The Poales are a large order of flowering plants in the monocotyledons, includes families of plants such as the grasses and sedges. Sixteen plant families are recognized by botanists to be part of Poales; the flowers are small, enclosed by bracts, arranged in inflorescences. The flowers of many species are wind pollinated; the APG III system accepts the order within a monocot clade called commelinids, accepts the following 16 families: The earlier APG system adopted the same placement of the order, although it used the spelling "commelinoids". It did not include the Bromeliaceae and Mayaceae, but had the additional families Prioniaceae and Hydatellaceae; the morphology-based Cronquist system did not include an order named Poales, assigning these families to the orders Bromeliales, Hydatellales, Juncales and Typhales. In early systems, an order including the grass family did not go by the name Poales but by a descriptive botanical name such as Graminales in the Engler system and in the Hutchinson system, Glumiflorae in the Wettstein system or Glumaceae in the Bentham & Hooker system.
The earliest fossils attributed to the Poales date to the late Cretaceous period about 66 million years ago, though some studies suggest the origin of the group may extend to nearly 115 million years ago in South America. The earliest known fossils include pollen and fruits; the phylogenetic position of Poales within the commelinids was difficult to resolve, but an analysis using complete chloroplast DNA found support for Poales as sister group of Commelinales plus Zingiberales. Major lineages within the Poales have been referred to as bromeliad, xyrid and restiid clades. A phylogenetic analysis resolved most relationships within the order but found weak support for the monophyly of the cyperid clade; the relationship between Centrolepidaceae and Restoniaceae within the restiid clade remains unclear. The four most species-rich families in the order are: Poaceae: 12,070 species Cyperaceae: 5,500 species Bromeliaceae: 3,170 species Eriocaulaceae: 1,150 speciesDiversity of Poales The Poales are the most economically important order of monocots and the most important order of plants in general.
Within the order, by far the most important family economically is the family of grasses, which includes the starch staples barley, millet and wheat as well as bamboos, a few "seasonings" like sugarcane and lemongrass. Graminoids the grasses, are dominant in open habitats like prairie/steppe and savannah and thus form a large proportion of the forage of grazing livestock. Due to pastoral nostalgia or a desire for open areas for play, they dominate most Western yards as lawns, which consume vast sums of money in upkeep. Many Bromeliaceae are used as ornamental plants. Many wetland species of sedges, rushes and cattails are important habitat plants for waterfowl, are used in weaving chair seats, were important pre-agricultural food sources for man. Two sedges and water chestnut are still at least locally important wetland starchy root crops. Bremer, K. "Gondwanan Evolution of the Grass Alliance of Families". Evolution. 56: 1374–1387. Doi:10.1111/j.0014-3820.2002.tb01451.x. Judd, W. S. C. S. Campbell, E. A. Kellogg, P. F. Stevens, M. J. Donoghue.
Plant Systematics: A Phylogenetic Approach, 2nd edition. Pp. 276–292. Sinauer Associates, Massachusetts. ISBN 0-87893-403-0. Linder, H. Peter. "Evolutionary History of the Poales". Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. 36: 107–124. Doi:10.1146/annurev.ecolsys.36.102403.135635. Small, J. K.. Flora of the Southeastern United States, 48. New York, United States NCBI Taxonomy Browser APWeb
Poaceae or Gramineae is a large and nearly ubiquitous family of monocotyledonous flowering plants known as grasses referred to collectively as grass. Poaceae includes the cereal grasses and the grasses of natural grassland and cultivated lawns and pasture. Grasses have stems that are hollow except at the nodes and narrow alternate leaves borne in two ranks; the lower part of each leaf encloses the stem. With around 780 genera and around 12,000 species, Poaceae are the fifth-largest plant family, following the Asteraceae, Orchidaceae and Rubiaceae. Grasslands such as savannah and prairie where grasses are dominant are estimated to constitute 40.5% of the land area of the Earth, excluding Greenland and Antarctica. Grasses are an important part of the vegetation in many other habitats, including wetlands and tundra; the Poaceae are the most economically important plant family, providing staple foods from domesticated cereal crops such as maize, rice and millet as well as forage, building materials and fuel.
Though they are called "grasses", seagrasses and sedges fall outside this family. The rushes and sedges are related to the Poaceae, being members of the order Poales, but the seagrasses are members of order Alismatales; the name Poaceae was given by John Hendley Barnhart in 1895, based on the tribe Poeae described in 1814 by Robert Brown, the type genus Poa described in 1753 by Carl Linnaeus. The term is derived from the Ancient Greek πόα. Grasses include some of the most versatile plant life-forms, they became widespread toward the end of the Cretaceous period, fossilized dinosaur dung have been found containing phytoliths of a variety that include grasses that are related to modern rice and bamboo. Grasses have adapted to conditions in lush rain forests, dry deserts, cold mountains and intertidal habitats, are the most widespread plant type. A cladogram shows subfamilies and approximate species numbers in brackets: Before 2005, fossil findings indicated that grasses evolved around 55 million years ago.
Recent findings of grass-like phytoliths in Cretaceous dinosaur coprolites have pushed this date back to 66 million years ago. In 2011, revised dating of the origins of the rice tribe Oryzeae suggested a date as early as 107 to 129 Mya. Wu, You & Li described grass microfossils extracted from a specimen of the hadrosauroid dinosaur Equijubus normani from the Early Cretaceous Zhonggou Formation; the authors noted that India became separated from Antarctica, therefore all other continents at the beginning of late Aptian, so the presence of grasses in both India and China during the Cretaceous indicates that the ancestor of Indian grasses must have existed before late Aptian. Wu, You & Li considered the Barremian origin for grasses to be probableThe relationships among the three subfamilies Bambusoideae and Pooideae in the BOP clade have been resolved: Bambusoideae and Pooideae are more related to each other than to Oryzoideae; this separation occurred within the short time span of about 4 million years.
According to Lester Charles King the spread of grasses in the Late Cenozoic would have changed patterns of hillslope evolution favouring slopes that are convex upslope and concave downslope and lacking a free face were common. King argued that this was the result of more acting surface wash caused by carpets of grass which in turn would have resulted in more soil creep. Grasses may be annual or perennial herbs with the following characteristics: The stems of grasses, called culms, are cylindrical and are hollow, plugged at the nodes, where the leaves are attached. Grass leaves are nearly always alternate and distichous, have parallel veins; each leaf is differentiated into a lower sheath hugging a blade with entire margins. The leaf blades of many grasses are hardened with silica phytoliths, which discourage grazing animals. A membranous appendage or fringe of hairs called the ligule lies at the junction between sheath and blade, preventing water or insects from penetrating into the sheath. Flowers of Poaceae are characteristically arranged in each having one or more florets.
The spikelets are further grouped into spikes. The part of the spikelet that bears the florets is called the rachilla. A spikelet consists of two bracts at called glumes, followed by one or more florets. A floret consists of the flower surrounded by two bracts, one external—the lemma—and one internal—the palea; the flowers are hermaphroditic—maize being an important exception—and anemophilous or wind-pollinated, although insects play a role. The perianth is reduced to two scales, called lodicules, that expand and contract to spread the lemma and palea; this complex structure can be seen in the image on the right. The fruit of grasses is a caryopsis. A tiller is a leafy shoot other than the first shoot produced from the seed. Grass blades grow at the base of the blade and not from elongated stem tips; this low growth point evolved in response to grazing animals and allows grasses to be grazed or mown without severe damage to the plant. Three general classifications of growth habit present in g
Utah is a state in the western United States. It became the 45th state admitted to the U. S. on January 4, 1896. Utah is the 13th-largest by area, 31st-most-populous, 10th-least-densely populated of the 50 United States. Utah has a population of more than 3 million according to the Census estimate for July 1, 2016. Urban development is concentrated in two areas: the Wasatch Front in the north-central part of the state, which contains 2.5 million people. Utah is bordered by Colorado to the east, Wyoming to the northeast, Idaho to the north, Arizona to the south, Nevada to the west, it touches a corner of New Mexico in the southeast. 62% of Utahns are reported to be members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, making Utah the only state with a majority population belonging to a single church. This influences Utahn culture and daily life; the LDS Church's world headquarters is located in Salt Lake City. The state is a center of transportation, information technology and research, government services, a major tourist destination for outdoor recreation.
In 2013, the U. S. Census Bureau estimated. St. George was the fastest-growing metropolitan area in the United States from 2000 to 2005. Utah has the 14th highest median average income and the least income inequality of any U. S. state. A 2012 Gallup national survey found Utah overall to be the "best state to live in" based on 13 forward-looking measurements including various economic and health-related outlook metrics. A common folk etymology is that the name "Utah" is derived from the name of the Ute tribe, purported to mean "people of the mountains" in the Ute language. However, the word for people in Ute is'núuchiu' while the word for mountain is'káav', offering no linguistic connection to the words'Ute' or'Utah'. According to other sources "Utah" is derived from the Apache name "yuttahih" which means "One, Higher up" or "Those that are higher up". In the Spanish language it was said as "Yuta", subsequently the English-speaking people adapted the word "Utah". Thousands of years before the arrival of European explorers, the Ancestral Puebloans and the Fremont people lived in what is now known as Utah, some of which spoke languages of the Uto-Aztecan group.
Ancestral Pueblo peoples built their homes through excavations in mountains, the Fremont people built houses of straw before disappearing from the region around the 15th century. Another group of Native Americans, the Navajo, settled in the region around the 18th century. In the mid-18th century, other Uto-Aztecan tribes, including the Goshute, the Paiute, the Shoshone, the Ute people settled in the region; these five groups were present. The southern Utah region was explored by the Spanish in 1540, led by Francisco Vásquez de Coronado, while looking for the legendary Cíbola. A group led by two Catholic priests—sometimes called the Dominguez-Escalante Expedition—left Santa Fe in 1776, hoping to find a route to the coast of California; the expedition encountered the native residents. The Spanish made further explorations in the region, but were not interested in colonizing the area because of its desert nature. In 1821, the year Mexico achieved its independence from Spain, the region became known as part of its territory of Alta California.
European trappers and fur traders explored some areas of Utah in the early 19th century from Canada and the United States. The city of Provo, Utah was named for one, Étienne Provost, who visited the area in 1825; the city of Ogden, Utah was named after Peter Skene Ogden, a Canadian explorer who traded furs in the Weber Valley. In late 1824, Jim Bridger became the first known English-speaking person to sight the Great Salt Lake. Due to the high salinity of its waters, He thought. After the discovery of the lake, hundreds of American and Canadian traders and trappers established trading posts in the region. In the 1830s, thousands of migrants traveling from the Eastern United States to the American West began to make stops in the region of the Great Salt Lake known as Lake Youta. Following the death of Joseph Smith in 1844, Brigham Young, as president of the Quorum of the Twelve, became the effective leader of the LDS Church in Nauvoo, Illinois. To address the growing conflicts between his people and their neighbors, Young agreed with Illinois Governor Thomas Ford in October 1845 that the Mormons would leave by the following year.
Young and the first band of Mormon pioneers reached the Salt Lake Valley on July 24, 1847. Over the next 22 years, more than 70,000 pioneers settled in Utah. For the first few years, Brigham Young and the thousands of early settlers of Salt Lake City struggled to survive; the arid desert land was deemed by the Mormons as desirable as a place where they could practice their religion without harassment. The Mormon settlements provided pioneers for other settlements in the West. Salt Lake City became the hub of a "far-flung commonwealth" of Mormon settlements. With new church converts coming from the East and around the world, Church leaders assigned groups of church members as missionaries to establish other settlements throughout the West, they developed irrigation to support large pioneer populations along Utah's Wasatch front. Throughout the remainder of the 19th century, Mormon pioneers established hundreds of other settlements in Utah, Id
Xeriscaping is the process of landscaping or gardening that reduces or eliminates the need for supplemental water from irrigation. It is promoted in regions that do not have accessible, plentiful, or reliable supplies of fresh water, is gaining acceptance in other regions as access to irrigation water is becoming limited. Xeriscaping may be an alternative to various types of traditional gardening. In some areas, terms as water-conserving landscapes, drought-tolerant landscaping, smart scaping are used instead. Plants whose natural requirements are appropriate to the local climate are emphasized, care is taken to avoid losing water to evaporation and run-off; the specific plants used in xeriscaping depend upon the climate. Xeriscaping is different from natural landscaping, because the emphasis in xeriscaping is on selection of plants for water conservation, not selecting native plants. Public perception of xeriscaping has been negative as many assume that these types of landscapes are ugly expanses of cactus and gravel.
However, studies have shown that education in water conservation practices in the landscape can improve the public's perception of xeriscaping. Denver Water coined the term xeriscape in 1981 by combining "landscape" with the Greek prefix xero-, from xeros, meaning dry; the term zero-scaping or zeroscaping is sometimes substituted for xeriscaping due to phonetic similarity. When used zero-scaping refers to a different type of low-water landscaping, devoid, or nearly devoid of plants; because the term was derived from the Greek root xeros, xeriscaping is sometimes misspelled xeroscaping. Lowered consumption of water: Xeriscaped landscapes can reduce water use 60% or more compared to regular lawn landscapes. Makes more water available for other domestic and community uses and the environment. Reduce Maintenance: Aside from occasional weeding and mulching Xeriscaping requires far less time and effort to maintain. Xeriscape plants in appropriate planting design, soil grading and mulching, takes full advantage of rainfall retention.
Less cost to maintain: Xeriscaping requires less fertilisers and equipment due to the reduced lawn areas. Reduced waste and pollution: Lawn clippings can contribute to organic waste in landfills and the use of heavy fertilizers contributes to urban runoff pollution. Reduce fertilizer use that help grow harmful algae Some homeowners associations have strict rules requiring a certain percentage of land to be used as lawns but these rules either have been or are in the process of being overturned in many areas. Conceived by Denver Water, the seven design principles of xeriscaping have since expanded into simple and applicable concepts to creating landscapes that use less water; the principles are appropriate for multiple regions and can serve as a guide to creating a water conserving landscape, regionally appropriate and since they were conceived for homeowners they are easy to implement. 1. Plan and design: Create a diagram, drawn to scale, that shows the major elements of the landscape, including house, sidewalk, deck or patio, existing trees and other elements.
Once a base plan of an existing site has been determined, the creation of a conceptual plan that shows the areas for turf, perennial beds, screens, etc. is undertaken. Once finished, the development of a planting plan that reinforces the areas in the appropriate scale is done. 2. Soil amendment – Most plants will benefit from the use of compost, which will help the soil retain water; some desert plants prefer gravel soils instead of well-amended soils. Plants should either fit the soil should be amended to fit the plants. 3. Efficient irrigation: Xeriscape can be irrigated efficiently by hand or with an automatic sprinkler system. Zone turf areas separately from other plants and use the irrigation method that waters the plants in each area most efficiently. For grass, use gear-driven rotors or rotary spray nozzles that have larger droplets and low angles to avoid wind drift. Spray, drip line or bubbler emitters are most efficient for watering trees, shrubs and groundcovers. If watering by hand, avoid oscillating sprinklers and other sprinklers that throw water high in the air or release a fine mist.
The most efficient sprinklers release big drops close to the ground. Water and infrequently to develop deep roots. Never water during the day to reduce water lost to evaporation. With the use of automatic sprinkling systems, adjust the controller monthly to accommodate weather conditions. Install a rain sensor to shut off the device when it rains.4. Appropriate plant and zone selection: Different areas in a yard receive different amounts of light and moisture. To minimize water waste, group together plants with similar light and water requirements, place them in an area that matches these requirements. Put moderate-water-use plants in low-lying drainage areas, near downspouts, or in the shade of other plants. Turf requires the most water and shrub/perennial beds will require half the amount of water. Dry, sunny areas support low-water-use plants. Planting a variety of plants with different heights and textures creates interest and beauty.5. Mulch: Mulch keeps plant roots cool, prevents soil from crusting, minimizes evaporation and reduces weed growth.
Organic mulches, such as bark chips, pole peelings or wood grindings, should be applied 2 to 4 inches deep. Fiber mulches create a web, more resistant to wind and rain washout. Inorganic mulches, such as rocks and gravel, should be applied 2 to 3 inches deep. Surrounding plants with rock makes the area hotter. Limited turf areas: Native g
Sagebrush is the common name of several woody and herbaceus species of plants in the genus Artemisia. The best known sagebrush is the shrub Artemisia tridentata. Sagebrushes are native to the North American west. Following is an alphabetical list of common names for various species of the genus Artemisia, along with their corresponding scientific name. Many of these species are known by more than one common name, some common names represent more than one species. Alpine sagebrush—Artemisia scopulorum African sagebrush—Artemisia afra Basin sagebrush—Artemisia tridentata Big sagebrush—see Basin sagebrush Bigelow sagebrush—Artemisia bigelovii Birdfoot sagebrush—Artemisia pedatifida Black sagebrush—Artemisia nova Blue sagebrush—see Basin sagebrush Boreal sagebrush—Artemisia arctica Budsage—Artemisia spinescens California sagebrush—Artemisia californica Carruth's sagebrush—Artemisia carruthii Coastal sagebrush—see California sagebrush Dwarf sagebrush—see Alpine sagebrush Fringed sagebrush—Artemisia frigida Gray sagewort—see White sagebrush Island sagebrush—Artemisia nesiotica Little sagebrush—Artemisia arbuscula Longleaf sagebrush—Artemisia longifolia Low sagebrush—see Little sagebrush Michaux sagebrush—Artemisia michauxiana Owyhee sagebrush—Artemisia papposa Prairie sagebrush—see White sagebrush Pygmy sagebrush—Artemisia pygmaea Ragweed sagebrush—Artemisia franserioides Sand sagebrush—Artemisia filifolia Scabland sagebrush—Artemisia rigida Silver sagebrush—Artemisia cana Succor Creek sagebrush—Artemisia packardiae Timberline sagebrush—Artemisia rothrockii Threetip sagebrush—Artemisia tripartita White sagebrush—Artemisia ludoviciana Rines, George Edwin, ed..
"Sage-brush". Encyclopedia Americana
The pronghorn is a species of artiodactyl mammal indigenous to interior western and central North America. Though not an antelope, it is known colloquially in North America as the American antelope, prong buck, pronghorn antelope, prairie antelope, or antelope because it resembles the true antelopes of the Old World and fills a similar ecological niche due to parallel evolution, it is the only surviving member of the family Antilocapridae. During the Pleistocene epoch, about 12 antilocaprid species existed in North America. Three other genera existed when humans are now extinct; as a member of the superfamily Giraffoidea, the pronghorn's closest living relatives are the giraffes and okapi. The Giraffoidea are in turn members of the infraorder Pecora, making pronghorns more distant relatives of the Cervidae and Bovidae, among others; the scientific name of the pronghorn is Antilocapra americana. The pronghorn is the sole extant member of the family Antilocapridae; this species was first described by American ornithologist George Ord in 1815.
The pronghorn were first seen and described by Spanish explorers in the 16th century, but were not formally recorded or scrutinised till the 1804–1806 expedition by Captain Meriwether Lewis and Second Lieutenant William Clark. The expedition, which aimed to unravel water routes in the continent for commercial purposes, led to the discovery or formal recognition of a variety of flora and fauna of North America. Following the discovery of a few subspecies of the sharp-tailed grouse and Clark came across the pronghorn near the mouth of the Niobrara River, in present-day Nebraska. Clark was the first to kill a pronghorn, described his experience as follows: I walked on shore to find an old Vulcanoe... in my walk I killed a Buck Goat of this Countrey, about the height of the Grown Deer, its body Shorter the horns, not hard and forks 2⁄3 up one prong Short the other round & Sharp arched, is above its Eyes the Color is a light gray with black behind its ears down the neck, its face white round its neck, its Sides and its rump round its tail, Short & white.
Lewis and Clark made several other observations on the behavior of the pronghorn and how the local tribes hunted them. They described the animal, which they referred to as the "Antelope" or the "Goat", as follows: Of all the animals we have seen the Antelope seems to possess the most wonderful fleetness. Shy and timorous they repose only on the ridges, which command a view of all the approaches of an enemy... When they first see the hunters they run with great velocity... The Indians near the Rocky Mountains hunt these animals on horseback, shoot them with arrows; the Mandans' mode of hunting them is to form a large, strong pen or fold, from which a fence made of bushes widens on each side. The animals are surrounded by the hunters, driven towards this pen, in which they imperceptibly find themselves enclosed, are at the mercy of the hunters. Pronghorns have distinct white fur on their rumps, breasts and across their throats. Adult males are 1.3–1.5 m long from nose to tail, stand 81–104 cm high at the shoulder, weigh 40–65 kg.
The females weigh 34 -- 48 kg. The feet have two hooves, with no dewclaws, their body temperature is 38 °C. The orbits are prominent and set high with never an anteorbital pit, their teeth are hypsodont, their dental formula is 0.0.3.33.1.3.3. Each "horn" of the pronghorn is composed of a slender, laterally flattened blade of bone that grows from the frontal bones of the skull, forming a permanent core; as in the Giraffidae, skin covers the bony cores, but in the pronghorn, it develops into a keratinous sheath, shed and regrown annually. Unlike the horns of the family Bovidae, the horn sheaths of the pronghorn are branched, each sheath having a forward-pointing tine. Males have a horn sheath about 12.5–43 cm long with a prong. Females have smaller horns that range from 2.5–15.2 cm and sometimes visible. Males are further differentiated from females in having a small patch of black hair at the angle of the mandible. Pronghorns have a musky odor. Males mark territory with a preorbital scent gland, on the sides of the head.
They have large eyes with a 320° field of vision. Unlike deer, pronghorns possess a gallbladder; the pronghorn is the fastest land mammal in the Western Hemisphere, being built for maximum predator evasion through running. The top speed is hard to measure and varies between individuals, it is cited as the second-fastest land animal, second only to the cheetah. It can, sustain high speeds longer than cheetahs. University of Idaho zoologist John Byers has suggested the pronghorn evolved its running ability to escape from extinct predators such as the American cheetah, since its speed exceeds that of extant North American predators. Compared to its body size, the pronghorn has a large windpipe and lungs to allow it to take in large amounts of ai
Bison are large, even-toed ungulates in the genus Bison within the subfamily Bovinae. Two extant and six extinct species are recognised. Of the six extinct species, five became extinct in the Quaternary extinction event. Bison palaeosinensis evolved in the Early Pleistocene in South Asia, was the evolutionary ancestor of B. priscus, the ancestor of all other Bison species. From 2 MYA to 6,000 BC, steppe bison ranged across the mammoth steppe, inhabiting Europe and northern Asia with B. schoetensacki, North America with B. antiquus, B. latifrons, B. occidentalis. The last species to go extinct, B. occidentalis, was succeeded at 3,000 BC by B. bison. Of the two surviving species, the American bison, B. bison, found only in North America, is the more numerous. Although known as a buffalo in the United States and Canada, it is only distantly related to the true buffalo; the North American species is composed of two subspecies, the Plains bison, B. b. bison, the Wood bison, B. b. athabascae, the namesake of Wood Buffalo National Park in Canada.
A third subspecies, the Eastern Bison is no longer considered a valid taxon, being a junior synonym of B. b. bison. References to "Woods Bison" or "Wood Bison" from the eastern United States confusingly refer to this subspecies, not B. b. athabascae, not found in the region. The European bison, B. bonasus, or wisent, is found in Europe and the Caucasus, reintroduced after being extinct in the wild. While all bison species are classified in their own genus, they are sometimes bred with domestic cattle and produce fertile offspring called beefalo or zubron; the American bison and the European bison are the largest surviving terrestrial animals in North America and Europe. They are typical artiodactyl ungulates, are similar in appearance to other bovines such as cattle and true buffalo, they are muscular with shaggy coats of long hair. Adults grow up to 1.8 metres in length for American Bison and up to 2.8 metres in length for European bison. American bison can weigh from 400 kilograms to 900 kg and European bison can weight from 800 kilograms to 1,000 kilograms.
European bison tend to be heavier than American bison. Bison are nomadic grazers and travel in herds; the bulls leave the herds of females at two or three years of age, join a male herd, which are smaller than female herds. Mature bulls travel alone. Towards the end of the summer, for the reproductive season, the sexes commingle. American bison are known for living in the Great Plains, but had a much larger range including much of the eastern United States and parts of Mexico. Both species were hunted close to extinction during the 19th and 20th centuries, but have since rebounded; the American Plains bison is no longer listed as endangered, but this does not mean the species is secure. Genetically pure B. b. bison number only ~20,000, separated into fragmented herds—all of which require active conservation measures. The Wood bison is on the endangered species list in Canada and is listed as threatened in the United States, though there have been numerous attempts by beefalo ranchers to have it removed from the Endangered Species List.
Although superficially similar and behavioural differences exist between the American and European bison. The American species has 15 ribs, while the European bison has 14; the American bison has four lumbar vertebrae. Adult American bison are less slim in have shorter legs. American bison tend to graze more, browse less than their European relatives, their anatomies reflect this behavioural difference. The body of the American bison is hairier, though its tail has less hair than that of the European bison; the horns of the European bison point through the plane of their faces, making them more adept at fighting through the interlocking of horns in the same manner as domestic cattle, unlike the American bison, which favours butting. American bison are more tamed than their European cousins, breed with domestic cattle more readily; the bovine tribe split about 5 to 10 million years ago into the buffalos and a group leading to bison and taurine cattle. Thereafter, the family lineage of bison and taurine cattle does not appear to be a straightforward "tree" structure as is depicted in much evolution, because evidence of interbreeding and crossbreeding is seen between different species and members within this family many millions of years after their ancestors separated into different species.
This crossbreeding was not sufficient to conflate the different species back together, but it has resulted in unexpected relationships between many members of this group, such as yak being related to American bison, when such relationships would otherwise not be apparent. A 2003 study of mitochondrial DNA indicated four distinct maternal lineages in tribe Bovini: Taurine cattle and zebu Wisent American bison and yak and Banteng and gayalHowever, Y chromosome analysis associated wisent and American bison. An ear