedictines commissioned Donato Bramante, structural architect of St. Peters Basilica, to renovate the new rectory. In August 1943 the Allied bombings heavily damaged the basilica, in particular the apse, as a result of this a new building, painted in pink, was constructed to house the Abbotts offices and the museum.
The church is built in brickwork of different origins and colors, with parts of stone. The current Romanesque church was begun around 1080, the nave dates to about 1128 and the rib vaults of the nave are from about 1140. The altar occupies about the place as in the time of St. Ambrose
San Giovanni in Conca
San Giovanni in Conca is a crypt of a former basilica church in Milan, northern Italy. It is now located in the centre of Piazza Missori, the basilica of San Giovanni in Conca dates from the 4th century, and was located in a residential quarter of the ancient city. Remains of the pavement of this original edifice are now in the Archeological Museum of Milan. The church was rebuilt in the 11th century, but was destroyed by Frederick Barbarossas troops in 1162 and it was again reconstructed in the 13th century and became the private chapel of the Visconti rulers of Milan. In 1531, Duke Francesco II Sforza donated it to the Carmelites, the church was deconsecrated by the Austrians and closed by the French in the late 18th century. In 1879, the church was shortened to allow the construction of the current Via Mazzini, in the occasion, San Giovanni in Conca was sold to the Waldensians who, when the church was demolished, rebuilt the façade on their new church in Via Francesco Sforza. Works of demolition were however halted just before their end, leaving only the crypt, San Giovanni in Conca ruins include the only extant example of Romanesque crypt in Milan.
It houses archaeological findings which illustrates the churchs history, over the crypt are remains of the apse walls, with a single mullioned window and blind arches typical of the Milanese Romanesque
Italy, officially the Italian Republic, is a unitary parliamentary republic in Europe. Located in the heart of the Mediterranean Sea, Italy shares open land borders with France, Austria, San Marino, Italy covers an area of 301,338 km2 and has a largely temperate seasonal climate and Mediterranean climate. Due to its shape, it is referred to in Italy as lo Stivale. With 61 million inhabitants, it is the fourth most populous EU member state, the Italic tribe known as the Latins formed the Roman Kingdom, which eventually became a republic that conquered and assimilated other nearby civilisations. The legacy of the Roman Empire is widespread and can be observed in the distribution of civilian law, republican governments, Christianity. The Renaissance began in Italy and spread to the rest of Europe, bringing a renewed interest in humanism, exploration, Italian culture flourished at this time, producing famous scholars and polymaths such as Leonardo da Vinci, Galileo and Machiavelli. The weakened sovereigns soon fell victim to conquest by European powers such as France and Austria.
Despite being one of the victors in World War I, Italy entered a period of economic crisis and social turmoil. The subsequent participation in World War II on the Axis side ended in defeat, economic destruction. Today, Italy has the third largest economy in the Eurozone and it has a very high level of human development and is ranked sixth in the world for life expectancy. The country plays a prominent role in regional and global economic, military and diplomatic affairs, as a reflection of its cultural wealth, Italy is home to 51 World Heritage Sites, the most in the world, and is the fifth most visited country. The assumptions on the etymology of the name Italia are very numerous, according to one of the more common explanations, the term Italia, from Latin, was borrowed through Greek from the Oscan Víteliú, meaning land of young cattle. The bull was a symbol of the southern Italic tribes and was often depicted goring the Roman wolf as a defiant symbol of free Italy during the Social War. Greek historian Dionysius of Halicarnassus states this account together with the legend that Italy was named after Italus, mentioned by Aristotle and Thucydides.
The name Italia originally applied only to a part of what is now Southern Italy – according to Antiochus of Syracuse, but by his time Oenotria and Italy had become synonymous, and the name applied to most of Lucania as well. The Greeks gradually came to apply the name Italia to a larger region, excavations throughout Italy revealed a Neanderthal presence dating back to the Palaeolithic period, some 200,000 years ago, modern Humans arrived about 40,000 years ago. Other ancient Italian peoples of undetermined language families but of possible origins include the Rhaetian people and Cammuni. Also the Phoenicians established colonies on the coasts of Sardinia and Sicily, the Roman legacy has deeply influenced the Western civilisation, shaping most of the modern world