The Campo Santo known as Camposanto Monumentale or Camposanto Vecchio, is a historical edifice at the northern edge of the Cathedral Square in Pisa, Italy. "Campo Santo" can be translated as "holy field", because it is said to have been built around a shipload of sacred soil from Golgotha, brought back to Pisa from the Third Crusade by Ubaldo Lanfranchi, archbishop of Pisa in the 12th century. A legend claims; the burial ground lies over the ruins of the old baptistery of the church of Santa Reparata, the church that once stood where the cathedral now stands. The term "monumental" serves to differentiate it from the later-established urban cemetery in Pisa; the building was the last one to be raised in the Cathedral Square. It dates from a century after the bringing of the soil from Golgotha, was erected over the earlier burial ground; the construction of this huge, oblong Gothic cloister was begun in 1278 by the architect Giovanni di Simone. He died in 1284; the cemetery was only completed in 1464.
It seems that the building was not meant to be a real cemetery, but a church called Santissima Trinità, but the project changed during the construction. However we know that the original part was the western one, all the eastern part was the last to be built closing the structure; the outer wall is composed of 43 blind arches. There are two doorways; the one on the right is crowned by a gracious Gothic tabernacle. It contains the Virgin Mary with Child, surrounded by four saints, it is the work from the second half of the 14th century by a follower of Giovanni Pisano. This was the original entrance door. Most of the tombs are under the arcades; the inner court is surrounded by elaborate round arches with slender mullions and plurilobed tracery. The cemetery has three chapels; the oldest ones are the chapel Ammannati and takes its name from the tomb of Ligo Ammannati, a teacher in the University of Pisa. In the Aulla chapel we can see the original incense lamp that Galileo Galilei used for calculation of pendular movements.
This lamp is the one Galileo saw inside the cathedral, now replaced by a larger more elaborate one. The last chapel was Dal Pozzo, commissioned by archbishop of Pisa Carlo Antonio Dal Pozzo in 1594. In this chapel in 2009 were translated the relics of the Cathedral: the relics include among the others eleven of the twelve Apostles, two fragments of the True Cross, a thorn from the Crown of Thorns of Christ and a small piece of the dress of the Virgin Mary. In the Dal Pozzo chapel sometimes a Mass is celebrated; the Campo Santo contained a huge collection of Roman sarcophagi, but there are only 84 left together with a collection of Roman and Etruscan sculptures and urns, now in the Museum of the vestry board. The sarcophagi were all around the cathedral attached to the building itself; that until the cemetery was built they were collected in the middle all over the meadow. Carlo Lasinio, in the years he was the curator of the Campo Santo, collected many other ancient relics that were spread in Pisa to make a sort of archeological museum inside the cemetery.
Nowadays the sarcophagi are near the walls. The walls were once covered in frescoes; the first was the Crucifixion by Francesco Traini, in the south western side. Continuing to right, in the southern side, the Last Judgement, The Hell, The Triumph of Death and the Anacoreti nella Tebaide attributed to Buonamico Buffalmacco; the cycle of frescoes continues with the Stories of the Old Testament by Benozzo Gozzoli that were situated in the north gallery, while in the south arcade were the Stories of Pisan Saints, by Andrea Bonaiuti, Antonio Veneziano and Spinello Aretino, the Stories of Job, by Taddeo Gaddi. In the same time, in the north gallery were the Stories of the Genesis by Piero di Puccio. On 27 July 1944, a bomb fragment from an Allied raid started a fire. Due to all the water tanks being controlled, the fire could not be put out in time, it burnt the wooden rafters and melted the lead of the roof; the destruction of the roof damaged everything inside the cemetery, destroying most of the sculptures and sarcophagi and compromising all the frescoes.
An initial effort to rescue the frescoes was organized by Deane Keller of the U. S. Army's Monuments, Fine Arts, Archives program. Pieces of the frescoes were salvaged and a temporary roof was erected to prevent further damage. After World War II, restoration work began; the roof was restored as as possible to its pre-war appearance and the frescoes were separated from the walls to be restored and displayed elsewhere. Once the frescoes had been removed, the preliminary drawings, called sinopie were removed; these under-drawings were separated using the same technique used on the frescoes and now they are in the Museum of the Sinopie, on the opposite side of the Square. The restored frescoes that still exist are being transferred to their original locations in the cemetery, to restore the Campo Santo's pre-war appearance. Tobino, Mario. Pisa la Piazza dei Miracoli. De Agostini
Palazzo del Collegio Puteano
The Palazzo del Collegio Puteano is a building in Piazza dei Cavalieri in Pisa, Italy. The palace makes a corner with Via Corsica street; the palace, located near to the Church of St Rocco, was built in the present form between 1549 and 1598, by joining a group of three previous houses. In 1605, it was given in perpetual rent to the Knights of St Stephen, to host some students from Piedmont, by order of Archbishop Carlo Antonio Dal Pozzo, from whom the name Puteano is derived. Between 1608 and 1609 the façade was decorated with allegoric frescoes by Giovanni Stefano Marucelli. After the suppression of the Knights, the college was closed in 1925, but it opened again in 1930 when the Scuola Normale Superiore di Pisa used the building as Home of the Student of the University. In 1969, the palace underwent a major restoration, belongs to Scuola Normale and hosts the recearch center of mathematics and the guesthouse
Torre dei Gualandi
The Torre dei Gualandi is a former tower in Pisa, central Italy, now included in the Palazzo dell'Orologio. It is located on the north part of the Piazza dei Cavalieri; the tower was in the right part of the one without the four-light window. Gualandi was the name of a Pisan family. Ugolino della Gherardesca, his sons and two grandsons were immured in the tower and starved to death in the 13th century. Dante, his contemporary, wrote about Gherardesca in his masterpiece The Divine Comedy. Ugolino della Gherardesca https://web.archive.org/web/20060720081434/http://www.sns.it/en/scuola/luoghi/palazzodellorologio/ http://www.comune.pisa.it/turismo/itinerari/1itinerario-gb.htm https://web.archive.org/web/20061110050809/http://www.endex.com/gf/buildings/ltpisa/ltparticles/ltp%20rapid%201948/ltp%20rapid%201948.htm http://www.pisaonline.it/ulisse/eng/manoscritti.htm
San Piero a Grado
San Piero a Grado is a church in Pisa, Italy, in the eponymous frazione 7 kilometres west of the city center. The church is located where once was a now disappeared port of the Pisan Republic, according to the legend, St. Peter landed in Italy from Antiochia in 44 AD. Archaeological excavations have shown the presence of a Palaeo-Christian edifice in the area, built over civil Roman structures, replaced by a larger church in the early Middle Ages; the current construction, begun in the 10th century and renovated in the late 11th-early 12th centuries, has a basilica plan with a nave and two aisles. Unusual is the presence of apses the facade built after the crumbling of the facade due to a flood of the Arno River; the entrance is on the northern side. The exterior, made of stone of different provenance, is marked by pilaster strips and arches over which are precious ceramic basins of Islamic and Sicilian manufacture decorated with geometrical and figurative motifs; the 12th-century bell tower was destroyed in 1944.
Only the base has been rebuilt. The large and solemn interior, with truss ceiling, is divided into a nave and two aisles by antique columns with classical capitals. In the western part is a Gothic ciborium which marks the place where Peter would pray for the first time. On the walls of the nave is a large fresco cycle restored, by the Lucchese Deodato Orlandi, commissioned by the Caetani family for the 1300 jubilee. In the lower part are Portraits of Popes, from St. Peter to John XVIII. In the upper area are portrayed the Walls of the Heaven City restored in the following centuries. On the high altar is a wooden crucifix from the 17th century
Luca Ghini was an Italian physician and botanist, notable as the creator of the first recorded herbarium, as well as the first botanical garden in Europe. Ghini was born in Casalfiumanese, son of a notary, studied medicine at the University of Bologna. By 1527 he was lecturing there on medicinal plants, became a professor, he moved to Pisa in 1544, while maintaining his home in Bologna. He created the first herbarium in that year, drying plants while pressing them between pieces of paper gluing them to cardboard. None of his herbaria survive although the one by his student Gherardo Cibo made around 1532 survives. 1544 saw the establishment of a garden for live plants, which became known as the Orto botanico di Pisa. Ghini published no significant botanical work of his own, but was noted as a teacher many of whose students went on to significant careers, including Cesalpino and Pietro Andrea Mattioli, the latter of which he helped by travelling around the Mediterranean and Near East in search for plants that matched the mystifying descriptions of Dioscorides.
A Placiti describing Ghini's travels was published posthumously. Isely, Duane. One Hundred and One Botanists. West Lafayette, Indiana: Purdue University Press. Pp. 20–22. ISBN 978-1-55753-283-1. OCLC 947193619. Retrieved 2018-11-27
Santa Chiara (Pisa)
Santa Chiara is a Roman Catholic church in Pisa, region of Tuscany, Italy, a few paces away from the Piazza dei Miracoli. Called the church of Santo Spirito, it was reconstructed in 1227 as the chapel for the adjacent hospital of Santa Chiara called Spedale Nuovo di Santo Spirito; the portal fresco of Madonna and child with Saints Clare and Francis dates to the 17th century. One of the relics contained in this church is a supposed spine from the Crown of thorns worn by Christ at the passion, once held at the church of Santa Maria della Spina, it contains a 15th-16th century wooden Crucifix and a marble Annunciation by Stoldo Lorenzi
The Pisa Baptistery of St. John is a Roman Catholic ecclesiastical building in Pisa, Italy. Construction started in 1152 to replace an older baptistery, when it was completed in 1363, it became the second building, in chronological order, in the Piazza dei Miracoli, near the Duomo di Pisa and the cathedral's free-standing campanile, the famous Leaning Tower of Pisa; the baptistery was designed by Diotisalvi, whose signature can be read on two pillars inside the building, with the date 1153. The largest baptistery in Italy, it is 54.86 m high, with a diameter of 34.13 m. The Pisa Baptistery is an example of the transition from the Romanesque style to the Gothic style: the lower section is in the Romanesque style, with rounded arches, while the upper sections are in the Gothic style, with pointed arches; the Baptistery is constructed of marble. The portal, facing the facade of the cathedral, is flanked by two classical columns, while the inner jambs are executed in Byzantine style; the lintel is divided in two tiers.
The lower one depicts several episodes in the life of St. John the Baptist, while the upper one shows Christ between the Madonna and St John the Baptist, flanked by angels and the evangelists; the interior lacks decoration. The octagonal font at the centre was made by Guido Bigarelli da Como; the bronze sculpture of St. John the Baptist at the centre of the font, is a work by Italo Griselli; the pulpit was sculpted between 1255-1260 by Nicola Pisano, father of Giovanni, the artist who produced the pulpit in the Duomo. The scenes on the pulpit, the classical form of the nude Hercules, show Nicola Pisano's qualities as the most important precursor of Italian Renaissance sculpture by reinstating antique representations: surveys of the Italian Renaissance begin with the year 1260, the year that Nicola Pisano dated this pulpit. Constructed on the same unstable sand as the tower and cathedral, the Baptistery leans 0.6 degrees toward the cathedral. The shape of the Baptistery, according to the project by Diotisalvi, was different.
It was similar to the church of Holy Sepulchre in Pisa, with its pyramidal roof. After the death of the architect, Nicola Pisano continued the work, changing the style to the more modern Gothic one. An external roof was added giving the shape of a cupola; as a side effect of the two roofs, the pyramidal inner one and the domed external one, the interior is acoustically perfect, making of that space a resonating chamber. The exterior of the dome is clad with lead sheets on its east side and red tiles on its west side, giving a half grey and half red appearance from the south. History of Medieval Arabic and Western European domes Rory Carroll, "Pisa Baptistery is giant musical instrument, computers show,"