Barbana is a small island located at the northern end of the Grado Lagoon, near Trieste in north-east Italy. The island, which can be reached by ferry from nearby Grado, is populated by a small community of Franciscan friars. The foundation of the shrine originates from an image of the Virgin Mary carried in by the sea, at that time the site was part of the mainland, the Grado Lagoon was formed between the 5th and 7th centuries. From the foundation to around 1000, Barbana became an island, the original church was destroyed by floods and rebuilt. The image of Mary, was lost and in the 11th century was replaced by a statue known as the Madonna mora. This Black Madonna is now housed in the Domus Mariae, a chapel near the main church, in the 11th century, the care of the shrine was entrusted to Benedectine monks, who served there until the 15th century. They were succeeded by a Franciscan community who built a new church in the 18th century, the modern church was built in the Romanesque style at the beginning of the 20th century.
Ancient remains include two Roman columns from the first church, and a 10th-century relief portraying Jesus, the crowned statue of Mary dates from the 15th century, while the 17th century is represented by several altars and paintings, including one from the school of Tintoretto. In the wood near the church a chapel was built in 1854 in the place where the original image of Mary was found. The baptismal font of the church is supported by a figure of the Devil and it is the work of Claudio Granzotto, a Franciscan friar and noted religious artist of the mid-20th century. He has been beatified by the Catholic Church and is being considered for canonization, Barbana is the destination of many pilgrimages, the most famous being the Perdon de Barbana which is held each July to celebrate the end of a visitation of the plague in Grado in 1237. ‘Barbana’, Frati Minori del Veneto e Friuli, Grado Shrines to the Virgin Mary
There are two minor islands and Maraone, lying between Levanzo and Sicily. For administrative purposes the archipelago constitutes the comune of Favignana in the Province of Trapani, the overall population in 1987 was estimated at about 5,000. Winter frost is unknown and rainfall is low, the main occupation of the islanders is fishing, and the largest tuna fishery in Sicily is here. There is evidence of Neolithic and even Paleolithic paintings in caves on Levanzo, the islands were the scene of the Battle of the Aegates Islands of 241 BC, in which the Carthaginian fleet was defeated by the Roman fleet led by C. Lutatius Catulus, the engagement ended the First Punic War, the islands belonged to the Pallavicini-Rusconi family of Genoa until 1874, when the Florio family of Palermo bought them
Artemis was one of the most widely venerated of the Ancient Greek deities. Some scholars believe that the name, and indeed the goddess herself, was originally pre-Greek, Homer refers to her as Artemis Agrotera, Potnia Theron, Artemis of the wildland, Mistress of Animals. The Arcadians believed she was the daughter of Demeter, in the classical period of Greek mythology, Artemis was often described as the daughter of Zeus and Leto, and the twin sister of Apollo. The deer and the cypress were sacred to her, in Hellenistic times, she even assumed the ancient role of Eileithyia in aiding childbirth. The name Artemis is of unknown or uncertain origin and etymology although various ones have been proposed, for example, according to J. T. Jablonski, the name is Phrygian and could be compared with the royal appellation Artemas of Xenophon. Anton Goebel suggests the root στρατ or ῥατ, to shake, while accepting that the etymology is unknown, states that the name is already attested in Mycenean Greek and is possibly of pre-Hellenic origin.
It is believed that a precursor of Artemis was worshiped in Minoan Crete as the goddess of mountains and hunting, R. S. P. Beekes suggested that the e/i interchange points to a Pre-Greek origin. Artemis was venerated in Lydia as Artimus, various conflicting accounts are given in Classical Greek mythology of the birth of Artemis and her twin brother, Apollo. All accounts agree, that she was the daughter of Zeus and Leto, an account by Callimachus has it that Hera forbade Leto to give birth on either terra firma or on an island. Hera was angry with Zeus, her husband, because he had impregnated Leto, but the island of Delos disobeyed Hera, and Leto gave birth there. In ancient Cretan history Leto was worshipped at Phaistos and in Cretan mythology Leto gave birth to Apollo, a scholium of Servius on Aeneid iii. The myths differ as to whether Artemis was born first, most stories depict Artemis as born first, becoming her mothers mid-wife upon the birth of her brother Apollo. The childhood of Artemis is not fully related in any surviving myth, the Iliad reduced the figure of the dread goddess to that of a girl, having been thrashed by Hera, climbs weeping into the lap of Zeus.
She wished for no city dedicated to her, but to rule the mountains, Artemis believed that she had been chosen by the Fates to be a midwife, particularly since she had assisted her mother in the delivery of her twin brother, Apollo. All of her companions remained virgins, and Artemis closely guarded her own chastity and her symbols included the golden bow and arrow, the hunting dog, the stag, and the moon. Okeanus daughters were filled with fear, but the young Artemis bravely approached and asked for bow, Callimachus tells how Artemis visited Pan, the god of the forest, who gave her seven bitches and six dogs. She captured six golden-horned deer to pull her chariot, Artemis practiced with her bow first by shooting at trees and at wild beasts. As a virgin, Artemis had interested many gods and men, Orion was accidentally killed either by Artemis or by Gaia
Bergeggi is an island which lies in the Ligurian Sea off the coast near the village of Bergeggi in the Province of Savona, Italy. The island is around 8 hectares and its highest point is at 53 m, Punta Predani, a promontory on the mainland, is just a few hundreds metres from the island. The island bears evidences of a proto-historical Ligures settlement, on its summit stands a watch tower and remains of a 4th-century church devoted to St. Eugenius. In 992 the bishop of Savona established a monastery on the island, devoted to the saint, the monasterys ruins are still visible on the island. It is included in a SIC called Isola Bergeggi - Punta Predani, among many interesting species living in the maquis shrubland covering most of the small island there are Campanula sabatia and Euphorbia dendroides. Liguria in blu - Guida alle immersioni subacquee da Ventimiglia a La spezia, il culto di San Colombano in Italia. Archivum Bobiense Rivista annuale degli Archivi storici Bobiensi, antonio Giustiniani Annali della Repubblica di Genova Terza Edizione Genovese Vol.11854.
Attilio Zuccagni-Orlandini Corografia fisica, storica e statistica dellItalia e delle sue Isole Volume Duodecimo
The Phlegraean Islands is an archipelago in the Gulf of Naples and the Campania region of southern Italy. The name that derives from the affiliation to the geologic area of the Phlegraean Fields. It is comprised by the islands of Ischia, Procida and they are part of the Campanian volcanic arc and Campanian Archipelago, off the coast of Naples in the Tyrrhenian Sea. The archipelago is within the Province of Naples, the island of Capri is usually excluded, as it does not belong to the same geologic formations. In the classical epoch, some Phlegraean Islands were called Pithecussae, a Greek myth tells of two brigands, the Cercopes of Ephesus, who played pranks on Zeus, who punished them by turning them into monkeys and exiling them to the islands of Aenaria and Prochyta. Legend had the monster Typhon buried under Ischia, and the Giant Mimas buried under Procida, such stories might be significant as a clue to how the ancient Greeks attempted to account for the volcanism of the whole area. The resulting changes in the topography of the islands were due to the frequent intervention of deities, Campanian volcanic arc Volcanoes of the Tyrrhenian Sea
Cathedral of Syracuse
The cathedral stands in the citys historic core on Ortygia Island. The origins of a temple on site date to prehistory. The great Greek Temple of Athena was built in the 5th century BC, the temple was a Doric edifice with six columns on the short sides and 14 on the long sides. Plato and Athenaeus mention the temple, and the looting of its ornament is mentioned by Cicero, in 70 BC, as one of the crimes of the governor Verres. Archeological site excavations by Paolo Orsi in 1907-1910 show the Greek temple to have built on even older foundations. Many are held by the Museo archeologico regionale Paolo Orsi in Syracuse, the present cathedral was constructed by Saint Bishop Zosimo of Syracuse in the 7th century. The battered Doric columns of the temple were incorporated in the walls of the current church. They can be seen inside and out, the building was converted into a mosque in 878, converted back when Norman Roger I of Sicily retook the city in 1085. The roof of the nave is of Norman origin, as well as the mosaics in the apses, as part of the increased building activity after the 1693 Sicily earthquake, the cathedral was rebuilt and the façade redesigned by architect Andrea Palma in 1725–1753.
The style is classified as High Sicilian Baroque, a late example. The double order of Corinthian columns on the facade provide an example of carved Acanthus leaves in the capitals. Sculptor Ignazio Marabitti contributed the full-length statues on the facade, the interior of the church, a nave and two aisles, combine rustic walls and Baroque details. Features include a font with marble basin dating from the 12th or 13th century, a designed by architect Luigi Vanvitelli. As of 2015 the cathedral holds a number of relics of St. Lucy, the patroness of the city, a number of fragments, a robe, a veil. Twice a year on the first Sunday in May and on December 13, her feast day, the silver statue incorporates three fragments of her ribs within its chest. The cathedral shares the Piazza Duomo with the Church of Santa Lucia Alla Badia and that church owns and displays the Caravaggio painting Burial of St. Lucy. The cathedral stands as an element of the historic core of Syracuse. Since 2005, the city of Syracuse, along with the Necropolis of Pantalica, was listed as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO
Two Brothers Rocks
The Two Brothers Rocks are a rock formation in the Ionian sea to the north-east of Syracuse in Sicily. The two rocks are located between the districts of Grottasanta and Tunis Avenue, in a bay called Coast of Piliceddi, the coasts in the neighborhood are all very jagged, except a little beach, formed by the disintegration of the rocks. The depth of the sea doesnt exceed the 20 meters, the Big Rock is 70 meters away from the coast and is more than 12 meters high. It is called the elephant or mastodon because of its shape and it is divided in half by a narrow fissure which starts at sea level and goes to the top of the rock, forming two caves. The back is exposed to the sea and is composed of sharp rocks. The front is perpendicular to the sea level and is exposed to the bay and it is one of the best known sets of rocks near Syracuse, because of the legend of the two brothers and because of the actual death of a boy around 12 years old. He died trying to get in the part of the rock. The Little Rock is about 50 meters away from the coast and is 5 meters high and it takes the form of a small boat.
It is around 12 meters from the big rock - leaving room for boats to pass between them, the highest part of the rock, on the left, is flat and perpendicular to the sea. On the right, it slides down to sea level and is full of holes and sharp rocks, three versions, One day two brothers come to go spearfishing. One of them dives under the water and gets stuck in a crack, the other dives to save him, One bright and sunny day, two brothers decided jump from the bigger rock. The two brothers climb the rock but before their jump, the sea becomes turbulent and agitated and they jump and are drowned by the waves and stormy seas. The third version compares the two rocks to two brothers, a brother and younger brother. Both the flora and fauna are typical of the Mediterranean, there are several species of aquatic plants, mostly neptune grass. The fauna is composed of crabs, sea urchins, starfish, fish of various species, moray eels, in the 2005 there was an influx of jellyfish, mostly Pelagia noctiluca.
Other seaside towns saw an increase in jellyfish, the Pelagia noctiluca is very irritating and has hurt many people whom have tried to swim. Tourism is mainly present in the summer, between the months of June and September, the tourists who come to visit this place, are particularly attracted by the beauty of the sea and the landscape of jagged cliffs. There are boat tours driven by professionalists, which take tourists visiting the sea, afterward they repeated by the same round, bringing the tourists to Ortigia
Ancient Greek includes the forms of Greek used in ancient Greece and the ancient world from around the 9th century BC to the 6th century AD. It is often divided into the Archaic period, Classical period. It is antedated in the second millennium BC by Mycenaean Greek, the language of the Hellenistic phase is known as Koine. Koine is regarded as a historical stage of its own, although in its earliest form it closely resembled Attic Greek. Prior to the Koine period, Greek of the classic and earlier periods included several regional dialects, Ancient Greek was the language of Homer and of fifth-century Athenian historians and philosophers. It has contributed many words to English vocabulary and has been a subject of study in educational institutions of the Western world since the Renaissance. This article primarily contains information about the Epic and Classical phases of the language, Ancient Greek was a pluricentric language, divided into many dialects. The main dialect groups are Attic and Ionic, Arcadocypriot, some dialects are found in standardized literary forms used in literature, while others are attested only in inscriptions.
There are several historical forms, homeric Greek is a literary form of Archaic Greek used in the epic poems, the Iliad and Odyssey, and in poems by other authors. Homeric Greek had significant differences in grammar and pronunciation from Classical Attic, the origins, early form and development of the Hellenic language family are not well understood because of a lack of contemporaneous evidence. Several theories exist about what Hellenic dialect groups may have existed between the divergence of early Greek-like speech from the common Proto-Indo-European language and the Classical period and they have the same general outline, but differ in some of the detail. The invasion would not be Dorian unless the invaders had some relationship to the historical Dorians. The invasion is known to have displaced population to the Attic-Ionic regions, the Greeks of this period believed there were three major divisions of all Greek people—Dorians and Ionians, each with their own defining and distinctive dialects.
Often non-west is called East Greek, Arcadocypriot apparently descended more closely from the Mycenaean Greek of the Bronze Age. Boeotian had come under a strong Northwest Greek influence, and can in some respects be considered a transitional dialect, thessalian likewise had come under Northwest Greek influence, though to a lesser degree. Most of the dialect sub-groups listed above had further subdivisions, generally equivalent to a city-state and its surrounding territory, Doric notably had several intermediate divisions as well, into Island Doric, Southern Peloponnesus Doric, and Northern Peloponnesus Doric. The Lesbian dialect was Aeolic Greek and this dialect slowly replaced most of the older dialects, although Doric dialect has survived in the Tsakonian language, which is spoken in the region of modern Sparta. Doric has passed down its aorist terminations into most verbs of Demotic Greek, by about the 6th century AD, the Koine had slowly metamorphosized into Medieval Greek
The Maddalena Archipelago is a group of islands in the Straits of Bonifacio between Corsica and north-eastern Sardinia. It consists of seven islands and numerous other small islets. The largest island is Isola Maddalena, on which sits the archipelagos largest town, the other six islands, in order of size, Caprera, Santo Stefano, Santa Maria and Razzoli. Only Maddalena, Caprera and S. Stefano are inhabited, lying adjacent to the famous tourist resort of the Costa Smeralda, Maddalena shares the same crystal clear waters and wind blown granite coastlines but remains a haven for wildlife. It is a designated National Park, the Parco Nazionale Arcipelago di La Maddalena and it is a very popular tourist destination, especially among boaters. In 2006 it was placed on the Tentative list for consideration as a World Heritage Site by UNESCO, the islands have been inhabited since prehistoric times. They were known by the Romans as Cunicularia and were a shipping area during the second. Napoleon Bonaparte, Admiral Nelson and particularly Giuseppe Garibaldi all have links with the area. S.
Stefano island housed a NATO naval base, closed in 2008 and this was the basis of some controversy in 2003 when the USS Hartford ran aground while on maneuvers in the area. Administratively the islands now lie within the province of Olbia-Tempio, having moved from the province of Sassari in 2005, the main access into and out of the archipelago is via the frequent car ferries from nearby Palau on Sardinia that run into La Maddalena. There are roads only on Maddalena and Caprera, Parco Nazionale dellArcipelago di La Maddalena Italian Government Tourist Board
Grado, Friuli-Venezia Giulia
Grado is a town and comune in the north-eastern Italian region of Friuli-Venezia Giulia, located on an island and adjacent peninsula of the Adriatic Sea between Venice and Trieste. Grado is the birthplace of Biagio Marin, a poet who sang about the island in the local Venetian dialect, in Roman times the city, known as ad Aquae Gradatae, was first port for ships entering the Natissa, headed upstream to Aquileia. Grado was the base of the patriarchates fleet. In 568, after the invasion of the Lombards, the seat of the Patriarchate of Aquileia was transferred here by the Patriarch Paulinus, a long-lasting dispute over the authority of the two patriarchs ensued. In 993, the patriarch of Aquileia, conquered Grado, the matter was settled only in 1027 when the pope declared the supremacy of the See of Aquileia over Grado and the Venetian province. The seat of the patriarchate was transferred to Venice in 1451 by Pope Nicholas V, reduced to a minor hamlet, Grado was sacked by the English, who burned the city archives in 1810 and by the French in 1812.
Grado was acquired by Austria in 1815, to which it belonged until 1918, today there are frequent finds of inscriptions, marble sculpture and small bronzes that once furnished its villas. The remains of one of these villas has been excavated on the islet of Gorgo in the lagoon, modern landmarks include, The Basilica of SantEufemia, with the octagonal Baptistry. The church was preceded by a quadri-portico, one of the columns of which is now in the centre of the Patriarchs Square. The interior has a nave and two aisles, the main point of interest is the mosaic pavement from the 6th century, restored in 1946–48. The basilica of Santa Maria delle Grazie, begun in the 4th to 5th centuries, it was renovated in the 6th century and restored in Baroque in 1640. It is located in an island in the Grado Lagoon. The original church was erected in 582 and was since rebuilt, of the ancient fortress only a tower, turned into a private residence, and parts of the walls can still be seen. Under the Town Hall are remains of the Palaeo-Christian basilica of Piazza Vittoria, the Valle Cavanata Nature Reserve is a 327-hectare protected area situated in the easternmost part of the Grado Lagoon.
Today, Grado attracts scores of each year to its hotels. A large water park run by a corporation is the main attraction, complete with indoor and outdoor swimming pools. The town boasts a well-preserved pedestrian-only center, in many shops, bars. Grado offers facilities for sporting activities, including tennis, wind-surfing